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The  Rot/al  Zoological  Society  of  Ireland  ;   The  Duhlin  Microscopical  Club  ; 

The  Belfast  Natural  History  and  Pliilosophical  Society  ; 

The  Belfast    Naturalists'  Field  Club ;    The  Dublin  Naturalists'   Field    Club  ; 

The  Annayh  Natural  History  and  Pliilosophical  Society  ; 

The  Cork  Naturalists'  Field  Club  ;     The  Limerick  Naturalists'  Field  Club. 

Editp:d  by 

GEORGE    H.    CARPENTER,    B.Sc,    Lond, 


R.  LLOYD  PRAEGER,  B.A.,  B.E.,  M.R.LA. 

VOL.    IV. 

DUBLIN :   EASON  &  SON,  Limited, 




Prixted  by  Alex.  Thcm  &  Co.  (Limfted),  87,  8S,  &  89,  abbey-street,  Dublin. 




G.  E.  H.  Barrett-Hamilton,  b.a.,  New  Ross. 

R.  M.  Barrington,  I.I..B.,  F.L.S.,  Fassaroe,  Bray. 

W.  Bennett  Barrington,  Cork. 

F,  J.  Bigger,  m.r.i.a.,  Belfast. 

Rev.  S.  a.  Brenan,  B.A.,  Knocknacary,  Co.  Antrim. 

D.  C.  Campbei.1.,  Londonderry. 

George   H.    Carpenter,,  f.e.S.,    Science    and    Art 

Museum,  Dublin. 
Prof.  J.  W.  Carr,  m.a.,  f.i,.s.,  f.z.s.,  Nottingham. 
Prof.   G.   A.  J.   Cole,   f.g.s.,   m.r.i.a.,   Royal    College    of 

Science,  Dublin. 
James  Coleman,  Southampton. 
Nathaniel  Colgan,  m.r.i.a.,  Dublin. 
Arthur  J.  Collins,  Belfast. 
H.  K.  Gore  Cuthbert,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin. 
John  H.  Davies,  Lisburn. 
J.  E.  DuERDEN,  Kingston,  Jamaica. 

E.  C.  Farran,  Templeogue,  Co.  Dublin. 

Rev.  W.  W.  FlEmyng,  m.a.,  Coolfin,  Co.  Waterford. 

Percy  E.  Freke,  Dundrum,  Co.  Dublin. 

Rev.  Hilderic  Friend,  f.l.s.,  Cockermouth. 

E.  A.  Gibbon,  Rosslare,  Co.  Wexford. 

Rev.  T.  B.  Gibson,  m.a.,  Dublin. 

Henry  Groves,  f.l.s.,  London. 

James  Groves,  f.l.s.,  London. 

J.  N.  HalberT,  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin. 

R.  Hanitsch,  PH.D.,  Liverpool. 

Prof.  G.  V.  Hart,  ll.d.,  q.c,  Dublin. 

Miss  Hensman,  Dublin. 

T.  V.  Hodgson,  Birmingham. 

H.  Lyster  Jameson,  Castlebellingham. 

Prof.  T.  Johnson,,  f.l.s..  Royal  College  of  Science 

Rev.  W.  F.  Johnson,  m.a.,  f.E.s.,  Poyntzpass,  Co.  Armagh. 
W.  P\  de  V.  Kane,  m.a.,  F.E.S.,  Drumreaske,  Co.  Monaghan. 
Richard  J.  Kelly,  Dublin. 
G.  H.  KiNAHAN,  M.R.I.A.,  Dublin. 

Robert  J.  Kirwan,  b.a.,  b.e.,  Oughterard,  Co.  Galway. 
\V.  J.  KnowlES,  m.r-la.,  Ballymena,  Co.  Antrim. 

iv  Contributors. 

Rev.  H.  W.  Lett,  m.a.,  Loughbrickland,  Co.  Down. 

H.  C.  LEVINGE,  D.iy.,  F.I..9.,  Knockdrin  Castle,  Mullingar. 

C.  LONGFIELD,  Enniskeane,  Co.  Cork. 

David  M'ArdIvE,  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Glasnevin. 

Prof.  E.  J.  McWeeney,  m.a.,  m.d.,  Dublin. 

James  N.,  Londonderry. 

C.  B.  Moffat,  Ballyhyland,  Co.  Wexford. 

Miss  More,  Dublin. 

A.  R.  NiCHOivS,  B.A.,  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin. 

R.  A.  PHILI.IPS,  Cork. 

R.  Ll/OYD  PraEGER,  B.A.,  B.E.,  M.R.I. A.,  Dublin. 

CI.EMENT  Reid,  fx.S.,  F.G.S.,  London. 

Rev.  James  Robertson,  Cork. 

R.    F.   SCHARFF,,    PH.D.,    M.R.I. A.,    Science  and    Art 

Museum,  Dublin. 
REGINAI.D  Scui^ivY,  F.L.S.,  Dublin. 
M.  Jose  Simpson,  Ballymena,  Co.  Antrim. 
W.  SiNCi^AiR,  Strabane. 
W.  F.  S1NCI.AIR,  Chelsea. 

Prof.  W.  J.  SolIvAS,  i^L-d.,  f.r.s.,  m.r.i.a.,  Dublin. 
R.  Standen,  Owens  College,  Manchester. 
S.  A.  Stewart,  f.b.s.e.,  Belfast. 
Mrs.  Thompson,  Cork. 
Miss  S.  M.  Thompson,  Belfast. 
Brockton  Tomlin,  Llandaff. 
R.  J.  USSHER,  J.P.,  Cappagh,  Co.  Waterford. 
Rev.  C.  H.  Waddei.1.,  b.d.,  Saintfield,  Co.  Down. 
James  J.  Walker,  R.n.,  f.e.S.,  H.M.S.  "Northampton." 
Miss  Amy  Warren,  Ballina. 
Robert  Warren,  j.p.,  Ballina. 
W.  W.  Watts,  f.g.s-,  London. 
R.  Welch,  Belfast 

Prof.  E.  Perceval  Wright,  m.d.,  f.l-s.,  m.r.i.a.,  Dublin. 
Joseph  Wright,  f.g.s.,  Belfast. 



Adeorbis  imperspicuus,  348. 
Adventitious  Branching  in  Liver- 
worts, 81. 
Aglaozonia  reptans,  341. 
Algae,  Perforating,  139. 
Algae  of  Galway  Excursion,  241, 
Alien  Plants,  20. 
AUurus  flavus,  35. 
Antrim,  Scenery  and  Geology  of, 


Arachnids  of  Galway  Excursion, 
254  ;  of  Londonderry,  105. 

Aranmore  Flora,  249. 

Archaeology  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Armagh  Natural  History  and  Phi- 
losophical Society,  346. 

Artemisia  SteHenana,  77. 

Astacus  fluviatilis,  50. 

Attus  floricola,  348. 

Aviary,  286,  307,  336. 

Ball,  v.— Portraits  of  Irish  Men  of 
Science,  &c.,  135  ;  Obituary 
Notice  of,  169. 

Barrett-Hamilton,  G.  E.  H.— In- 
troduction of  English  Hares  into 
Ireland,  224  ;  Irish  Mammals,  65, 
85,  167  ;  Sabine's  Snipe,  12  ; 
Stock-dove  and  Crossbill  in  Co. 
Carlow,  296. 

Barrington,  R.  M.  —  Obituary 
Notice  of  A.  G.  More,  109. 

Barrington,  W.  Bennett.  —  Rare 
Birds  in  Co,  Cork,  166. 

Bass  in  Donegal  Bay,  296. 

Beetle,  new  British,  213. 

Belfast  Natural  History  and  Phi- 
losophical Society,  23,  51,  75, 
108,  167. 

Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  24, 
52,  75,  107,  134.  187,  220,  293,  343  ; 
Review  of  Proceedings,  185. 

Bigger,  F.  J. — Archaeology  of  Gal- 
way Excursion,  271. 

Bipalium  Kewense,  165. 

Birds,  aviary,  286,  307,  336  ;  of 
Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo,  180, 
198;  of  Loughs  Conn,  Carra,  and 
Mask,  117  ;  of  Donegal,  Fer- 
managh, Sligo,  and  Roscommon, 
142  ;  rare,  near  Wexford,  319  ; 
rare,  in  Co.  Cork,  166. 

Bittern,  Little,  in  Co.  Carlow,  224. 

Bougainvillia  ramosa,  74. 

Brambles,  Irish,  20. 

Brenan,  S.  A. — Summer  Visitants 
at  Knocknacarry,  166. 

Buckthorn  in  King's  Co.,  165. 

Bundoran,  Rock-pools  of,  i,  346. 

Burnet,  Lesser,  in  North  of  Ire- 
land, 135. 

Bustard,  Little,  in  Co.  Longford,  105. 

Campbell,  D.  C. — Spring  Migrants 
in  Londonderry  District,  167. 

Carex  Buxbaumii  in  Scotland,  318. 

Carpenter,  G.  H. — Animals  found 
in  the  Mitchelstown  Cave,  25  ; 
Arachnida  of  Galway  Excursion, 
254;  Attus  floricola,  348  ;  Collem- 
bola  and  Thysanura  of  Galway 
Excursion,  257  ;  Diptera  of  Gal- 
way Excursion,  253  ;  Erebia  epi- 
phron  var.  cassiope  near  Sligo, 
77 ;  Hymenoptera,  Orthoptera, 
and  Neuroptera  of  Galway  Ex 
cursion,  257 ;  Lepidoptera  from 
Sligo,  191 ;  Myriopoda  of  Galway 
Excursion,  256  ;  New  British 
Pantopod,  297  ;  Notes  on  a  new 
British  Beetle,  Otiorrhynchus 
auropunctatus,  213. 

Carr,  J.  W.  (witli  R.  Lloyd  Praeger) 
— Phanerogams,  Ferns,  &c.,  of 
Galway  Excursion,  246. 

Castagnia  zosterae,  74. 

Cave-fauna  of  Mitchelstown,  25. 

Caves,  Irish,  57,  92,  94. 

Cetonia  aurata,  348. 

Chara  canescens,  50. 

Characeae,  Distribution  of,  in  Ire- 
land, 7,  37;  Irish,  77,  318. 

Chlamydococcus  pluvialis,  22. 

Chthonius  Rayi,  133. 

Ciconia  alba,  166. 

Cladocera  from  West  of  Ireland, 

Clotenia  conirostre,  292,  297. 

Clunio  marinus,  73. 

Cole,  G.  A.  J.— Geologist  at  the 
Luncheon-table,  41 ;  Review  of 
Guide  to  Geological  Survey 
Collections,  314  ;  on  the  Fenestil- 
lidae,  with  Reference  to  Irish 
Carboniferous  Strata,  100;  the 
Naturalist  in  the  Mourne 
Mountains  (Review),  105. 

Coleman,  James. — Additional  Irish 
Caves,  94. 




Coleoptera:  collected  in  Co.  Car- 
low,  329  ;  from  Co.  Dublin,  78 ; 
from  North  of  Ireland,  79;  in 
Ireland  during  the  Spring,  1895, 
207,  289  ;  Irish,  207  ;  of  Galway 
Excursion,  259. 

Colgan  N. — Further  Notes  on  the 
Flora  of  Co.  Dublin,  53  ;  Orchids 
of  Co.  Dublin,  193. 

Collembola  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Collins,   A.    J. — Unusual     Retreat 

for  Grouse,  51. 
Columba  aenas,  296. 
Corixa,    Stridulation    of ,  79,    224, 

Cork  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  108, 

168,  346. 
Crayfish,  50. 

Crossbill  in  Co.  Carlow,  296. 
Cryptostemma  alienum,  219. 
Cuthbert    H.  K.  G.— Co.    Dublin 

Hymenoptera,  Captures  in  1894, 

104  ;    Insects  from   Rosscarbery, 
.  303  ;    with    the    Wild    Bees    in 

Glencullen,  60. 

Davies,  J.    H. — Ephemerum    ser- 

ratum     in     Co.     Antrim,      164  ; 

Poterium    Sanguisorba     in    the 

North  of  Ireland,  135. 
Diplophyllum  minutum,  219. 
Diptera  of  Galway  Excursion,  263. 
Disintegration  of  Shells    139. 
Donax  vittatus  var.  truncatus,  18. 
Dublin  Microscopical  Club,  22,  72, 

106,  133,  167,  219,  292,  341. 
Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  52, 

75,  108,   134,    168,    189,   221,   294, 

320,  345. 
Duerden,     J.    E- — Rock-pools     of 

Bundoran,  i. 
Dyschirius     obscurus     at     Lough 

Neagh,  224. 

Earthworm,  new  Irish,  35. 
Ectocarpus  secundus,  219. 
Ephemerum     serratum      in     Co. 

Antrim,  164. 
Erebia     epiphron     var.    cassiope, 

Erythraea  pulchella,  20,  77. 

Eurotium  repens,  133. 

Farran,  E  C. — Trichoniscus  roseus 

near  Dublin,  296. 
Fauna  of  Galway  District,  252. 
Fenestellidae,  100. 
Field  Club  Union,  134,  225. 
Field  Club  Work  in  the  North,  185. 

Flemyng,  W.  W. — Occurrence  of 
the  Marten  in  Co.  Waterford, 

Flora  of  Aranmore,  249 ;  of  Cork, 
332  ;  of  Co.  Dublin,  53  ;  of  Galway 
District,  238  ;  of  Howth,  174, 
318;  of  Westmeath,  64. 

Foraminifera  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Freke,   Percy    E.— Irish   Psythyri, 

Friend,  Hilderic, — a  new  Form  of 

Irish  Earthworm,  35. 
Frullania  dilatata,  342. 
Fungi  of  Galway  Excursion,  238. 
Fungus,  a  new  Irish,  273. 

Gallinago  cailestis  var.  Sabinii,  12. 

Galway  Field  Club  Conference, 
134,  225. 

Geological  Notes  from  West  Gal- 
way, 151. 

Geological  Survey  Collections, 
Guide  (Review),  314. 

Geologist  at  the  Luncheon-table, 

Geology  of  Antrim,  338  ;  of  Galway 
Excursion,  335  ;  of  Ireland,  314. 

Gibbon,  E.  A. — Rare  Birds  near 
Wexford,  319. 

Gibson,  T.  B.— My  Birds,  286,  ,'«o7, 

Giraudia  sphacelarioides,  74. 
Glacial  Deposits,  321  ;    of  Dublin 

and  Bray,  80. 
Glenospora  Curtisii,  219. 
Glaeosporium  orchidearum,  167. 
Groves,  H.  and  J. — Distribution  of 

the  Characese  in  Ireland,  7,  37. 
Gulls,  Black-headed,  192. 

Halbert,  J.  N.— Coleoptera  col- 
lected in  Co.  Carlow,  329  ;  Cole- 
optera from  Co.  Dublin,  79 ; 
Coleoptera  from  the  North  of 
Ireland,  79 ;  Coleoptera  of  the 
Galway  Excursion,  259  ;  Hemip- 
tera  of  the  Galway  Excursion, 
258;  Insects  collected  at  the 
Seagull  Bog,  TuUamore,  172  ; 
Insects  collected  in  the  Fermoy 
and  Blackwater  District,  45 ; 
Orthezia  cataphracta,  104. 

Hanitsch,  R. — The  Fresh-water 
Sponges  of  Ireland,  122. 

Hares,  English,  i^n  Ireland,  224. 

Hart,  G.  V.— Lepidoptera  at  Howth 
in  1894,  21. 

Hedgehogs  in  Captivity,  136. 

Helix  arbustorum  near  Armagh, 



Hemiptera  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Hensman,    Miss— Some  Causes  of 

the     Disintegration     of    Shells, 

139;  (with  T.  Johnson)  Algae  of 

the  Galway  Excursion,  241. 
Herberta  adunca,  22. 
Hodgson,    T.  V. — Cladocera    from 

the  West  of  Ireland,  190. 
Hullite,  133. 
Hymenoptera  of  Co.  Dublin,   104  ; 

of    Galway   Excursion,    257 ;   of 

Glencullen,  60. 

Ichneumons,  new  Irish,  319. 

Insects  collected  at  Coolmore,  95, 
161  ;  collected  at  Seagull  Bog, 
172;  from  Rosscarbery,  303:  of 
Fermoy  and  Blackwater  District, 
45  ;  of  Galway  Excursion,  257. 

Irish  Field  Club  Union,  134,  225. 

Irish  Moths,  19. 

Irish  Plants  in  London  Catalogue, 

Jameson,  H.  Lyster. — Irish  Mam- 
malia, 296. 

Johnson,  T.,  and  Miss  Hensman — 
Algse  of  Galway  Excursion,  241. 

Johnson,  W.  F. — Dyschirius  ob- 
scurus  at  Lough  Neagh,  224 ; 
Primrose  in  November,  347  ; 
Report  on  Insects  collected  at 
Coolmore,  Co.  Donegal,  95,  161 ; 
Spring  Lepidoptera  at  Armagh, 
223  -,  Spring  Migrants  at  Armagh, 

Jubula  Hutchinsiae,  190. 

Jungermania  bicrenata,  219. 

Kane,  W.  F.  de  V.— Irish  Moths, 
19  ;  Lepidoptera  of  Galway  Ex- 
cursion, 263  ;  New  Irish  Ichneu- 
mons, 319  ;  Thecla  betulae  in  Co. 
Wexford,  21. 

Kelly,  Richard  J. — Plague  of  Beetles 
in  Galway  in  1688,  190. 

Kill  o'-the-Grange  glacial  beds, 

Kinahan,  G.  H.— Kitchen  Middens, 
Co.  Donegal,  21 ;  Notes  on  Black- 
headed  Gulls,  192. 

Kirwan,  Robert  J. — Geological 
Notes  from  West  Galway :  the 
Galway  and  Clifden  Railway,  151. 

Kitchen  Middens  of  Antrim,  80; 
of  Donegal,  21,  80. 

Knotweeds,  Irish,  303. 

Knowles,  W.  J. — Kitchen  Middens 
of  Antrim,  80 ;  Kitchen  Middens 
of  Donegal,  8ov 

Labrax  lupus,  296. 

Leeches,  Irish,  165. 

Lejeunea  calyptrifolia,  73 ;  flava, 
167  ;  patens  var.  cochleata,  133  ; 
serpyllifolia,  proliferous,  74. 

Lepidoptera  at  Armagh,  223 ;  at 
Howth  in  1894,  21 ;  from  Sligo, 
191 ;  Irish,  19;  of  Galway  Excur- 
sion, 263. 

Lepton  Sykesii  in  Killala  Bay,  348. 

Lett,  H.  W.— Irish  Rat  at  Lough 
Brickland,  80. 

Levinge,  H.  C. — Plants  of  West- 
meath,  64. 

Lias  at  White  Park  Bay,  192. 

Limerick  Naturalists'  Field  Club, 

Lipura  Wnghtii,   sp.   nov.,  31,  342. 

Liverworts,  adventitious  Branching 

81  ;  of  Galway  Excursion,  243. 

Longfield,  C. — Smew  in  Co.  Cork, 

Loxia  curvirostra,  296. 

Machetes  pugnax,  296. 

Macrosporium  cheiranthi,  74. 

McArdle,  D. — Adventitious  Brandl- 
ing in  Liverworts,  81 ;  Mosses 
and  Liverworts  of  Galway 
Excursion,  243. 

McHenry,  A.,  and  W.  W.  Watts- 
Guide  to  Geological  Survey 
Collections  (Review),  314. 

McWeeney,  E.  J. — A  Curious  Coin- 
cidence, 317 ;  Fungi  of  Galway 
Excursion,  238;  a  new  Irish 
Fungus,  273  ;  Utility  of  noting 
Fungus-localities,  317. 

Mammals,  Irish,  65,  85,  167,  296. 

Marten  in  Westmeath,  21 ;  in  Co. 
Waterford,  224. 

Megaceros  marl,  131. 

Mergus  albellus,  105. 

Metzgeria   conjugata,    proliferous, 

Micropeplus  tesserula,  74. 

Microvelia  pygmsea,  133. 

Migrants  at  Armagh,  166;  at 
Knocknacarry,  166 ;  in  London- 
derry District,  167. 

Milne,  Jas.  N. — Helix  arbustorum 
near  Armagh,  348;  New  Irish 
Spiders  from  Londonderry,  104. 

Mitchelstown  Cave  Fauna,  25. 

Moifat,  C.  B.— Second  Flowering  of 
Artemisia  Stelleriana,  77  ;  Thecla 
betulae  in  Co.  Wexford,  78. 

Mollusc,  new  Irish,  335. 

Mollusca  of  Galway  Excursion, 

I  i  « 



More,     A.      G. — Bibliography     of 

Writings,  113;    Memoir  of,  331  ; 

Obituary  Notice  of,  109. 
More,     Miss,— Memoir     of    A.    G. 

More,  331. 
Mosses  of  Aran,    317;    of   Galway 

Excursion,  243. 
Moths,  Irish,  19. 
Mus  hibernicus,  80. 
Myriopods   of  Galway  Excursion, 


Naturalist  in   the  Mourne  Moun- 
tains (Review),  105. 
Nectria  sanguinea,   73 ;     sinopica, 

Neuroptera  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Newts,  Irish,  135,  166. 
Nichols,    A.     R. — Stridulation    of 

Corixa,  79. 

Obituary  Notices. — V.  Ball,  169;  A. 
G.  More,  109. 

Orchids  of  Co.  Dublin,  193. 

Ornithology    of    Loughs      Conn, 
Carra,  and  Mask,  117  ;  of  Coasts 
of  Sligo  and  Mayo,  180,    198  ;  of 
Donegal,  Fermanagh,  Sligo,  and 
Roscommon,  142. 

Orthezia  cataphracta,  104. 

Orthoptera  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Osprey  in  Co.  Kerry,  105. 

Otiorrhynchus  auropunctatus,  213. 

Otis  tetrax,  105. 

Pandion  haliaetus,  105. 
Pantopod,  a  new  British,  297. 
Peronospora  affinis,  317. 
Phanerogams  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Phillips,  R.  A.— Waifs  and  Strays  of 

the  Cork  Flora,  332. 
Phoma  betse,  167. 
Pilularia  in  Connemara,  165,292. 
Pisidium  hibernicum,  335. 
Plague  of  Beetles  in  Galway,  190. 
Plant  Remedies,  318. 
Plants,  aUen,  20  ;  of  Aranmore,  249  ; 

of  Cork,  332  ;  of  Galway  District, 

238  ;  of  Howth,  174,  318  ;  of  West- 

meath,  64. 
Plumatella  repens,  223. 
Polygon  a,  Irish,  305. 
Polypogon  monspeliensis,  20. 
Porcellio  pictns,  166. 
Poterium  Sanguisorba  in  North  of 

Ireland,  135. 

Praeger,  R.  Lloyd— Aran  Island 
Brambles,  318;  Buckthorn  in 
King's  Co.,  a  Correction,  165 ; 
Erythroea  pulchella  on  North 
Bull,  77;  pnora  of  Howth,  38; 
General  Account  of  Galway  Field 
Club  Conference  and  Excursion, 
225  ;  Irish  Characese,  a  Correc- 
tion, 77  ;  Notes  on  the  Flora  of 
Howth,  174;  Notes  on  the  Flora 
of  Aranmore,  249  ;  Review  of  Bot. 
Exch.  Club  Report  and  Watson 
Bot.  Exch.  Club  Report,  339 ; 
Review  of  London  Catalogue  of 
British  Plants,  163  ;  Pilularia  in 
Connemara,  165  ;  Raised  Beaches 
of  Inishowen,  278 ;  (with  W.  J. 
SoUas),  Notes  on  Glacial  Deposits 
in  Ireland,  II.  Kill-o'-the-Grange, 
321 ;  (with  J.  W.  Carr),  Flowering 
Plants,  Ferns,  &c.,  of  Galway  Ex- 
cursion, 246. 

Primrose  in  November,  347. 

Pseudopsis  sulcata,  74. 

Psithyn,  Irish,  166. 

Puccinia  obscura,  317. 

Putorius  hibernicus,  136. 

Pycnogon,  a  new  British,  297. 

Quartz,  Quartzites,  and  Quartz- 
rocks,  316,  340. 

Radula  voluta,  106. 

Raised  Beaches — Inishowen,  278  ; 
Portmarnock,  134. 

Rat,  Irish,  80. 

Reid,  Clement—Origin  of  Mega- 
ceros  Marl,  13 1. 

Reviews.  —  Belfast  Naturalists' 
Field  Club  Proceedings,  185 ; 
Botanical  Exchange  Club  Re- 
port, 1894,  and  Watson  Botanical 
Exchange  Club  Report,  1894-95, 
339  ;  Cole's  Scenery  and  Geology 
of  Co.  Antrim,  338 ;  Newtown 
School  Literary  and  Scientific 
Association,  39th  Report,  339 ; 
McHenry  and  Watts's  Guide  to 
the  Geological  Survey  Collec- 
tions, 314;  London  Catalogue  of 
British  Plants,  163. 

Rhamnus  catharticus,i65;  frangula, 

Riccia  glaucescens,  296. 

Robertson,  James— Stridulation  of 
Corixa,  319. 

Rock-pools  of  Buodoran,  i,  347. 

Rooks,  Carnivorous  Habits,  105. 

Rose-beetle  in  Ireland,  348. 

Royal  Zoological  Society,  22,  51,  72, 
io6, 133,  167,  187,  219,  292,  320,  341 



Rubi,  Irish,  20;  of  Aran,  318. 
Ruff  in  Co.  Wicklow,  296. 

Scapania  aspera,  73. 
Scharff,  R.  F.— Addition  to  the 
Irish  Molluscan  Fauna,  335  ; 
Bipalium  Kewense,  165  ;  Cave  at 
Ballymote,  Co.  Sligo,  94 ;  Fresh- 
water Crayfish  in  Co.  Dublin,  50; 
Irish  Newts,  135,  166;  Porcellio 
pictus,  166 ;  Plumatella  repens. 
m  Ireland,  223  ;  Some  Notes  on 
the  Irish  Caves,  57  ;  Some  Notes 
on  Irish  lyeeches,  165  ;  Testacella 
haliotidea  in  Co.  Dublin,  80; 
Wanted,  Live  Newts,  105  ;  Wood- 
lice  of  Co.  Carlow,  319. 

Scully,  R.  W.— Chara  canescens  in 
Ireland,  50  ;  Erythraea  pulchella 
and  Polypogon  monspeliensis 
on  the  North  Bull,  20 ;  Some 
Cork  Aliens,  20;  Vicia  lathy- 
roides  in  Co.  Wicklow,  20, 

Simpson,  M.  Jose — Hedgehogs  in 
Captivity,  136. 

Sinclair,  W.— Bass  in  Donegal  Bay, 

Sinclair,  W.  F.— Rock-pools  of 
Bundoran,  347. 

Sinella  cavernicola  sp.  nov.,  30. 

Smew  in  Co.  Cork,  105. 

Snipe,  Sabine's,  12. 

Sollas,  W.  J.,  and  R.  Lloyd  Praeger 
— Notes  on  Glacial  Deposits  in 
Ireland ;  II.  Kill-o'-the-Grange, 

Sphseria  canescens,  341. 

Spirula  Peronii  in  Co.  Antrim,  348. 

Sponges,  Fresh-water,  of  Ireland, 

Standen,  R. — Mollusca  of  Galway 
Excursion,  264. 

Stewart,  S.  A.— Moss  Flora  of 
Aran,  317. 

Stoat,  Irish,  136. 

Stock-dove  in  Go.  Carlow,  296. 

Stork,  White,  near  Athy,  166. 

Streptothrix  nigra,  22. 

Stysanus  ulmariae,  sp.  nov.,  273. 

Taenia  serrata,  342. 
Tanystylum  conirostre,  292,  297. 
Testacella  haliotidea  in  Co.  Dublin, 

Thecla  belulae,  21,  78. 

Thompson,     M. — Stridulation      of 

Corixa,  224. 
Thompson,  Miss  S.   M. — Geology 

of  Galway  Excursion,  235. 
Thysanura  of  Galway  Excursion, 

Tomlin,  B. — Rose-beetle  m  Ireland, 

348;     Spirula     Peronii    in     Co. 

Antrim,  348. 

Trichoniscus   roseus   near  Dublin, 


Ussher,  R.  J. — An  Ornithological 
Exploration  in  Donegal.  Fer- 
managh, Sligo,  and  Roscommon, 
142  ;  Notes  on  the  Irish  Caves, 


Ustilago  Vaillantii,  219. 

Verticillium  latertium,  73. 
Vicia  lathyroides,  20. 

Waddell,  C.  W.— Irish  Knotweeds, 
305 ;  Irish  Plants  in  the  new 
London  Catalogue,  190 ;  Jubula 
Hutchinsiae,  190. 

Walker,  James  J. — Captures  of 
Coleoptera  in  Ireland  during  the 
Spring.of  1895,  207,  289. 

Warren,  Miss  Amy — Donax  vitta- 
tus  var.  truncatus,  18 ;  Lepton 
Sykesii  in  Killala  Bay,  348. 

Warren,  Robert — Breeding  Birds 
of  Loughs  Conn,  Carra,  and 
Mask,  117  ;  Birds  observed  breed- 
ing on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and 
Mayo,  180,  198. 

Watts,  W.  W.— Quartz,  Quartz- 
rocks,  and  Quartzites,  316,  340. 

Welch,  R. — Exposed  Lias  at  White 
Park  Bay,  Co.  Antrim,  192  ;  Wild 
Flowers  in  the  Glynns  of  Antrim 
in  Mid-winter,  50. 

Winter  Flowering  of  Wild  Flowers, 

Woodcocks  nesting  in  Co.  Wick- 
low, 21. 

Woodlice  of  Co.  Carlow,  319. 

Wright,  E.  P. — Obituary  Notice  of 
V.  Ball,  169. 

Wright,  Joseph — Foraminifera  of 
Galway  Excursion,  252. 


Rock-pool  at  Bundoran  (Plate  i), 

Donax  vittatus,  and  var.  truncatus, 

Animals  from  the  Mitchelstown  Cave  (Plate  2 

Distribution  of  Caves  in  Ireland, 

Adventitious  Shoots  on  Liverworts  (Plate  3), 

Alexander  Goodman  More,  F.L.S., 

Irish  Fresh-water  Sponges  (Plate  4), 

Section  at  Oughterard, 

Section  at  Lough  Shindilla, 

Section  at  Lough  Oorid,    . 

Valentine  Ball,  C.B., 

Otiorrhynchus  auropunctatus,    . 

Ballynahinch  River  and  Ben  Lettery, 

Teampul  Benan,  Aranmore, 

An  Aran  Field, 

Derryclare  Lake  and  Mountain, 

Church  of  S.  Nicholas,  Galway,  . 

Stysanus  Ulmariae  sp.  nov.  (Plate  5), 

Tanystylum  conirostre  (Plate  6), 

Pisidiuni  hibernicum, 

To  face  p. 


.  p. 


To  face  p. 


.  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


.  p. 


.  p. 


.  p. 


To  face  p. 


•  P- 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


To  face  p. 


•  P- 



Page  i66,before  note  on  Irish  Psithyri,  insert  the  sub-heading  "  INSECTS:* 

219,  line  27,  for  "  ovones,"  read  "  ovules," 
„     line  29,  for  "  Dr.  P.  Wright,"  read  "  Dr.  Plowright." 
„     line  31,  for  "  Cw/^,"  read  "  Gagea." 
256,  line  9  from  bottom,  for  "  Lithopius:'  read  "  Lithobiusr 
258,  line  6  from  bottom,  for  "  ArchotylusT  read  "  Orlhotylus  " 



















t— . 

























, — , 

r— « 







^Jje  ^vi&lj  Itattttraltet* 

Vol.  IV.  JANUARY,  1895.  No.  i. 


BY  J.  E.  DUERDEN,  A.R.c.SC.  (London). 

Last  summer,  in  connection  with  the  Royal  Irish  Academy 
Fauna  and  Flora  Committee,  I  had  the  opportunity,  in  com- 
panj'  with  Prof.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Mitchell,  of  spending  a  little 
over  a  week  in  and  around  Bundoran,  a  delightful  watering- 
place,  much  frequented  b}^  people  from  the  North  of  Ireland. 
M)^  object  was  to  collect  representatives  of  all  the  Zoophytes, 
embracing  under  this  popular  term  the  Hydroids,  Sea- 
anemones,  and  Polyzoa,  at  the  same  time  not  neglecting  other 
forms  of  life  which  I  might  chance  to  come  across. 

Bundoran  lies  at  the  south-east  corner  of  Donegal  Bay, 
about  four  miles  from  the  historically  interesting  town  of 
Ballyshannon.  Taking  the  former  as  our  centre,  we  made 
collecting  excursions  to  different  parts  of  the  bay,  and  so  ob- 
tained a  good  idea  of  the  resources  of  the  locality. 

West  of  Bundoran,  cliffs  of  Carboniferous  limestone  face  the 
sea,  dipping  to  the  south  at  an  angle  varying  from  five 
to  ten  degrees  ;  but  at  low  water  a  considerable  extent  of  shore 
is  laid  bare,  diversified  by  numerous  rock-pools,  caves,  and 
narrow  inlets  of  the  sea,  the  happy  hunting-grounds  of  the 

In  the  rock-pools  the  first  object  which  attracts  one  is  the 
Purple  Sea-urchin  Strongylocentrotus  lividuSy  Lamk.,  occurring 
in  great  numbers  in  little  hollows,  their  dark  colour  con- 
trasting strongly  with  the  light  rosy-pink  calcareous  alga 
Lithotham7iio7i  polymorpJmni} ,  which  lines  most  of  these  pools. 
This  interesting  sea-urchin  is  one  of  the  most  striking  faunal 
features  of  various  localities  along  the  west  coast  of  Ireland, 

'  For  the  name  of  this  alga,  and  also  for  the  others  mentioned,  I  am 
indebted  to  Prof.  Johnson  and  to  Mr.  Mitchell, 

2  The  Irish  Nahiralist. 

from  Donegal  Ba\'  to  Queenstown  Harbour.  It  occurs 
nowhere  else  in  the  British  Isles,  but  turns  up  again  in  the 
Channel  Islands.  It  is  capable  of  boring  holes,  probably  by 
means  of  its  teeth,  in  the  soft  limestone  to  a  depth  of  one-half 
or  more  of  its  own  height;  where,  however,  the  rocks,  as  at 
Dog's  Bay  in  Connemara,  consist  of  the  harder  granite,  the 
urchin  is  incapable  ofboringinto  them,  and  simply  rests  upon 
the  bottom  of  the  pools.  Many  of  them  are  partially  covered 
by  empty  shells,  such  as  those  oi Patella,  P2irpura,  2.r\6iLitto7ina. 
Considering  the  spin}^  nature  of  their  skeleton  it  is  very  diffi- 
cult to  conceive  that  this  feature  can  be  in  any  way  concerned 
with  protection  to  the  individual.  Again,  they  are  almost 
invariably  associated  in  the  pools  with  luxurious  growths  of 
the  light  pink  encrusting  Lithothain7iion  polymorphtwi,  to 
which  they  offer  the  strongest  contrast,  almost  suggestive  of  a 
warning  combination. 

In  some  of  the  shallow  pools,  some  distance  above  low- 
water  mark,  we  found  numbers  of  the  sea-slug  Aplysia ptmctata, 
Cuv.,  their  dark  olive-green  colour  also  contrasting  strongly 
w^ith  the  light  Lithothamnion.  A  few  minutes  sufficed  to 
obtain  two  or  three  dozen,  many  of  them  in  the  act  of  laying 
their  strings  of  brown-pink  spawn. 

On  this  part  of  the  shore,  and  still  more  so  on  the  rocks  and 
cliffs  north  of  Bundoran,  are  to  be  found  more  or  less  firm 
masses  of  sand  and  fragments  of  shells  built  into  tubes  by  the 
worm  Sabellaria  alveolata,  Linn.,  and  almost  resembling  a 
honey-comb  in  appearance.  These  masses,  no  doubt,  exer- 
cise a  preservative  geological  influence  on  the  rocks,  the 
hollows  and  irregularities  about  forming  also  a  protection  for 
various  forms  of  life. 

In  one  of  the  caves  with  a  smooth  floor  covered  by  water, 
and  with  stalactitic  and  stalagmitic  masses  further  in,  we 
came  across  quite  a  crowd  of  small  hermit-crabs,  Fagunis, 
and  very  interCvSting  it  ^  was  to  watch  their  little  battles  over 
the  bodies  of  some  of  their  unfortunate  companions  who  had 
been  torn  from  their  protective  gastropod  shell.  Here  also  I 
met  with  a  few  specimens  oi  Anemonia  siUcata  {Anthea  cereus), 
Penn.,  of  the  variety  with  iridescent  green  tentacles  tipped  with 
red.  This  species,  not  so  abundant  in  Donegal  Bay,  I  have 
met  with  in  great  numbers  in  Roundstone  Bay,  giving  to  the 
h^^s  oi  Zostera    there    quite    a  flower}^  appearance.     Actinia 

The  Rock-pools  of  Bimdoran.  3 

eq7ii?ia,  lyinn.,  of  the  varieties  hepatica,  rubra,  olivacea,  and 
viridis  was  present  everywhere.  Under  one  of  the  ledges  of 
rock  I  met  w  ith  a  large  group,  thirty  or  forty  individuals,  of 
the  prett)'  little  Corynactis  viridis,  Allni.  This  anemone  varies 
much  in  colour,  although  those  belonging  to  the  same  colony 
are  generally  alike.  In  the  present  case  the  column  was  of  a 
light  brown  colour,  the  margin  a  rich  bright  orange,  and  the 
tentacles  green  at  the  base,  with  greenish-brown  stems  and 
white  knobs.  At  Roundstonel  have  met  with  colonies  of  the 
more  typical  green  form.  Specimens  of  Hcliactis  bellis,  E. 
and  S.  were  present  in  the  cavities  of  the  rock-pools,  and  also 
the  large  Tealia  crassicor^iis.  Mull,  in  considerable  variety 
of  colour.  A  single  example  of  Cylista  imdata,  MltU.  was 
also  obtained. 

The  coast  to  the  north  of  Bundoran  is  varied  by  steep 
precipices  and  sandy  shores.  Around  Claddaghlagan  not 
much  was  obtained,  nor  along  the  beach  in  front  of  the  east 
portion  of  the  towm.  Rog>^  Bay,  a  narrow  inlet,  was  the  best 
locality  for  material  washed  up  from  the  sea.  Here  were 
obtained  stems  of  Laminaria  with  quite  thick  forests  of 
Sertularia  operailata,  lyinn.,  growing  on  them,  presenting 
almost  the  appearance  of  a  fox's  tail.  The  roots  of  the 
Laminaria  also  yielded  several  species  of  encrusting  Polj'zoa. 
I  may  here  record  one  fact  in  which  I  have  alwaj^s  found  the 
west  coast  of  Ireland  to  differ  from  the  east  coast,  namely,  in 
the  amount  of  material  from  considerable  depths  washed 
ashore  by  storms.  On  such  occasions  we  find  suitable  places 
on  the  east  coast  literally  strewn  with  zoophytes  and  other 
treasures  from  the  deep.  Tangled  masses  are  rolled  about  on 
the  sand}^  shores,  composed  largely  of  Hydrallmania  falcata, 
lyinn.,  Sertularia  abietina,  lyinn.,  Eudcndrium  ramosum,  Linn., 
various  species  of /'///^/r^  and  Ciisiaf  Vesicularia  spinosa,  Linn., 
and  heaps  of  other  smaller  forms  along  with  them  or  growing 
upon  them,  the  whole  forming  a  very  rich  and  easily  obtained 
harvest.  On  the  west  coast,  however,  I  have  never  found  any 
of  the  species  mentioned  above  washed  ashore.  It  has  often 
been  disappointing  upon  going  to  some  strand,  where,  under 
similar  conditions  along  the  east,  I  should  have  obtained 
in  a  few  minutes  thirty  or  forty  different  species  of  zoophytes, 
to  find  practically  nothing.  Tullan  Strand,  extending  a  dis- 
tance of  nearly  two  miles  from  the  Fairy  Bridge  to  the  mouth 

A  2 

4  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

of  the  river  Erne,  was  a  good  example.  Even  after  a  consider- 
able storm  during  the  night  there  was  nothing  washed  ashore 
to  rejoice  the  collector.  The  Rev.  W.  S.  Green,  to  whom  I 
have  remarked  this  difference,  considers  that  it  may  be  largely 
due  to  the  fact  that  on  the  east  coast  the  greater  amount  of 
trawling  in  the  deeper  parts  disturbs  and  tears  up  the  objects 
growing  upon  the  sea-bottom,  and  then  during  storms  they 
are  washed  up  on  the  shore. 

The  limestone  forming  the  cliffs  is  very  fossiliferous,  this 
feature  attracting  even  the  most  casual  observer.  The  rock 
seems  in  parts  entirely  made  up  of  crinoid  stems,  some  of 
them  exceptionally  large  in  diameter.  Other  portions  are 
almost  entirely  composed  QiProd2icttis  giganteus,  while  various 
fossil  corals  are  in  many  places  important  components  of  the 
rock.  In  the  limestone  on  the  north  side  of  Rogy  Bay, 
towards  Aughrus  Point,  the  rock-pools  are  mostly  deep 
vertical  hollows,  always  full  of  water,  and  crowded  at  the 
surface  with  a  great  variety  of  red,  brown,  and  green  sea- 
weeds. On  pulling  these  aside  one  is  rewarded  with  a  most 
lovely  sight  of  variously  and  richl}^- coloured  sea-anemones, 
covering  the  sides  and  crevices  of  the  rock.  Especially 
abundant  were  *'  the  Orange  Disc  Anemone,"  and  "  the 
Snowy  Anemone,"  now  both  regarded  as  varieties  oi  Heliadis 
vemista^  Gosse  ;  also  Bimodes  gcniniaceus,  E.  and  S.,  and  in  the 
darker  corners  large  specimens  of  Tealia  crassicornis ,  Mull. 
A  few  examples  of  Aplysia  punctata,  Cuv.  were  obtained  here 
also  in  the  .shallower  pools. 

The  rocks  from  Aughrus  Point  to  the  Fair}^  Bridge  are  too 
precipitous  for  any  work  to  be  done  upon  them  ;  but  in  the 
latter  place  one  can  easily  collect  along  the  base  at  low  water, 
and  also  enter  the  Cathedral  Cave  near.  We  found  this, 
exposed  to  the  full  force  of  the  waters  of  the  baj^  to  be 
an  extremely  rich  locality.  The  sand- tubes  of  Sabcllaiia 
alveolafa,  lyinn.  form,  with  the  rocks,  small  hollows  in  which 
are  little  forests  of  zoophytes,  such  as  Ttibiclaria  larynx^  E.  and 
S.,  Obclia  flabellata,  Hincks,  Cavipanularia  ftexuo^a,  Hincks, 
and  Flumularia  setacca,  Ell.,  and  numerous  smaller  forms 
growing  upon  these.  Here  was  obtained  the  rare  Halccium 
te7iellum,  Hincks,  the  first  undoubted  record  for  Ireland. 
The  surface  of  the  rock  also  serves  for  the  attachment  of 
crowds  of  yJ/^'/77?^^  cdidis,  I^inn.,  and  a  search  aniongvSt  these 

The  Rock-pools  of  Bu7idora7i,  5 

well  rewarded  us.  On  one  of  the  ledges  overhanging  a  pool, 
on  the  floor  of  which  were  abundant  Plaice,  almost  undistin- 
guishable  from  their  resemblance  to  the  colour  of  the  sand, 
we  came  across  hundreds  of  the  lovely  Metridimn  {Adinoloba) 
dia7ithus,  Ell.,  of  the  brown  and  white  varieties.  Exposed  at 
low  water  they  hung  vertically  almost  like  so  many  shapeless 
masses  of  mucus,  each  with  a  drop  of  water  at  the  distal  end. 
Looping  about  amongst  the  Hydroids  were  numbers  of  the 
Amphipod  Caprella  linearis,  Linn.  Tubularia  laryjix,  E-  and  S., 
was  especially  the  home  of  the  Nudibranch  Eolis  coroiiata^ 
Forbes,  its  rosy  hues  harmonising  well  with  the  light  red 
colour  of  the  polypites. 

From  the  Fairy  Bridge,  Tullan  Strand  stretches  for  nearly 
a  couple  of  miles  to  the  mouth  of  the  Erne,  and  yielded  very 
little  to  us,  but  the  sand-hills  overlooking  it  would  well  repay 
the  entomologist.  The  shore  towards  Kildoney  Point  we 
found  unproductive,  and  then  took  our  way  to  Coolmore,  a 
place  from  which  accounts  of  collections  in  other  branches 
have  already  appeared  in  this  Journal.  Descending  the  Blue 
Stairs  we  were  disappointed  to  find  the  shore  composed 
largely  of  sandstone  and  limestone  boulders  derived  from  the 
cliffs,  and  presenting  a  very  meagre  fauna.  Going  a  little  to 
the  south-west,  however,  we  were  again  amongst  the  lime- 
stone rock-pools  with  a  great  abundance  of  life.  The  con- 
trast was  most  striking.  Where  the  rocks  were  principally 
sandstone  they  presented  quite  a  barren  aspect,  and  life 
appeared  impoverished,  while  a  few  yards  further  when  we 
got  on  to  the  limestone,  the  rock-pools  were  replete  with  a 
luxuriance  of  animal  and  plant  life,  much  as  we  had  found 
west  of  Bundoran. 

Dredging  in  Donegal  Bay  with  the  trawlers  did  not  yield  us 
much.  The  bottom  consists  principally  of  sand,  and  the 
dredge  and  trawl  brought  up  little  of  what  the  fishermen 
regard  as  refuse,  but  to  the  zoologist  is  a  harvest.  A  day  was 
spent  on  the  east  coast  of  the  promontory  stretching  between 
M'Swyne's  Bay  and  Inver  Bay.  Here  the  shore  was  again 
rich  in  deep  vertical  rock-pools  filled  with  weeds,  such  as 
Fiictcs,  Laminaria,  Ulva,  E^iteromorpha,  Bryopsis,  Codiuin, 
Cladophora,  Chondrics  crisptcs,  Rhody??ie7iia,  Coralli7ia  offi- 
ci7ialis,  Lithotha77i7iio7i  polyi7iorphu7}i,  and  other  rarer  forms. 
Hundreds  oi  Metridiiuri  {Acti7iolobd)  dia7ithus,  EH-,  hung  from 

6  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

the  under  surface  of  projecting  ledges,  and  most  of  the  other 
common  forms  of  sea-anemones  flourished  luxuriously, 
sharing  the  decoration  of  the  pools  with  numerous  brightl}^- 
coloured  sponges.  Trawling  around  the  shore  our  boatmen 
discovered  for  themselves  a  rich  locality  for  Sole,  Plaice,  and 
Brill.  The  Laminaria  brought  up  was  coated  with  miniature 
forests  of  Obelia  gcniadata,  Linn,  and  other  zoophytes. 
Numbers  of  shells  of  Peden  7naxiimis,  I,inn.  were  obtained 
encrusted  with  various  Polyzoa.  In  returning  across  the  bay 
we  were  alarmed  by  the  proximity  of  four  or  five  large 
cetaceans  following  the  shoals  of  herring  along  with  flocks  of 
gulls.  From  the  rounded  head,  large,  high  dorsal  fin,  and 
white  under-surface.  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  were  speci- 
mens of  the  Killer  Whale  {^Orca  gladiatof,  I,acpa).  In  a  small 
interesting  book  on  Ballyshannon'  containing  a  chapter  on  its 
Zoology  and  Botany,  it  is  recorded  that  in  the  last  century 
whales  were  so  numerous  in  Donegal  Bay  that  a  whale-fisher}^ 
was  established,  but  owing  to  the  general  roughness  of  the 
sea  it  was  unsuccessful,  although  aided  b}^  a  grant  of  £500 
from  the  Irish  Parliament  in  1736,  and  a  grant  of  £1,500 
in  1763. 

We  left  Bundoran  and  its  rock-pools  feeling  that  our  time 
had  been  most  profitabh^  vSpent,  and  bearing  away  representa- 
tives of  many  of  its  marine  treasures  preserved  in  our  jars  for 
future  stud3\  A  more  detailed  list  and  description  of  these 
will  shortly  be  published. 

Mr.  Welch,  of  Belfast,  has  kindh^  allowed  a  reproduction  of 
one  of  his  splendid  series  of  photographs  of  the  shores  at 
Bundoran.  The  portion  represented  on  the  accompanying 
plate  (Plate  i)  is  one  of  the  rock-pools  from  which  the  water 
has  been  removed.  At  the  bottom  are  seen  many  examples 
of  the  Purple  Sea-urchin  (^Stro7igylocent7'otits  lividus,  I,amk.) 
bristling  with  spines,  but  all  more  or  less  sunk  in  their  self- 
made  hollows,  and  in  some  cases  with  dead  shells  upon  them. 
The  pink-coloured  "  Nullipore,"  Lithothamnionpolyvw7'phu77i, 
coats  the  remainder  of  the  bottom,  and  especially  in  the  narrow 
ridges  between  the  hollows  rises  into  irregular  botryoidal 
masses,  often  tending  to  enclose  the  sea-urchins.  To  the  left 
of  the  plate  are  seen  luxuriant  bunches  of  another  calcareous 

^AlHngliam :  Ballyshaunoii,  its  History  and  Antiquities,  Londonderry, 

The  Rock-pools  of  Btcndoran.  f 

fed  alga,  Corallina  officmalis.  Along  the  side  of  the  pool 
are  agglutinated  masses  of  sand  and  fragments  of  shells 
presenting  the  appearance  of  a  honeycomb,  each  aperture  being 
that  of  a  tube,  in  which  dwells  the  worm  Sabellaria  alveolata, 
I,inn.  The  limestone  ledges  above  the  pool  (to  the  right) 
are  quite  light  in  colour  owing  to  the  great  abundance  of 
the  common  acorn-shell,  Balaiius.  Numerous  conical  shaped 
limpets.  Patella  viclgata,  lyinn.  are  here  present  resting  in  the 
shallow  scars  excavated  by  themselves.  It  has  lately  been 
showni  that  the  limpets  quit  their  homes  in  search  of  food 
chiefly  as  the  tide  leaves  them  and  when  it  is  returning,  the 
extent  of  their  peregrinations  being  evidently  limited  to  a  dis- 
tance of  between  one  and  two  feet.  Many  of  the  limpets  have 
the  exterior  of  their  shells  coated  with  Lithothamnion  'poly- 
inorphuin.  Scattered  about  are  also  numerous  specimens  of 
the  spindle-shaped  Purpura  lapillus,  I^inn. 



BY   H.    AND  J.    GROVKS,    FX.S. 

Thk  large  stretches  of  comparatively  shallow  water  and  the 
many  peat-bogs  render  Ireland  a  particularly  favourable 
country  for  the  growth  of  Characece,  and,  although  a  considerable 
extent  remains  almost  unexplored  and  but  little  has  been 
thoroughly  searched,  the  Chara  Flora  as  at  present  known  is 
a  rich  one.  During  the  past  year  another  species,  C.  canescens, 
has  been  discovered,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  when  the 
Southern  and  Western  districts  have  been  more  completely 
worked  several  others  will  be  added  to  the  list. 

Every  piece  of  water  should  be  searched,  as  CharacecB  occur 
in  rivers  and  streams  as  well  as  in  the  lakes,  pools,  pits,  and 
ditches,  which  are  their  more  usual  habitats.  We  would 
especially  recommend  examining  small  loughs  and  pools  near 
the  sea,  as  likely  to  yield  new  species  to  Ireland.  It  is  never 
safe  to  assume  that  there  is  no  Chara  in  any  piece  of  water 
until  it  has  been  dragged  all  over,  as  oftentimes  they  occur  in 
only  one  part  and  are  not  visible  from  the  shore. 

'^Nature,  vol.  xxxi.,  p.  200,  and  vol.  li.,  p.  127, 

8  The  Irish  Nahcralist. 

We  shall  be  pleased  to  examine  any  specimens  sent  to  us  for 
determination,  but  would  impress  upon  collectors  the  impor- 
tance of  obtaining  fruiting  specimens  where  possible.  Often 
when  the  first  "haul"  is  sterile,  a  further  search  will  yield  abun- 
dance of  fruit. 

The  object  of  this  paper  is  to  give  a  table  of  the  County 
distribution  on  the  lines  of  "  Topographical  Botan}^''  but  in  the 
case  of  the  rarer  species  the  separate  localities  are  mentioned. 
We  have  endeavoured  as  far  as  possible  to  cite  the  earliest 
collected  specimen  we  have  seen  from  each  County. 

In  consequence  of  the  unreliable  character  of  the  earlier 
determinations  of  Charace^s,  we  have  thought  it  better  in  this  as 
in  our  other  papers,  to  record  only  those  localities  from  which 
we  have  ourselves  examined  specimens. 

The  varieties  given  are  not  intended  to  be  regarded  as  sub- 
species, nor  as  being  all  of  equal  value,  as  it  has  been  thought 
desirable  to  apply  varietal  names  to  the  more  extreme  forms, 
although  every  intermediate  state  may  occur. 

Chara  frag^IIISf  Desv. 

113.  Kerry,  S.,        -    Sneem,  1883.     H.  A.  Ridley. 

114.  ,,        N.,       -     Brandon.     D.  Moore. 

116.  Cork,  N.,         -     Fernioy.    T.  Chandlee. 

117.  Waterford,       -     Dungarvan  Bog,  1882.     G.  Nicholson. 

118.  Tipperary,  S.,      Croan,  1872.     S.  Grub1). 

121.  Queen's  Co.,  -  Maryborough,  1893.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

123.  Wicklow,  -  Murrough  of  Wicklow,  1849,     D.  Moore. 

125.  Dublin,    -  -  Howth,  i860.     D.  Moore. 

128.  Limerick,  -  R.  Shannon,  nr.  Limerick,  1892.     H.  &  J'  G. 

129.  Clare,       -  -  Ennis,  1884.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

130.  Galway,  E-,  -  Castle  Taylor.    A.  G.  More. 
133.  Westmeath,  -  Ladiston.     D.  Moore. 

135.  Galway,  W.,    -    Roundstone.    Hb.  J.Woods. 

136.  Mayo,  W.,        -    L.  Cullin.     A.  G.  More. 

137.  ,,       E.,         -    Cong,    1885.     E.  F.  and  W.  R.  Linton. 

138.  Sligo,       -        -    Lough  Gill  River,  1884     R.  M.  Barringtou. 

141.  Fermanagh,    -    L-  Erne,  1837.    \V.  Thompson. 

142.  Cavan,     -        -     Belturbet.     D.  Moore. 

144.  Tyrone,  -     Arboe,  1891.     S.  A.  Brenan. 

145.  Armagh,  -     Bird  Island,  Lough  Neagh,  1882.     H.  W.  Lett. 

147.  Down,     -        -     Loughinisland,  1887.    S-  A.  Stewart. 

148.  Antrim,  -        -     L-  Neagh.     D-  Moore. 

var.  barbata,  Gant. 

114.  Kerry,  N.,  -  Nr.  Ventry,  1894.     D.  M'Ardle. 

123.  Wicklow,  -  Murrough  of  Wicklow.     D.Moore. 

132.  King's  Co.,  -  Geashill,  1894.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

133.  Westmeath,  -  Mullingar,  1877.     D.  Moore. 

147.  Down,     -        -     Holywood  Hills,  1891.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

148.  Antrim,  -        -    Lough  Beg,  1846.     W.  Thompson. 

The  Distributio7i  of  the  Charace(E  in  Ireland. 

113.  Kerry,  S., 

125.  Dublin,   - 

135.  Galway,  W., 

147.  Down, 


Mayo,  E. 



125.  Dublin,    - 

135.  Galway,  W., 

T37.  Mayo,  E., 

139.  Leitrim,  - 

145.  Armagh, 

146.  Donegal, 
148.  Antrim,    - 

var.  caplllacea,  Coss.  and  G. 

-  Long  Range,  18S7.     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Howth,  1894,     R.  Ivl.  Praeger. 

-  Renvyle,  1832.     Hb.  Shuttleworth. 

-  Holy  wood,  1885.  R.  Ivl.  Praeger. 

var.  Hedwlgrll,  Kuetz. 

-  Lucan,  1894.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 
_">  Cong,  1885.     C.Bailey. 

-  Lough  Gill  R.  1884.     R.  M.  Harrington. 

-  Holywood  Hills,  1891.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

var.  delicatula,  Braun. 

Clondalkin,  1894.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

Recess,  1885.     E.  F.  Linton.- 

Cong,  1885.     C.  Bailey. 

Glenade  L.  1884.     R-  M.  Barrington. 

Ardmore  Glebe,  1880.     Hb.  R.  LI.  Praeger. 

L,  Sessiagh,  1886.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

L.  Neagh,  1883.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

The  plants  included  by  us  under  the  var.  delicatula  are  the  smaller 
forms  with  somewhat  connivent  branchlets  and  a  tendency  to  produce 
spine-cells.  Braun  employs  the  name  for  a  sub-species,  including  all  the 
forms  having  prominent  primary  cortical  cells. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  Irish  specimens  of  C.fragilis  show  a  tendency 
towards  the  vars.  barbata  and  delicatula,  while  the  larger  forms  approach- 
ing var.  Ht'dwigii  seem  much  less  common.  We  collected  a  small  much 
incrusted  form  in  Westmeath,  which  could  scarcely  be  distinguished 
from  C.  contraria  without  microscopic  examination. 

C.  fragilis  is  one  of  the  most  widely  distributed  species,  occurring 
almost  all  over  the  world.     It  is  frequent  throughout  Great  Britain. 

[C.fragifera  and  C.  comiivens,  which  occur  in  the  West  of  Europe  and 
in  some  of  the  south-western  counties  of  England,  may  be  expected  to 
occur  also  in  the  South  of  Ireland,  and  should  be  searched  for  in  shallow 
water  near  the  sea.  Both  resemble  C.  fragilis,  but  maybe  readily  distin- 
guished by  being'dioecious,  as  well  as  by  the  strongly  incurved  branchlets 
in  the  case  of  C.  connivejis  and  the  large  compound  bulbils  on  the  under- 
ground stems  of  C.fragifera.l 

113.  Kerry,  S., 

114.  ,,     N., 

121.  Queen's  Co.,    - 

123.  Wicklow, 

124.  Kildare, 

130.  Galwaj',  E.,     - 

133.  Westmeath,     - 

135.  Galway,  W., 

136.  Mayo,  W,, 

137-  "         E., 

141.  Fermanagh,     - 

142.  Cavan,. 
145.  Armagh, 

147.  Down, 

148.  Antrim, 

149.  Londonderry   - 

C.    aspera,  Willd. 

Killarney,  1887.     R.  W.  Scully. 

Castle  Gregory  LaTce,     D.  Moor 

Farmhill,  1890.     R.  W.  Scully. 

Murrough  of  Wicklow.     D.  Moore. 

Near  Monasterevan,  1893.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

Portumna,  1843,     D.  Moore. 

Belvidere,  1846.     D.  Moore. 

Oughterard,  1885.     E.  F.  and  W.  R.  Linton. 

L.  Cullin.      A.  G.  More. 

Foxford.     A.  G.  More. 

L.  Erne,  1883.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

Belturbet.     D.  Moore. 

Near  Navan  Fort,  1892.     R.  Ll.  Praeger. 

Clandeboye  Lake,  1882.    S.  A.  Stewart. 

Rathlin.     Hb.  D.  Moore. 

L-  Beg.  1894.     R.  Ll.  Praeger. 



The  Irish  Naturalist, 

125.  Dublin, 

Ci  aspcra,  var.  caplllata,  Braun. 

-    Royal    Canal,    Blanch ardstown,    1889. 

130.  Galway,  B. , 

R,    W. 

var.  curta,  Braun. 
L.  Derg,  1881.     B.  King. 

135.  Galway,  W., 
136    Mayo,  W., 

144.  Tyrone, 

145.  Armagh, 
148    Antrim, 

138.  Sligo, 

139.  Leitrim, 

148.  Antrim, 

149.  Londonderrj% 

var.  lacustrlSf  H.  and  J.  G. 

-  Roundstone.     Hb.,  J.  Woods. 
■  L,.  Cullin.    A.  G.  More. 

-  Arboe,  1891,      S.A.  Brenan. 

-  L.  Neagh,  Lurgan,  1890.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 
•  Iv.  Neagh,  Crumlin,  1894.    S.  A.  Stewart. 

var.  sublnermlSy  Kuetz. 

-  Lough  Gill  R.,  1884.      R.  M.  Barrington, 

-  GlenadeL,  1884.     R.  M,  Barrington, 

-  Rathlin  I.     D.  Moore. 
R.  Bann,  1894.     R,  LI.  Praeger, 

C.  aspera  is  a  common  species  in  Ireland,  occurring  in  the  lakes  and 
canals  as  well  as  in  the  peat-pits  and  pools,  and  is  more  generally  distri- 
buted than  in  England.  It  occurs  throughout  Europe  and  in  North 
Africa  and  North  America.  The  plant  we  have  referred  to  the  var. 
(iirta  has  short  incurved  branchlets  and  many  short  spine-cells,  but  is 
not  so  extreme  as  some  of  the  continental  plants,  which  have  the 
branchlets  only  from  2-3  mm.  long.  In  L-  Owel,  Westmeath,  we  col- 
lected a  plant  with  very  long  internodes  and  comparatively  very  short 
incurved  branchlets,  which  resembled  the  Swiss  plant  much  magnified. 
The  var.  capillaia  from  Co.  Dublin  is  not  so  extreme  as  the  Holyhead 
plant.    Man)'  of  the  Irish  specimens  approach  this  variety. 

[C.  strigosa,  Braun.  In  the  Journal  of  Botany,  May,  1887,  we  suggested 
the  possibility  of  a  specimen  collected  by  Mr.  R.  M.  Barrington  in  Lough 
Ree  belonging  to  this  species,  but  being  sterile  we  were  unable  to  deter- 
mine it.  Since  then  we  have  not  had  any  further  light  thrown  on  the 
subject,  and  having  in  view  the  curious  forms  of  C.  aspera  which  we  have 
collected  in  the  Westmeath  lakes,  we  think  the  plant  is  possibly  only  a 
state  of  that  species.  It  would,  however,  be  very  desirable  for  L.  Ree  to 
be  searched  in  order  to  settle  the  question.] 

116.  Cork,  N., 
124.  Kildare,  - 
121.  Queen's  Co., 
123.  Wicklow, 

130.  Galway,  E., 
133.  Westmeath, 
135.   Galway,  W., 
137.  Mayo,  E., 
145.  Armagh, 

C.  polyacantha,  Braun. 

Shanagarry  Bog.     I.  Carroll. 

I  Canal,  near  Monasterevan,  1893.  R.  LI.  Praeger, 

Near  Newcastle,    1892.     R.   M.    Barrington  and 

H.  and  J.  G. 
Headford,  1832.     Hb.  Shuttleworth. 
Scraw  Bog,  near  L.  Owel,  1892.  H.  C.  Levinge. 
Moycullen,  1892.     H.  and  J.  G. 
Foxford.    A.  G.  More. 
Loughgall  L.,  1892.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

This  species  was  figured  by  Plukenet  in  1691  from  a  specimen  collected 
by  Sherard  in  "  Turf  Bogs  in  Ireland."  It  usually  occurs  in  peat-pits  and 
ditches.     In  Britain  it  is  generally  much  incrusted,  but  we  have  had 

The  Distribution  of  the  Characece  in  Ireland,  ri 

Several  beautiful  unincrusted  forms  from  the  Irish  bogs.  The  distribution 
of  C.  polyacantha  appears  to  be  very  limited.  It  is  recorded  from  Sweden, 
Denmark,  Germany,  Switzerland,  North  Italy,  and  France. 

C.  conti*ar!a,  Kuetz. 
113.  Kerry,  S.,        -     Caragh,  1888.     R.  W.  Scull}'.  ^ 

124.  KUdare,  -^  '    -i  ^^^^^>  Monasterevan,  1893.    R.  Ll.  Praeger.  .■ 

125.  Dublin,    -        -     Glasnevin,  1882.   D.  M'Ardle. 

130.  Galway,  E.,     -  L.  Derg,  1885.     B.  F.  and  W.  R.  Ivinton. 

133.  Westmeath,     -  L.  Ennel,  1892.     H.  and  J.  G. 

139.  Leitrim,  -        -  L.  Allen,  1883.    S.  A.  Stewart. 

145.  Armagh,  -        -  Croaghan  I.,  L.  Neagh,  1880.     H.  W.  Lett. 

147.  Down,      -        -  Clandeboye  Lower  Lake,  1891.  R.  Ll.  Praeger. 

149.  Londonderry,-  Limavadyjunc,  18S9.    W.  D.  Donnan  and  R.  Ll 


var.  hlspidula*  Braun. 
133.  Westmeath,     -    Brittas  Lake,  1892.  H.  C.  Levinge  and  H.  and  J.  "G» 
\'l  M^%7-'    :}  C-g.  '««5.    C.  Bailey. 

A  common  species  in  Ireland,  occurring  in  great  quantity  in  the  large 
lakes,  and  varying  considerably  from  the  commonest  form,  which  is  a  small 
slender  plant  resembling  C.  fragilis,  to  the  very  large  lax  form  in  Brittas 
Lake,  Westmeath,  which  grows  three  or  four  feet  high  and  has  branchlets 
\\  inches  long,  and  to  the  stout  compact  form  from  Loughs  Derg,  EnneL 
andDerevaragh,  with  short,  stout,  incurved  branchlets  resembling  the  var. 
crassicaiilis  of  C.  vulgaris.  C.  contraria  is  world-wide  in  its  distribution, 
occurring  in  all  five  Continents  and  in  Australia. 

C.  denudata^  Braun. =C.  dissoluiay  Leonh. 

133.  Westmeath,    -    Brittas  Lake,  1892,     H.  C.  Levinge. 

This  plant  resembles  the  large  forms  of  C  contraria  from  the  same  lake, 
but  is  almost  entirel}^  destitute  of  cortex.  The  primary  series  of  cortical  cells 
are  occasionally  partially  developed  above  the  whorls,  but  are  usually 
represented  by  a  single  cell  above  and  below,  each  branchlet  growing 
outwards  instead  of  adhering  to  the  internodal  cell.  C.  demidata  has 
been  recorded  from  single  localities  in  Switzerland  and  Italy,  and  from 
Cape  Colony  ;  but  the  Irish  form  is  more  extreme  than  either  of  these. 
It  is  doubtful,  however,  notwithstanding  the  apparently  important 
differences,  whether  these  plants  may  not  all  be  only  degraded  states 
of  C.  contraria. 


12         »  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


BY   G.    K.   H.    BARRETT- HAMII^TON. 

On  August  2ist,  1822,  a  Snipe  was  shot  near  Portarliugton, 
Queen's  County,  by  the  Rev.  Charles  Doyne,  and  was  described 
by  N.  A.  Vigors  as  Scolopax  Sabiiii  {Trans.  Limi.  Soc,  vol. 
xiv,  p.  556).  Vigors  distinguished  his  bird  from  the  Common 
Snipe  {S.  gallinago)  by  its  colour,  by  its  possession  of  only 
twelve  (instead  of  fourteen)  tail-feathers,  by  the  two  exterior 
toes  being  "united  to  the  base  for  a  short  distance,"  by  the 
tarsi  being  ^^^  of  an  inch  shorter  than  those  of  6*.  gallinago,  and 
by  the  greater  stoutness  of  the  tarsi. 

Subsequently,  additional  specimens  of  Sabine's  vSnipe  were 
obtained,  chiefly  in  Ireland,  so  that  in  1850,  William  Thompson 
(Nat.  Hist,  of  Ireland,  vol.  ii,  pp.  273 — 277)  was  able  to  give 
notes  of  ten  Irish  specimens,  while  a  few  others  had  been 
procured  in  England,  but  in  Scotland  none  at  all.  The  bird 
had  now  become,  in  the  words  of  Thompson,  "one  of  the 
greatest  puzzles  in  Ornithology,"  since  it  was  not  known  out 
of  the  British  Islands,  and  there  only  as  one  of  which  a  few 
individuals  had  fallen  before  the  guns  of  snipe-shooters  :  of 
its  breeding  haunts  absolutely  nothing  had  been  ascertained. 

Enough  specimens  had  now  been  obtained  to  enable 
naturalists  to  suspect  that  the  structural  characters  laid  down 
by  Vigors  as  distinguishing  Sabine's  from  the  Common  Snipe 
were  somewhat  unreliable,  and  Thompson  {pp.  cit.),  though  he 
gave  the  bird  rank  as  a  species  in  his  work,  was  compelled  to 
confess  that  for  some  time  past  he  "  had  not  felt  altogether 
satisfied  respecting  its  distinctness  as  a  species."  After  show- 
ing the  invalidity  of  Vigors'  structural  characters,  he  remarks 
that  in  colour  Sabine's  Snipe  "  is  peculiar  and  constant." 
Every  specimen  of  S.  Sabini  that  had  occurred  was  coloured 
much  alike,  and  was  remarkable  by  "  the  total  absence  of  white 
from  its  plumage,  or  of  any  of  those  lighter  tints  of  ferruginous 
yellow  which  extend  more  or  less  in  stripes  along  the  head 
and  back  "of  the  other  European  Snipes." 

In  the  works  of  later  writers,  Sabine's  Snipe  is  regarded 
merely  as  a  melanic  variety  of  the  Common  Snipe.  I  think, 
however,  that  it  presents  several  points  of  interest,  which 
are  well  worth  the  attention  of  naturalists. 

Sabine' s  Snipe.  13 

in  the  first  place  tliere  is  its  extremel}^  curious  distribution. 
I  have  been  at  some  pains  to  make  a  complete  list  of  all 
recorded  occurrences  of  Sabine's  Snipe,  with  the  result  that  I 
have  notes  of  (in  all)  about  fifty -five  examples,  v^^hich  have 
been  stated  to  have  been  either  obtained  or  observed  from  time 
to  time.'  Probabl}'  others  have  been  obtained,  but  they  have 
either  been  unrecorded  or  have  escaped  my  notice,  as  Pro- 
fessor Newton  informs  me  that  when  he  was  in  Dublin  in 
i860  there  were  about  half  a  dozen  Sabine's  Snipes  stuffed 
(infamously)  and  placed  on  a  board  in  the  Museum  of  Trinity 
College,  not  one  of  which  had  been  recorded,  nor  did  anyone 
seem  to  know  their  history.  Of  the  odd  fifty-five  examples 
w^hose  capture  has  been  from  time  to  time  recorded,  thirty- 
one  (or  about  three-fifths)  hail  from  Ireland,  twenty-two  from 
England,  one  from  Scotland,  and  one  from  the  Continent  of 
Europe.  The  bird  should,  therefore,  possess  a  peculiar 
interest  for  Irish  ornithologists — whose  country  it  favours  so 
strangely  in  its  appearances.  The  Irish  examples  have  been 
recorded  from  sixteen  out  of  the  thirty-two  Irish  counties, 
and  from  almost  every  part  of  Ireland,  except  the  south-east 
(the  east  coast  can  only  claim  one).  In  the  North,  Derry 
heads  the  list  with  five  examples  (some  of  them  only  seen, 
and  not  obtained),  Donegal  claims  four,  and  Tyrone  one. 
In  the  West,  Mayo  claims  one,  Galway  one,  Clare  one,  and 
Kerry  two.  In  the  South,  Cork  claims  three,  and  Waterford 
one.  Of  the  central  counties  (taking  them  from  north  to 
south)  examples  have  been  recorded  from  Cavan  (one),  West- 
meath  (one).  King's  County  (one),  Kildare  (one),  Queen's 
County  (one),  and  Tipperary  (one).  The  interesting  feature 
of  the  distribution  of  Sabine's  Snipe  in  Ireland  would  appear 
to  be  its  apparent  absence  (at  least  as  far  as  can  be  ascertained 
from  the  available  records)  froni  the  eastern  counties  of 
Antrim,  Down,  Armagh,  I^outh,  Meath,  Wicklow,  Carlow,  and 
Wexford.  The  only  eastern  Irish  example  of  which  I  have 
any  note  is  that  recorded  from  Dublin  by  Mr.  H.  Blake  Knox 
{Zoologist,  1866,  p.  302).  Several  Irish  examples  can  not  be 
traced  to  any  particular  county. 

■■  Twenty-five  occurrences  have  been  collected  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Harting 
in  the  Field,  for  Dec.  10,  1870,  p.  521,  and  I  have  been  much  indebted  to 
his  list  of  occurrences  up  to  1870. 

14  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

As  regards  England,  nearly  all  the  occurrences  of  Sabine's 
Snipe  have  been  in  the  south  and  east,  and  a  line  drawn 
across  the  map  of  England  from  the  Wash  on  the  east  to  the 
junction  of  the  Counties  of  Gloucester  and  Somerset  on  the 
Severn  on  the  west,  would  cut  off  on  the  north  an  area 
from  w^hich  Sabine's  Snipe  has  only  twice  been  recorded — in 
both  cases  in  Yorkshire.  In  Wales  it  does  not  appear  to  have 
yet  been  seen  or  captured,  and  the  solitary  Scotch  example  is 
that  recorded  by  Colonel  Fielden  in  the  Zoologist  (ss.  p.  3,188) 
from  Montrose. 

The  only  continental  example  I  can  find  any  record  of  is 
"  a  light-coloured  example  now  in  the  foreign  collection  of  the 
British  Museum,"  and  "  stated  by  the  late  Jules  Verraux  to 
have  been  shot  near  Paris"  (Yarrell's  "British  Birds"  4  Ed., 
vol.  iii,  p.  349).  The  history  of  this  specimen  might  well 
stand  on  stronger  evidence.^ 

To  sum  up  the  distribution  of  Sabine's  Snipe,  it  is  confined 
(with  the  exception  of  one  somewhat  doubtful  specimen)  to 
the  British  Isles,  and  in  them  has  occurred  most  frequently  in 
Ireland.  In  the  south  and  south-east  of  England  it  has 
/\A  occurred  .earl}^  as  frequently  as  in  Ireland,  but  in  the  north 
and  in  Scotland  it  is  almost  unknown.^ 

The  distribution  of  Sabine's  Snipe  shows  a  curious  resem- 
blance to  that  of  another  melanic  animal,  which  was  first 
recorded  from  Ireland,  viz.,  the  melanic  variety  of  the  Common 
Rat  {JMus  decunianus),  which  was  described  by  Thompson  as 
Mils  hiberniciis.  This  equally  interesting  form  has  occurred  in 
abundance  (though  sporadically)  in  man)^  parts  of  Ireland,  and 

^  I  have  just  examined  this  specimen.  It  is  a  very  nice  example,  and 
rather  lighter  all  through  than  Vigors'  type,  which  is  also  in  the  British 
Museum  collection.  On  the  wooden  stand  on  which  it  is  fixed  is  a  note 
in  pencil  that  it  was  obtained  in  February,  1854,  and  that  it  is  a  male, 
but  I  could  find  no  further  details  of  its  history  at  the  Museum. 

-  Since  writing  the  above  I  have  had  the  opportunity  of  examining  two 
additional  Scotch  examples  of  Sabine's  vSnipe,  which  are  preserved  in  the 
collection  of  the  British  Museum  of  Natural  History  at  South  Ken- 
sington. One  of  these  was  obtained  at  Clackmannan,  in  December,  1890, 
and  presented  by  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh  in  1891.  The  second,  pre- 
sented by  Captain  Verner,  was  obtained  on  Tiree  Island,  in  the  Outer 
Hebrides,  in  January,  1887.  It  is  more  like  a  Common  Snipe,  especially 
in  the  head,  than  any  of  the  seven  examples  in  the  collection  at  South 
Kensington— but  it  has  no  white  on  the  under  parts,  and  is  certainly  a 
Sabine's  Snipe. 

Sabine's  Snipe.  15 

also,  although  very  rarely,  in  the  Outer  Hebrides,  Scotland,  and 
England.  On  the  Continent  I  cannot  find  any  record  of  its 
occurrence  except  that  of  A.  Milne-Edwards,  who  reported 
black  varieties  of  Mus  decumanus  from  Paris  {Ann.  Sci.  Nat., 
1871,  XV,  art.  7). 

It  is  hard,  however,  to  speak  with  confidence  of  the  distri- 
bution in  Great  Britain  of  Mus  hibernicus,  since  there  are  three 
mammals  which  are  reported  indiscriminately  as  Black  Rats, 
e.g.  Mus  rattus,  the  true  black  rat ;  Mus  hibernicus,  a  variety  of 
Mzcs  decumafius ;  and  (I  believe,  most  frequently  of  all)  the  black 
variety  of  the  Water  Vole,  Microtus  aniphibius. 

The  points  of  resemblance  in  the  distribution  of  the  two 
melanic  animals,  Sabine's  Snipe  and  the  Irish  Rat,  and  the 
fact  of  their  much  more  frequent  occurrence  in  Ireland  than 
in  any  other  country,  led  me  to  inquire  if  in  Ireland  there 
might  be  a  general  tendency  to  melanistic  forms.  I  cannot  say 
however,  that  my  investigations  have  hitherto  met  with  much 
success.  In  Vertebrates  I  think  the  few  cases  which  have 
come  under  my  notice  might  have  occurred  in  any  country, 
and  are  certainly  too  meagre  to  bring  forward  here.  In  re- 
gard to  Lepidoptera,  Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter,  of  the  Science  and 
Art  Museum,  Dublin,  has  very  kindly  replied  to  ni}^  inquiries 
as  follows : — 

"With  regard  to  Irish  I^epidoptera,  among  butterflies  Meli- 
tcEa  aurifiia  and  Puris  7iapi  are  more  deepl}^  marked  in  Ireland, 
the  latter  on  the  west  coast  sometimes  approaching  the  alpine 
var.  bryo7iice.  Noctuid  moths  are  generally  dark  and  rich  in 
Ireland,  and  so  are  some  Geometers.  But  all  these  dark  var- 
ieties turn  up  in  parts  of  Great  Britain  —  mountains  and 
northern  districts,  .specially  the  western  Scottish  Highlands, 
Hebrides,  and  Shetland." 

In  regard  to  mollusca.  Dr.  R.  F.-  Scharfif,  aLso  of  the  Dublin 
Museum  of  Science  and  Art,  has  most  obligingly  replied  in  a 
very  similar  manner.  He  writes — "I  once  thought  that  there 
were  instances  among  slugs  of  melanism  confined  to  Ireland, 
or  even  to  the  British  Islands,  but  similar  cases  have  turned 
up  in  a  number  of  places  all  over  Europe."  So  far,  then,  I  am 
unable  to  bring  forward  any  support  for  the  suggestion  I  put 
forward  that  melanism  might  be  more  common  in  Ireland 
than  in  Great  Britain,  but  the  question  cannot  yet  be  regarded 
as  anything  like  fully  worked  out. 

1 6  The  h'ish  Natural ist. 

In  time,  Sabine's  Snipe  has  been  distributed  sporadically 
since  Vigors  described  it  in  1822.  From  that  year  to  the 
present  time  examples  have  been  obtained  one  by  one,  seldom 
more  than  one  in  any  single  j^ear,  and  seldom  more  than 
three  or  four  years  have  intervened  between  the  individual 

Sabine's  Snipe  has  been  shot  in  ever}'  month  of  the  shoot- 
ing season,  that  is  from  September  to  March,  most  numerouslj', 
perhaps,  from  October  to  January.  No  doubt,  were  snipe 
shooting  customar}"  all  the  year  round,  every  month  would  be 
able  to  claim  one  or  two  examples.  Of  the  spring,  summer, 
and  autumn  months,  August  claims  four  examples,  including 
two  as  early  as  the  5th.  To  September,  however,  I  can  only 
allot  one,  and  that  on  the  28th  of  the  month.  One  in  Mr.  J. 
H.  Gurney's  collection  was  shot  on  the  5th  of  May,  but  no 
specimens  that  I  am  aware  of  have  been  shot  in  the  months  of 
April,  June,  or  July,  except  one  obtained  in  the  breeding 
season  of  1831  or  1832  at  Heron  Court,  Hants  (E5'ton's  ''Rarer 
British  Birds,"  p.  160). 

Among  the  recorded  instances  of  the  occurrence  of  this  bird 
I  have  been  unable  to  find  many  allusions  to  the  sex  of  the 
examples  obtained,  but  several  are  stated  to  have  been  females, 
and  at  least  one  was  a  male.  This  form  of  plumage  is,  there- 
fore, not  confined  to  either  sex. 

It  is  nearly  impossible  to  examine  a  series  of  examples 
of  Sabine's  Snipe,  since  there  is  no  collection  that  I  know  of 
which  contains  a  good  series.  I  cannot,  therefore,  say  much 
of  the  plumage  of  this  bird,  or  to  what  extent  individuals  var)^ 
from  the  type.  That  they  do  vary  to  a  certain  extent  is  cer- 
tain, and  two  birds  have  been  described  as  being  intermediate 
in  coloration  between  Sabine's  and  the  Common  Snipe.  One 
of  these  was  obtained  near  Waterford,  on  November  25th,  1883. 
It  was  examined  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Harting,  and  by  him  described 
in  the  Zoologist  (1884,  p.  272).  It  was  remarkable  for  its  pale 
tone  of  coloration.  The  second  was  killed  in  the  vicinity  of 
Hastings,  and  examined  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Gurney,  jun.,  who 
remarked  that  it  approximated  more  closel}^  to  the  Common 
than  to  Sabine's  Snipe,  but  he  had  seen  no  variety  of  the 
Snipe  exactly  like  it  {Zoologist,  1884,  p.  339).  Other  specimens 
have  been  recorded  to  vary  in  the  shade  of  their  plumage, 
thus  the  specimen,  which  is  stated  to  have  been  obtained  near 

Sabinds  Snipe.  17 

Paris   {vide  supra,  p.   14),    was    a   light-coloured    individual, 
while  others  have  been  recorded  as  ver^^  dark  examples. 

Numerous  other  varieties  of  the  Common  Snipe  have  been 
from  time  to  time  obtained  and  recorded,  and  I  believe  some 
remarkable  varieties  are  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  John  Mar- 
shall, of  Taunton.  Mr.  Whitaker,  of  Rainworth,  Mansfield, 
Notts,  has  kindly  informed  me  that  he  has  in  his  collection 
nine  Snipe,  running  from  Sabine's  Snipe  to  examples  with 
the  body  white  and  the  wings  brown,  and  with  the  body  brown 
and  wings  white,  as  well  as  examples  which  are  pale  cream, 
pale  brown,  dark  brown,  and  brown  with  white  wings  and 
cream  back. 

It  is  possible  that  all  the  examples  of  Sabine's  Snipe  may 
be  birds  of  the  year,  which  supposition  would  account  for  the 
ovate  shape  of  the  dorsal  feathers — a  point  formerly  insisted 
on  as  showing  its  distinction  from  the  Common  Snipe.  Pro- 
fessor Newton  informs  me  that  he  has  never  seen  an  example 
of  Sabine's  Snipe  which  had  the  appearance  of  a  really  adult 

The  above  remarks  are  a  mere  summary  of  the  notes  I  have 
been  so  far  able  to  collect  on  this  interesting  bird.  They  are 
not  intended  to  give  a  complete  account  of  it,  but  I  think 
they  have  touchedupon  some  of  the  mere  interesting  features  in 
its  history.  The  number  of  examples  killed  is  only  approxi- 
mate, as  it  is  impossible  to  trace  the  authenticity  of  every 
reported  example.  The  addition,  or  subtraction,  of  one  or 
two  examples  from  the  list  would,  however,  in  no  way  disturb 
the  conclusions  to  be  drawn  from  them. 

1 8  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

DONAX  VITTATUS,  var.  TRUNCATUS  (Marshall,  ms.). 


Mr.  Marshall,  of  Sevenoaks,  Torquay,  to  whom  I  owe  much 
regarding  shells,  has  drawn  \\\y  attention  to  a  form  oi Donax 
vittatus  that  I  have  sent  him,  and  which  is  unlike  the  English 
form.  He  says  : — "  These  Irish  specimens  partake  of  some  of 
the  characters  of  the  var.  turgida,  which  is  *  larger,  ventricose, 
and  longer,'  but  in  addition  the  posterior  end  is  abruptly 
truncate  instead  of  being  obliquely  so.  It  is  in  reality  an 
intermediate  form  between  D.  vittatus  and  D.  truncuhis, 
having  the  proportions  of  the  latter,  but  the  typical  charac- 
teristics of  the  former,  to  which  it  belongs  without  a  doubt." 

In  my  district,  Killala  Ba}^  this  truncated  variety  is  the 
prevailing  form,  and  the  type  the  rarit3^  I  have  some  speci- 
mens of  D.  vittatus  from  the  North  Bull,  Dublin,  and  all 
belong  to  the  type.  It  would  be  interesting  if  collectors  along 
the  coast  would  note  where  the  truncated  variety  appears. 

Mr.  Marshall  adds  that  this  form  is  peculiar  to  the  south 
and  west  of  Ireland,  and  he  has  given  it  the  M.S.  name  of  var. 
truncatus,  the  characters  being  : — **  Thick  and  solid,  deeper  or 
longer  from  the  beaks,  ver}^  convex,  posterior  slope  short  and 
abrupt.  He  adds,  "  the  umbonal  area  inside  the  valves  of  all 
these  Irish  specimens  is  curiously  fretted  with  deep  pit-marks 
which  may  be  caused  by  an  internal  parasite.  Many  j^ears 
ago  in  dredging  the  variety  nitida  on  the  Doggerbank  I 
found  that  50  per  cent,  of  them  contained  a  small  parasitic 
crab,  and  the  presence  of  parasites  may  also  account  for  the 
convexity  of  both  these  varieties." 

Fig.  I  Fig.  2. 

In  the  accompanying  drawing,  kindly  made  by  Dr.  ScharfF, 
fig.  I  represents  a  characteristic  specimen  of  the  new  variety 
gathered  by  me  at  Killala  Bay  ;  while,  added  for  sake  of 
comparison,  is  an  example  of  the  type  from  Torbay  (fig.  2), 
sent  me  by  Mr.  Marshall. 

[     19     ] 

The  notes  on  Irish  INIoths  which  have  appeared  in  the  Irish  Naturalist 
(vol.  iii.,  pp.  217,  233),  may  perhaps  be  made  slightly  more  complete  and 
exact  by  publishing  the  following  memoranda.  The  name  of  Hepiahis 
hipulitnis  Hb.,  rightly  recorded  in  Mr.  Barrett's  work  as  Irish  and 
occurring  in  Galway,  was  referred  to  b}'  me  in  its  place  in  the  list,  on 
p.  13  of  vol.  xxvii.  of  the  Entomologist,  as  "  Abundant  and  similarly 
distributed  as  the  former.  I  have  noticed  it  flying  in  the  sunshine." 
But  by  a  typographical  error  the  name  was  not  inserted  b}-  the  printer  at 
the  close  of  my  notice  oi  H.  velleda.  This  will  be  corrected  in  the  reprint. 
Since  publishing  my  notes  on  the  Cymatophoridi^.  I  have  seen  a  specimen 
oi  Asphalia  flaviconiis  taken  by  Mr.  Dillon  at  Clonbrock,  and  also  received 
a  letter  from  Mr.  Campbell  of  Derry  withdrawing  his  record  of  C.  or 
published  in  the  Irish  Naturalist  (vol.  ii.,  1S93,  p.  22),  and  stating  that  the 
insect  turns  out  to  be  A.Jlavicornis.  This  species  will  have  therefore  to  be 
added.  A  second  Stauropus  fagi  was  taken  by  me  in  Kerry  this  summer 
and  one  at  Clonbrock  by  Mr.  Dillon's  gamekeeper.  Mr.  E.  Porter  also 
writes  that  he  met  with  some  very  small  larvce  of  the  same  species  on  the 
shores  of  Upper  L.  Erne  this  summer,  but  failed  to  rear  them.  None  of 
the  larvae  attributed  to  Pygccra  curtula  taken  by  me  at  Galway  and  Ros- 
common, and  by  Mr.  Watts  in  Co.  Down  in  1893,  survived  the  pupal  stage, 
so  that,  as  those  of  P.  pigra  are  when  full  fed  very  similar,  the  record  of 
P.  curtula  requires  further  authentication.  The  following  species 
mentioned  in  the  notice  on  "  Irish  Moths"  as  having  been  added  by  ]\Ir. 
Dillon  to  the  Irish  list,  had  been  taken  elsewhere  in  Ireland  previously, 
namely — Luperina  cespitis,  Pericallia  syringaria,  Eupithccia  fraxinata,  and  E. 
hidigafa.  This  summer  however  he  has  added  to  the  extraordinary  series 
of  rarities  already  announced,  single  specimens  each  oi  Leucawa  tuna,  and 
OphioJcs  luiiaris ;  which  he  tells  me  were  part  of  the  captures  of  a  game- 
keeper, Frank  Mason,  at  Clonbrock,  in  his  (Mr.  Dillon's)  absence  this 
summer.  In  reply  to  the  comment  on  my  having  published  a  few  of  the 
earlier  Clonbrock  captures  without  giving  the  captor's  name  and  exact 
localit}',  I  would  here  desire  to  mention  that  I  know  Mr.  Dillon  at  first 
intended  to  send  a  list  of  them  to  an  entomological  journal  ;  but,  on 
further  consideration, decidednotto  do  so  for  fear  of  attracting  undCvSirable 
collectors.  Under  these  circumstances  \  thought  it  better  to  announce 
the  captures  without  making  public  the  name  of  the  captor,  rather  than 
suppress  information  of  such  interest.  But  when  further  remarkable 
additions  to  our  fauna  turned  up,  Mr.  Dillon  at  once  waived  all  objection, 
and  sent  a  list,  with  full  particulars  of  his  most  important  captures  up  to 
date,  for  insertion  in  the  Entomologist. 

The  Editors  of  the  Iiish  Naturalist  kindh^  give  me  credit  for  carefulness 
when  identifying  the  Clonbrock  specimens,  and  I  can  only  say  that  I  have 
used  my  utmost  endeavours  to  assure  myself  that  no  accidental  inclusion 
of  continental  specimens  has  taken  place.  Indeed  my  sceptical  enquirers 
have  occasionally  verged  on  impoliteness,  which  has  been  condoned  in  a 
manner  my  own  incredulity  has  not  always  experienced  from  other  col- 
lectors.     In   answer   to  the   stricture    upon   my  having  attempted  to 

20  The  Irish  NaUcratist. 

acclimatise  new  species  in  Ireland,  I  beg  leave  to  assure  my  brother 
entomologists  that  none  of  the  three  or  four  species  of  Lepidoptera  experi- 
mented with  by  me  from  time  to  time  are  such  as  would  be  taken  to  be 
indigenous  in  Ireland.  Particulars  will  be  given  in  my  Catalogue,  and 
if  any  of  these  exotics  should  turn  up  at  any  time  their  origin  will  be  at 
once  traceable.  But  I  cannot  flatter  raj-self  that  any  success  has  been 
attained.  No  erroneous  conclusions  therefore  are  possible  under  these 
circumstances.  All  such  experiments  ought  to  be  conducted  with  due 
precautions  against  such  a  contingency,  and  duly  recorded  to  prevent 
error.  I  join  heartily  in  reprobating,  in  the  strongest  manner,  any 
careless  introduction  of  British  species  into  our  island  fauna. 

Wm.  Francis  de  V.  Kane. 




Irish  teramblcs. — In  th.^  Journal  of  Botany  for  January,  Mr.  Praeger 
gives  a  further  enumeration  of  Brambles  collected  by  him  in  Ireland, 
and  named  by  Dr.  O.  Focke  and  Rev.  Moyle  Rogers  ;  of  these  R,  viicans 
and  A',  saxicolus  do  not  appear  to  have  been  noted  in  Ireland  hitherto, 
and  most  of  the  other  notes  form  new  district  records. 

Vicia  lathyroidcs,  L.,  In  Co.  WIcklow.— In  the  early  spring  of 
this  year  I  gathered  this  rare  plant  in  some  plenty  growing  on  the  flats 
amone  the  sandhills  just  south  of  Arklow. 

'^^  R.  W.  SCUI.I.Y,  Dublin. 

Erythreea  pulchclla,  Fr.,  and  Polypogon  monspeliensis, 
Dcsf.  on  the  North  Bull. — I  was  glad  to  re-find  this  ^;ji'///;v?a  last 
summer  near  the  coastguard's  garden.  Mr.  More  tells  me  it  has  not 
been  seen  on  the  Bull  for  some  years.  One  fine  tuft  of  the  Polypogon — a 
most  beautiful  grass— was  growing  in  a  neglected  patch  of  the  coast- 
guard's garden,  no  doubt  introduced  with  seeds. 

R.  W.  SCQI.I.Y. 

Some  Cork  Aliens.— In  the  summer  of  1891  I  came  across  the  fol- 
lowing aliens  growing  on  an  extensive  rubbish  heap  beside  the  river 
Lee  in  the  City  of  Cork.  The  rubbish  heap  was  apparently  derived  from 
a  lar""e  distillery  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood.  Alyssiini  calyciniini,  L., 
Sisy inln-iuiii  pannonicum,  ]2iC(\.,  E>ysitnnm  oruntalc,  R,  Br.,  E.  repandum,  L., 
Camelina  sativa,  Cratz.,  Lcpidium  perfoliatuni,  L.,  Thlaspi  arvense,!-,.,  Anthcmis 
arvensis,  L.,  Brovius  tecioriim,  L.  Of  these  Erysiimim  repandtun,  Sisymbrium 
pannonicvin  and  Brovnis  tcctorum  occurred  in  great  abundance.  Several 
other  plants  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  name.  It  will  be  interesting  to 
note  how  long  the  above  will  hold  their  ground,  and  whether  they  will 
spread  to  neighbouring  localities. 

R.  W.  Scui,i,Y- 

Notes.  21 



Thccia  betulds  In  Co.  Wexford.— Mr.  Moffat  in  t\\^  Irish  Naturalist 
for  October,  1894,  comments  upon  my  having  omitted  Killoughruni  Forest 
as  a  locality  for  this  interesting  butterfly  in  my  ''Catalogue  of  Irish 
Lepidoptera. "  Nevertheless,  if  he  will  refer  again  to  it  he  will  find 
"  Killoughrum  Wood,  Enniscorthy,  Moffat,"  included  in  my  notice  of  its 
distribution  !  I  was  not  therefore  unmindful  of  his  courtesy,  and  onlv 
\\ash  that  he  would  send  me  a  local  list  of  Heterocera  also.  I  am  much 
interested  to  hear  oi  Nisoniades  tagcs  having  been  taken  there. 

Wm.  F.  de  V.  Kane,  Drumreaske,  Monaghan. 
Lepidoptera  at  Howth  In  1894.— On  Feb.  'jth^Phlogophora  metiadosa 
and  Phigalia  pedaria  came  to  light,  one  of  each.  At  the  end  of  the  month, 
Larentia  multisttigaria  began  to  emerge  in  the  breeding  pots.  The  larvae 
were  from  eggs  laid  by  a  Howth  moth  in  March,  1893,  and  were  easily 
fed  upon  Galium  of  different  species.  On  March  17th,  I  took  Tceniocampa 
nmnda  at  Sallows,  but  not  abundantly ;  I  had  not  observed  it  at  Howth 
before,  and  in  Birchall's  list  it  is  only  down  for  Killarney.  In  April 
I  took  some  larvae  of  Epunda  lichenea  which  fed  upon  Primrose,  and 
emerged  in  due  course  during  September.  The  Dianthcecice  seemed 
very  scarce  this  year  ;  even  D.  capsophila  was  hardly  to  be  found. 
On  June  30th,  I  took  Venusia  canibrica,  which  is  probably  the  first  record 
from  Howth ;  Birchall  gives  but  one  locality — Powerscourt.  In  July, 
Aplecta  nehulosa  appeared  at  sugar  amid  swarms  of  Xylophasia  nionoglypha. 
In  September,  A  gratis  precox  and  Cilix  glaucata  came  to  light. 

G.  V.  Hart,  Dublin. 


Woodcocks  nesting:  in  Co.  Wicklow.— Lt.-Col.  Bayly  writes  in 
Zoologist  for  November,  that  a  note  in  his  diary  records  that  on  August 
3rd,  1866,  five  Woodcocks,  two  old  and  three  young  birds,  were  seen  by 
him  in  the  woods  at  Ballyarthur. 


IVIarten  In  Co.  Westmeath. — I  have  found  an  entry  in  an  old 
game-book  that  has  been  kept  at  this  house  since  the  year  1814,  to  the 
effect  that  a  Pine  Marten  was  killed  at  Knock  Drin,  in  the  winter  of 
1845-6.  The  exact  date  is  not  specified  ;  but  it  was  on  some  day  between 
October  23rd,  1845,  and  January  3rd,  1846. 

H.  C.  LEVINGE  (in  Zoologist  for  November). 


Kitchen  Middens,  Co.  Doneg^al. — I  think  Mr.  Harte,  County 
Surveyor,  was  the  first  to  draw  attention  to  these  in  N.  E.  Donegal,  in  a 
paper  read  before  the  R. G.S.I.  Afterwards  they  were  recorded  by  Mr. 
Mahony,  M.R.I. A,,  of  Ramelton,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Glasgow 
Society.  But  neither  of  the  explorers  recorded  worked  implements  or 
pottery.  Subsequently,  when  I  saw  them  I  concluded  that,  as  in  Antrim, 
the  remains  of  some  of  the  pots  in  which  the  water  was  loaded  ought  to 
be  found.  I  carefully  searched,  but  found  none.  It  is  therefore  extremely 
interesting  to  me  to  learn  that  Mr.  Welch  has  been  more  successful.  I 
hope  he  will  follow  up  his  find  with  worked  implements,  as  they  ought 
to  be  there  similarly  as  in  the  Kitchen  Middens  of  S.  W,  Donegal, 

G.  H.  KiNAHAN,  Fairview,  Dublin. 

22  Thcbish  Naturalist. 



Recent  donations  comprise  a  Chough  from  R.  Brennan,  Esq.  ;  a  pair 
of  Pigeons  from  Master  W.  Stubbs  ;  a  Heron  from  H.  C.  Carey,  Esq ;  a 
Guinea-pig  from  J.  Condon,  Esq.;  a  Owl  and  a  Sparrow-hawk 
from  Captain  Carpendale ;  a  Persian  Cat  from  ]\Iiss  Maher;  a  Pheasant 
from  W.  J.  Williams,  Esq.  ;  and  a  Herring-gull  from  R.  V.  Sinclair,  Esq, 
A  number  of  fish,  including  Gunfish,  Catfish,  Bass,  Carp,  Tench,  &c., 
have  been  purchased  for  the  aquarium. 

3,500  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  November. 


November  15th.— The  Club  met  at  Mr.  G.  H.  CarpENTER'vS,  who 
showed  rows  of  teeth  on  the  front  tarsi  of  species  of  Corixa.  These, 
drawn  across  the  edge  of  the  face  of  the  insect,  are  believed  to  produce  a 
stridulation.  They  were  described  and  figured  by  exhibitor  in  the 
Irish  Naturalist  for  December,  1894  (p.  253). 

Prof.  Cole  exhibited  a  section  of  a  rock  found  in  an  old  collection, 
labelled  "  Pyromerine,  I.  of  Elba."  The  peculiarity  of  this  specimen  lies 
in  the  fact  that  the  spherulites  consist  of  a  well-developed  soda-horn- 
blende, the  delicate  needles  of  which  spread  outward  from  certain  centres 
through  a  grovmd  of  minute  micropegmatite,  the  latter  being  formed  as 
usual  of  quartz  and  felspar.  The  spherulites  in  the  old  "  pyromerides  " 
of  Corsica  are,  on  the  other  hand,  of  the  ordinary  felspathic  type,  but 
developed  on  a  large  scale. 

Mr.  Moore  showed  Chlaviydococats pluvialis,  Br,  a  curious  and  interest- 
ing species  of  very  varying  nature,  both  as  to  size  and  shape  as  well  as 
colour.  Some  of  the  individuals  w-ere  green,  others  red  or  brown,  and 
partially  green  and  partially  red.  It  belongs  to  the  Volvocineas  and  is 
closely  allied  to  the  "red  snow"  C/ila/nydococciis  nivalis.  The  specimens 
had  been  found  under  the  down-pipe  from  the  roof  of  Roman  Catholic 
Church  near  Glasnevin,  the  stones  under  the  spout  appearing  as  if  they 
had  received  a  coat  of  red  paint. 

Mr.  M'Ardle  exhibited  a  specimen  of  llcrhirta  adiinca,  Dicks  (B.  Gr.), 
a  liverwort  which  he  collected  last  May  on  Connor  Hill  near  Dingle, 
where  it  grows  in  large  tufts.  The  leaves  are  arranged  in  four  roM's  of  a 
bright  yellow  colour,  ovate  lanceolate  in  outline,  secund,  deeply  divided 
into  two  attenuated  lobes.  Their  structure  is  interesting ;  the  cells  are 
well  defined  ;  those  at  the  base  of  the  leaf  and  along  the  centre  of  its  two 
segments  are  linear,  and  of  a  different  shape  from  the  others,  and  have 
thicker  walls  forming  a  pseudo-nerve  ;  the  outer  cells  are  crenated,  with 
the  surface  raised  into  delicate  stride.  This  distinct  plant  is  held  by  many 
good  authorities  to  be  the  Irish  form  of  a  Himala3'an  liverwort  collected  by 
Sir  J.  D.  Hooker,  known  under  the  name  oi  Sendtmra  junipcrinay  Swartz. 

Dr.  M'WeENEY  showed  cultures  and  slides  of  Strt'p(olhrix  nigra  Gas- 
perini,  a  peculiar  form  intermediate  in  position  between  the  Schizomycetes 
and  the  higher  Eungi,  found  by  him  in  a  brownish  stratum  of  clay  about 
three  feet  below  the  surface  at  the  Richmond  Asylum,  Dublin.  The 
organism  consists  of  tufted  masses  of  branching  threads  resembling 
mycelium,  were  it  not  for  their  extreme  tenuity  (.5 — \\i).  The  colonies 
on  various  nutrient  materials  become  surrounded  by  a  very  conspicuous 
brownish-black  pigment.  When  they  have  attained  a  certain  age  they 
become  whitish  and  flocculent  at  the  periphery.  This  corresponds  to 
the  formation  of  aerial  branches  the  apices  of  which  swell  up,  and  come 
to  contain  minute  spores.  The  ray-fungus,  to  which  the  now  well-known 
Actinomycosis  is  due,  belongs  to  the  genus  Strepiothrix  and  is  closely 
allied  to  the  present  species,  which  was  first  found  in  earth  and  soil  about 
two  years  ago  by  Gasperini  and  subsequently  rather  abundantly  in  the 
air  of  Rome  and  other  places  in  Italy  by  Rossi  Doria.  This  is  the  first 
note  of  its  occurrence  in  the  British  Isles, 

P7'oceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  23 

BEI.FAST  Naturai.  History  and  PhiIvOSophicai.  Society. 

November  13th. — The  seventy-fourth  session  was  opened  in  the 
Museum,  College  Square  North,  when  the  inaugural  address  was  delivered 
by  the  President  (Mr.  Robert  L1.0YD  Patterson,  j.p.,  f.i,.s.) 

Mr.  Patterson  said  that,  on  assuming  the  presidential  chair  at  that  the 
opening  meeting  of  the  seventy-fourth  session  of  their  Society,  he  was 
pleased  at  being  able  to  congratulate  his  fellow-members  on  its  continued 
vitality  and  activity,  notwithstanding  its  advancing  years.  To  the 
thoughtfulness  of  a  lady — a  life-long  friend  andwell-wisher  of  the  Society, 
the  late  Miss  Thompson— they  were  indebted  for  the  bequest  of  an 
admirable  portrait  of  her  brother,  Mr.  William  Thompson,  one  of  the 
most  distinguished  of  their  former  Presidents.  A  member  had  presented 
a  very  good  likeness  of  another  former  President,  Mr.  Robert  Patterson, 
while  to  a  valued  and  useful  member,  Mr.  Swanston,  they  were  much  in- 
debted for  the  recent  gift  of  a  bust  of  one  of  the  most  eminent  naturalists 
the  century  had  produced — Professor  Edward  Forbes — a  man  of  truly  re- 
markable powers  and  brilliant  genius.  The  three  had  been  united  in  bonds 
of  the  closest  friendship,  cemented  by  a  community  of  taste  and  of  interest 
in  certain  branches  of  science,  a  pursuit  which  was  to  Forbes  a  profession : 
to  Thompson — a  man  of  means  and  leisure — an  occupation  ;  but  to 
Patterson — a  man  of  business — merely  a  relaxation.  It  occurred  to  him 
(the  President)  that  the  acquisition  by  the  Society  almost  simultaneously 
of  these  mementoes  of  the  three  friends  might  fittingly  be  made  the 
occasion  of  a  brief  review  of  their  lives.  He  could  not  recall  Mr  Forbes. 
He  knew  he  had  seen  him  ;  but  he  remembered  Mr.  Thompson  very  well 
indeed.  He  was  the  first  of  the  three  to  be  called  away.  After  speaking 
of  the  early  life  of  Mr.  Thompson,  the  President  pointed  out  that  his  first 
contribution  to  the  proceedings  of  one  of  the  English  learned  societies 
seemed  to  have  been  in  1833 — a  communication  on  the  iVrctic  Tern  and 
other  rare  birds  observed  in  Ireland,  made  to  the  Zoological  Society 
of  London.  From  that  period  up  to  the  time  of  his  premature  and 
lamented  death  he  was  a  frequent  and  valued  contributor  to  the  different 
English  scientific  journals. 

As  to  Robert  Patterson,  he  should  for  obvious  reasons  say  less.       He 

survived  his  friend  Thompson  exactly  twenty  years.  His  was  an  uneventful, 

busy,  happy  life,  passed  in  a  business  to  which  he  had  been  brought  up, 

which  he  inherited  from  his  father,  and  left  to  his  eldest  son.    With  him 

literature  and  science,  although  a  passion,  were  merely  a  relaxation,  not 

an  occupation.     His  books  were  written  in  the  leisure  of  his  evenings  at 

home,  and  published  with  the  hope  of  enlisting  more  general  interest  in 

the  study  of  Natural  History.    He  was  one  of  the  earliest,  strongest,  and 

most  consistent  advocates  for  the  adoption  of  Natural  History  as  a  regular 

part  of  the  education  of  our  youth,  and  he  lived  to  see  the  realisation  of 

much     of    his     dream.         Mr.     Patterson     was    one     of    the     seven 

founders  of  the  Society  in    182 1.      He  passed  through   almost  every 

minor  office  in  it  till  1852,  when  on  Mr.  Thompson's  death  he  was  elected 

President,an  office  which  hesubsequently  filledon  more  than  oneoccasion. 

Referring  to  Professor   Forbes,  the  speaker  said  he  was  an  original  and 

commanding  genius,  and  a  most  interesting  personality.    He  was  born  at 

Douglas.  Isle  of  Man,  on  the  12th  February,  1815,  and  died  at  Edinburgh 

on  the  i8th  November,  1854,  aged  only  thirty-nine  years  and  nine  months. 

During  his  short  life  he  accomplished  an  enormous  amount  of  work. 

Mr.  Patterson  then  gave  some  very  interesting  particulars  of  Forbes's 

life,  taken  from  his  biography.   Of  him  it  was  no  exaggeration  to  say  that 

his  was  a  most  original,  versatile,  and  brilliant  intellect  of  the  highest 

order.      His  early  death  was  an  irreparable  loss  to  the  whole  scientific 

world  of  the  period. 

The   President  of  the  Belfast  Queen's  College  (Rev.  Dr.  Hamii^Ton) 
moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  President  for  his  address. 

Mr,  Robert  Young,  j,p.,  seconded  the  motion,  which  was    passed 
by  acclamation,  and  the  meeting  then  coucluded, 

24  -l-he  Irish  Nahiralist 

Bei^fast  Naturai^tsts'  Fiki,d  Ci^ub. 

November  2oTh.— The  President  (Mr.  F.  W.  Lockwood,  C.E.) 
delivered  his  openiiif^  address.  He  congratulated  the  Field  Club  upon 
its  continued  prosperity  and  the  recent  great  increase  of  zeal  as  indicated 
by  the  formation  of  various  subsections,  such  as  the  Microscopical 
Committee,  the  Celtic  Class,  the  Photographic  Committee,  and  the 
Geological  Committee,  all  of  which  were  doing  good  work.  He  then 
went  on  to  comment  at  greater  length  upon  the  investigations  by  the 
Geological  Committee  into  glacial  plienomena  generally.  The  various 
changes  of  opinion  on  this  question  were  commented  upon,  and  the 
principal  theories  upon  the  Great  Ice  Age  described  at  some  length.  In 
conclusion,  the  speaker  remarked  that  it  was  singular  how  little  use 
appears  to  have  been  made  of  the  microscope  in  these  investigations. 
Marine  claj's  almost  invariably  yield  specimens  of  foraminifera  and 
kindred  forms,  which  are  strictly  sea- water  genera,  yet  except  by  their 
fellow-member,  Mr.  Joseph  Wright,  the  Boulder  clays  do  not  appear  to 
have  been  systematically  searched  for  them.  So  far  as  this  section  of  the 
country  was  concerned  the  Geological  Committee  of  the  Club  could  not 
do  better  than  in  continuing  the  work  they  had  so  energetically  com- 
menced, and  if  they  could  persuade  a  sufficient  number  of  competent 
observers  in  Great  Britain  to  take  up  the  microscopic  investigations  of 
the  Boulder  clays  there,  the  geologists  of  Britain  would  be  in  a  fair  way 
to  solve  the  great  glacial  problem. 

Mr.  Joseph  Wright,  F.G.S.,  mentioned  that  with  geologists  in  the 
North  of  Ireland  it  had  always  been  considered  as  a  marine  deposit,  and 
so  long  ago  as  1841  General  Portlock,  in  his  report  on  the  geology  of 
Londonderry,  recorded  the  occurrence  of  marine  shells  in  this  drift. 
Subsequently  Mr.  S.  A.  Stewart  published  in  the  Club's  Proceedings  a 
list  of  the  mollusca  of  the  Boulder  clay  in  which  he  recorded  the 
occurrence  of  shells  from  a  number  of  North  ot  Ireland  localities, 
proving  that  the  clay  in  question  was  fossiliferous.  Some  of  the  bivalve 
mollusca,  especially  two  species  of  Ltda,  were  found  by  him  having  the 
valves  united,  showing  that  these  species  must  have  lived  on  the  spot  in 
which  they  were  found.  Mr.  Wright  made  a  microscopic  examination 
of  the  same  clays,  and  in  every  case  he  found  them  to  contain  foramini- 
fera. He  also  met  with  foraminifera  in  many  samples  of  the  clay  which 
were  devoid  of  molluscan  remains,  these  tiny  rhizopods  being  as  perfect 
as  when  brought  up  by  the  dredge  from  our  existing  seas.  From  that 
time  up  to  the  present  further  examinations  of  the  Boulder  clay  have 
been  made  and  always  yielded  similar  results.  He  also  stated  that,  through 
the  courtesy  of  a  Scotch  geologist,  Mr.  James  Neilson,  he  received  five 
samples  of  Boulder  clay  from  the  vicinity  of  Glasgow,  in  all  of  which 
foraminifera  were  present.  In  addition  to  these,  he  received  from  Mr, 
John  Stears,  of  Hull,  a  packet  of  Boulder  clay  from  that  locality.  This 
sample  of  English  Boulder  clay  was  also  found  to  contain  foraminifera. 
These  results  are  interesting  by  reason  of  the  common  occurrence  of 
these  marine  microzoa,  most  English  and  Scotch  geologists  having 
been  hitherto  of  the  opinion  that  the  Boulder  clay  was  the  result  of  land 
ice,  and  had  not  a  marine  origin. 

Mr.  A.  Percy  Hoskins,  PM.C,  F.C.S.,  read  a  carefully-prepared  analy- 
tical paper  on  a  sample  of  glauconite  from  Woodburn,  Carrickfergus. 

Mr.  R.  LivOYD  Praeger  made  some  general  remarks  on  the  history 
and  work  of  the  different  Irish  Clubs,  and  brought  forward  a  scheme  for  a 
union  of  all  the  Field  Clubs  of  Ireland,  and  for  a  general  conference 
next  summer. 

The  President  and  Mr.  Joseph  Wright  spoke  in  favour  of  the 
scheme,  and  Mr.  W11.1.IAM  Gray,  M.R.I. A.,  offered  some  criticisms. 

Mr.  F.  J.  Bigger,  Honorary  Secretary,  in  supporting  the  scheme,  said 
it  was  not  contemplated  that  the  individuality  of  the  clubs,  nor  their 
power  over  their  own  work,  should  be  interfered  with  in  any  way,  but 
that  a  Central  Committee  of  all  the  Clubs  should  be  appointed  for 
carrying  on  general  work. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Patterson,  1M.R.I.A.,  also  spoke  in  favour  of  the  scheme. 

Irish  Naturai^ist,  Voi,.  IV.] 

[Pl,AT^   2. 


©Ije  ^vi^ij  ^ainvali&t 

Vol.  IV.  FEBRUARY,  1895.  No.  2. 


(Read  before  the  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  December  nth,  1894.) 

The  joint  meeting  of  the  Dublin,  Cork,  and  I^imerick  Field 
Clubs,  held  at  Fermo}'  during  the  past  summer,  will  remain  a 
pleasant  memory  to  all  who  were  privileged  to  take  part  in  it. 
Of  the  various  excursions  undertaken  on  that  occasion,  the 
most  novel  and  fascinating  to  the  majority  of  those  present 
was,  doubtless,  the  exploration,  on  the  afternoon  of  July  6th, 
of  the  famous  caverns  situated  in  the  Carboniferous  lyime- 
stone,  near  Mitchelstown.  An  interesting  account  of  the  topo- 
graphy of  these  caves,  illustrated  by  a  map,  has  recently  been 
published^  by  Rev.  Courtenay  Moore,  Rector  of  Mitchelstown. 
Upon  the  occasion  of  our  visit,  an  early  start  was  made  from 
Fermoy,the  distance  to  Mitchelstown  being  about  fifteen  miles. 
Before  arriving  at  the  entrance  to  the  cave,  our  party  made  a 
circuit  and  drove  a  short  distance  up  one  of  the  gorges  on  the 
southern  slope  of  the  Galtees.  This  fine  mountain-range 
rising  to  a  height  of  3,000  feet,  is,  like  most  of  the  ranges  of 
southern  Ireland  which  run  from  east  to  west,  composed  of 
sandstones,  grits,  and  conglomerates,  ascribed  to  the  Old  Red 
or  basement- Carboniferous  formation,  and  thrown  into  an 
anticlinal  fold.  The  synclinal  areas  between  the  ranges  are 
outcrops  of  the  Carboniferous  I^imestone,  and  it  is  on  the  face 
of  a  hill  of  this  rock,  opposite  the  Galtees,  at  a  few  miles' 
distance,  and  about  400  feet  above  sea-level,  that  the  entrance 
to  the  cave  is  situated.  The  excavation  of  such  caves  in  lime- 
stone through  the  chemical  action  of  gases  dissolved  in  subter- 
ranean streams,  and  their  subsequent  adornment  with  stalactites 
and  stalagmites  by  the  deposition  of  salts  held  in  solution  by 

\/ourn.  Cork  Hist,  Arch>  Soc.  vol.  iii.,  1894,  pp.  1-5. 


26  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

waters  percolating  through  the  rock,  are  sufficiently  familiar. 
The  Mitchelstown  Cave  will  not  disappoint  either  geologist  or 
artist  in  search  of  interesting  or  beautiful  forms  among  its 
arches,  pendants,  and  columns. 

To  the  zoologists  of  our  party,  however,  the  interest  of  the 
place  centred  in  the  fact  of  its  being  the  only  cave  in  the  British 
Isles  known  to  be  inhabited  by  a  member  of  the  peculiar  blind, 
subterranean  fauna,  which,  through  explorations  of  the 
European  and  North  American  caverns,  now  includes  some 
hundreds  of  species.  In  1857,  I^i"-  H.  Perceval  Wright  and 
the  late  Mr.  A.  H.  Haliday  discovered  here  a  minute  insect  of 
the  order  Collembola,  which  they  described  in  a  paper  read 
before  the  British  Association  meeting  at  Dublin  that  year,' 
and  identified  doubtfully  with  Lipura  stilicidii,  Schiodte,  in- 
habiting the  Aldesberg  grotto,  Carniola.  To  re-find  this  species 
was  therefore  our  object,  and  we  hoped  also  that  the  discovery 
of  some  other  inhabitants  of  the  place  might  reward  our 

The  hill  in  which  the  cave  is  situated  forms  part  of  a  small 
farm,  the  occupiers  of  which  are  well  acquainted  with  the 
passages,  and  act  as  guides.  After  an  informal  luncheon  on 
the  roadside,  our  part}^,  provided  with  candles,  descended  the 
sloping  passage,  and  ladder  which  lead  to  the  depths  below. 
The  time  at  our  disposal  was  only  two  hours — far  too  short  to 
explore  all  the  galleries  and  chambers — and  we  did  not  reach 
the  underground  river,  in  which  Dr.  Wright  and  Mr.  Haliday 
sought  vainly  for  blind  crustaceans.  The  rate  of  progress  was 
necessarily  slow,  so  that  we  were  able  to  examine  the  floor 
and  sides  of  the  passages  with  some  thoroughness,  in  our 
search  for  insects.  At  no  great  distance  from  the  entrance,  I 
was  delighted  to  find  three  small  pale  spiders  (a  male  and  two 
females)  crawling  over  one  of  the  large  blocks  of  rock  on  the 
floor.  I  recognised  them  as  belonging  to  the  genus  Porrho?nina, 
and  hoped  the}^  might  prove  to  be  referable  to  F.  viyops,  Simon, 
described  from  a  cave  in  southern  France,  and  with  only  the 
female  known.  Subsequent  examination  proved  this  hope 
well-founded.  Collecting  underground  was  somewhat  difficult, 
the  necessity  for  carrying  a  candle  seriously  reducing  the 
number  of  fingers  available  for  seizing  and  bottling  specimens. 
Under  these  conditions  we  willingly  came  to  each  other's  help 

W<2/.  Hist,  Rev.t  vol,  iv,,  1857,  Proc.  pp.  231-241,  pi.  xviii. 

Animals  fou?id  in  the  Mitchelstown  Cave*  27 

in  the  matter  of  showing  a  light.  My  friends  and  colleagues, 
Messrs.  A.  R.  Nichols  and  J.  N.  Halbert,  were  indefatigable  in 
searching  during  the  whole  time  of  our  stay  below-ground, 
and  their  efforts  were  heartily  seconded  by  several  of  the  Cork 
members,  and  Mr.  F.  Neale  from  Limerick.  Mr.  Nichols  took 
the  single  specimen  of  the  interesting  species  of  mite,  Gama- 
sus  attenuat2is,  described  below ;  while  it  was  Mr.  Halbert 
who,  in  one  of  the  large  chambers  at  a  distance  from  the 
entrance,  found  the  first  specimen  of  the  Lipura  discovered 
by  Messrs.  Wright  and  Haliday.  A  fair  number  of  examples 
of  this  insect  were  secured.  They  occurred,  mostly  beneath 
stones,  among  the  very  fine,  moist  red  clay  which,  in  many 
places,  carpets  the  floor  of  the  chambers.  OwXy  a  minority  of 
the  specimens  proved  to  be  adult — a  similar  experience  to  that 
of  Dr.  Wright.  In  the  farthest  chamber  w^hich  we  reached, 
much  amusement  was  caused  by  the  discover}^  of  an  animal 
which  was  clearly  not  a  member  of  the  cave  fauna,  but,  like 
ourselves,  a  visitor  from  the  outer  world.  This  was  a  common 
Frog,  whose  sojourn  in  darkness  was  brought  to  a  startling 
end  by  the  advent  of  our  candle-bearing  procession.  On  the 
way  back,  I  was  so  fortunate  as  to  find  beneath  a  stone  a  fully- 
grown  specimen  of  another  blind  Collembolan,  readily  differen- 
tiated from  the  Lipura  by  the  possession  of  a  well-developed 
*'  spring."  Subsequent  examination  revealed  the  presence  of 
one  or  two  young  individuals  of  the  same  species  among  the 
specimens  oi Lipura  which  had  been  collected.  This  **spring- 
tail"'  is  perhaps  the  most  interesting  animal  which  we  found. 
It  belongs  to  the  genus  Sinella,  Brooks,^  though  it  is  hard  to 
find  any  good  character  by  which  to  separate  it  from  Degeeria 
caverna?2wi,  Packard,  described  from  specimens  taken  in 
various  caves  in  the  United  States.  The  latter  species,  how- 
ever,  according  to  Packard,  has,  on  the  feet,  distinct  clubbed 
(tenent)  hairs  which  are  never  present  in  Sinella;  so  I  feel  com- 
pelled to  describe  the  Mitchelstown  insect  as  new  to  science. 

'  In  the  preliminary  report  of  the  expedition  (/rw/i  NaL,  1894,  p.  183), 
this  insect  was  wrongly  recorded  as  Te/iipL'tonia  crystallina,  Miill.  I  was  led 
into  this  error,  on  a  hurried  examination,  by  the  white  colour  and  ringed 
terminal  joint  of  the  antenna.  Subsequent  study  showed  an  entire 
absence  of  scales,  effectually  removing  the  insect  from  Templetonia.        — 

*  /ourn.  Limi.  Soc.  (Zoo/.),  vol,  xvi.,  1883,  p.  541. 

A  2 

28  .  The  Irish  Naluralisi, 

Near  the  entrance  we  found  two  or  three  earthworms,  one  of 
which  I  have  sent  to  the  Rev.  H.  Friend,  who  pronounces  it 
to  be  Allurus  JIaviis,  a  form  described  bj^  himself  and  not 
hitherto  recorded  from  Ireland.  He  has  kindly  furnished  a 
short  account  of  this  worm,  which  will  be  found  at  the  end  of 
the  present  paper  (p.  35). 

I  now  proceed  to  describe  in  detail  the  four  other  animals 
which  we  found. 




Porrhomma  myops,  Simon. 

(Plate  2,  figs.  1-3.) 
This  species  was  described  by  M.  Simon*  from  a  female  taken  in  the 
cavern  of  Espezel,  Department  Aude,  in  southern  France  Another 
female  has  since  been  found  in  Dorsetshire  by  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge 
(probably  in  some  underground  locality),  and  this  specimen  has  recently 
been  recorded  and  (in  part)  figured  by  Rev.  F.  O.  P.  Cambridge.-  One  of 
my  females  hasbeen  compared  by  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge  with  his  specimen 
(which  was  named  by  M.  Simon),  and  he  kindly  informs  me  that  he 
cannot  differentiate  them.  It  is  possible,  in  this  genus,  that  two  indis- 
tinguishable females  might  have  to  be  referred  to  distinct  species,  were 
their  males  known.  I  think  it  better,  however,  to  consider  the  spider 
from  Mitchelstown  as  P.  myops  until  a  male  shall  have  been  discovered  in 
the  French  cave,  and  shown  to  be  distinct  from  that  now  described. 

Length  of  male,  2  mm. ;  of  female,  2.5  mm. 

Cephalothorax  and  falces,  pale  orange ;  head-portion  high  and  convex, 
specially  in  the  male,  clothed  with  rows  of  hairs,  which  are  longer  in  the 
male  (fig.  i). 

Eyes  very  small ;  hind-centrals  two  diameters  apart,  fore-centrals 
nearly  in  contact ;  laterals  in  contact,  four  or  five  diameters  from  centrals. 
In  my  male  the  centrals  are  almost  obsolete.  Clypeus  twice  the  width  of 
ocular  area  (fig.  2). 

Palpal  organ  of  male  with  strong  rounded  prominence  beneath  falci- 
form process  (more  marked  than  in  the  nearly  allied  species  P.  egeria^ 
Simon);  apex  of  bulb  regularly  conical,  somewhatblunt  (obliquely  conical 
and  sharp  in  P.  egeria),  with  two  strong  curved  spines  (one  bent  in  form 
of  S,  not  present  in  P.  egeria)  (fig.  i). 

Legs  very  pale  straw  colour,  long  and  slender;  metatarsi  without 
spines.  Femur  of  first  pair  with  one  dorsal  spine  about  the  middle,  and 
one  lateral  towards  the  apex.  Femur  of  second  pair  with  one  dorsal 
spine  (female) ;  without  any  spine  (male).  The  femora  of  the  male, 
specially  the  first  pair,  longer  and  more  slender  than  those  of  the  female. 

^  Les  Arachnides  de  France,  vol.  v.,  p.  358.     Paris,  1884. 

2  Ann'  Mag,  Nat.  Hist.  (6),  vol.  xiii.,  1894,  pp.  100,  I07,  pi.  ii.,  fig.  6. 

Afiijnals  found  in  the  Mitchehtoivn  Cave.  29 

Abdomen  very  pale  greenish.  Epigyue  of  female  with  large  cavity, 
front  margin  rounded,  hind  margin  straight,  with  small  central  pro- 
minence (fig.  3). 

M.  Simon  describes  thirteen  species  of  this  genus,  of  which  no  less  than 
five  are  inhabitants  of  caves,  while  most  of  the  others  are  found  under 
stones  and  in  similar  concealed  situations.  A  colony  of  a  British  species, 
P.  micropthhahman,  Cb.,  was  found  in  i860,  by  Dr.  Meade, ^  established  at 
the  bottom  of  a  Durham  coalpit.  Quite  recently, ^  Rev.  F.  O.  P.  Cam- 
bridge has  recorded  P.  egeria  from  the  Somerset  cavern  known  as  Wookey 
Hole,  and  remarks  that  sometimes  the  hinder,  sometimes  the  front  pair 
of  central  eyes,  are  aborted.  P.  egeria  has,  however,  been  taken  in 
numbers  near  Edinburgh, ^  running  on  railings  in  sunshine,  and  thus 
appears  to  live  indifferently  above  or  underground.  P.  myops,  on  the 
other  hand,  seems  a  true  subterranean  species.  It  is  very  nearly  allied  to 
P,  egeria,  but  may  be  distinguished  by  the  characters  of  the  male  palp, 
given  above.  Moreover,  P.  egeria  has  three  spines  on  the  first,  and  two  on 
the  second  femur.  It  is  also  a  somewhat  larger  spider  than  P.  niyops,  and 
decidedly  less  pale  and  washed  out  in  appearance.  Even  the  specimens 
from  Wookey  Hole  (a  pair  of  which  Mr.  F.  Cambridge  has  generously 
sent  me  for  comparison)  do  not  show  the  sickly  aspect  which  charac- 
terises P,  7nyops  from  the  Mitchelstown  cavern. 

The  excessively  small  eyes  of  this  spider,  and  their  tendency  to  become 
altogether  obsolete,  are  in  accordance  with  the  subterranean  dwelling 
place.  The  small  size  of  the  eyes  is,  however,  characteristic  of  the  entire 
genus,  even  for  those  species  which  live  in  the  open  air. 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  underground  species  oiPorrhomnia  are  omitted 
from  the  list  of  European  cave  animals  given  in  Prof.  Packard's  exhaus- 
tive memoir  upon  the  cave-fauna  of  North  America.*  There  is,  however, 
a  spider  described  (by  Mr.  J.  H.  Emerton)  in  that  memoir  under  the 
name  of  Linyphia  incerta,  which  certainly  belongs  to  the  genus  PorrhommUy 
and  is,  I  believe,  identical  with  our  Mitchelstown  P.  jnyops.  Mr.  Emer- 
ton's  figures  of  the  male  palpal  organs  of  his  species  show  the  regular 
conical  apex  of  the  bulb  and  the  two  curved  apical  spines  which  charac- 
teirise  those  organs  in  P.  myops.  If  a  comparison  of  types  should  justify 
this  opinion,  Mr.  Emerton's  name,  having  been  first  published  in  1875,^ 
will  take  priority  of  M.  Simon's,  and  our  species  will  have  to  be  known  as 
Porrhomma  ijtcerta.  This  North  American  -spider — which,  at  any  rate,  is 
extremely  near  the  Mitchelstown  species — has  occurred  in  the  Fountain 
Cave,  V'irginia,  and  in  the  Bat  Cave,  Kentucky.  Mr.  Emerton  states  that 
in  different  individuals  a  variable  number  of  the  central  eyes  may  be 

1  Zoologist,  i860. 

2  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  (6),  vol.  xv.,  1895,  p.  36,  pi.  iv.,  fig.  13. 

2  Proc.  R.  Phys.  Soc.  Edin.,  1894,  p.  560. 

*  Mem.  Nat.  Acad.  Set.  (Washington),  vol.  iv.,  1888. 

^  Amer.  Nat.,  vol.  ix. 

JO-  •'  The  Irish  Naturalist, 



Camasus  attenuatus  (Koch),  Berlese. 
(Plate  2,  figs.  4-9.) 
My  best  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.   A.    D.    Michael,  F.LS.,  for  kindly 

suggesting,  from  my  rough  sketches,  this  identification.     He  states  the 

species  to  be  not  uncommon  in  England  among  dead  leaves,  &c. 

Length,  1*3  mm.  Pale  fawn  colour.  Body  elongated.  Epistome  (fig.  6) 
terminating  with  three  points,  of  which  the  central  is  the  longest.  Man- 
dibles (fig.  7)  with  evenly  rounded  fingers,  the  upper  with  a  tooth  near 
apex.  Second  pair  of  legs  (fig.  5)  greatly  thickened,  third  joint  with  a 
long,  curved  blunt  tooth  beneath  at  base,  and  a  shorter  bifid  process ; 
fourth  and  fifth  joints  with  short,  blunt  processes  at  apex;  sixth  joint 
without  any  process. 

This  mite  is  closely  allied  to  G.  magnus,  Kramer^  with  which  the  form 
of  the  epistome  agrees  almost  exactly.  It  differs  from  that  species 
however  in  the  even  shape  of  the  mandibles,  which  have  no  projection 
above.  From  G.  subkrrauens,  Kramer-,  it  may  be  distinguished  by  the 
sides  of  the  epistome  being  straight,  not  convex,  as  well  as  by  the 
armature  of  the  second  pair  of  legs.  In  this  last  character,  as  well  as  in 
general  aspect,  our  species  agrees  nearly  with  a  Carniolan  cave  species, 
G.  niveus,  WankeP,  but  in  that  form  the  epistome  is  figured  as  ending  in 
a  single  pointed  process. 

All  the  Gamasidae  are  blind;  several  species  are  known  from  caves, 
and  many  live  in  concealment  beneath  stones,  dead  leaves,  &c. 




SInella  cavernicola,  sp.  nov. 

(PI.  2,  figs.  11-16.) 
Length  of  head  and  body,  2-5  mm.    White.     Eyes  wanting.     Antennae 

nearly  twice  as  long  as  head  ;  terminal  joint  the  longest,  slender,  ringe 
with  clubbed  hairs  (fig.  12).  Tarsal  joints  without  tenent  hairs,  large 
claw  of  first  pair  of  feet  with  small  tooth  (fig.  13a),  others  without 
distinct  tooth  (fig.  13).  Fourth  abdominal  segment  hardly  as  long  as  the 
three  preceding.  Spring  two-thirds  as  long  as  body ;  terminal  claws 
evenly  curved,  with  a  small  tooth  as  in  S-  curviseia,  Brook,  No  clubbed 
hairs  on  thorax,  but  a  large  number  of  short  ones  on  hindmost  abdominal 
segments  and  on  spring. 

The  genus  {Sinclla)  to  which  this  species  evidently  belongs,  is  distin- 
guished from  Isotovia  by  the  possession  of  clubbed  hairs,  from  Enlomobrya 
{Degeeria)  by   the  absence  of  tenent  hairs  on  the  feet.    It  is  very  vsimilar  to 

*  Arch,  fur  Nattirgeschichte,  xlii.,  1876,  p.  91.  pi.  iv.,  fig.  9,  pi.  v.,  ff.  14,33. 
2  T.  c,  p.  92,  pi.  v.,  fig.  24. 

^  Siiz.  Kaiserl.  Akad.  IVini,  {Mat. -Aat, -Class),  vol.  xliii.,  1S61,  p.  262,  pi. 
iv.,  fF.  8-10. 

Animals  fozmd  in  the  Mitchehtowji  Cave.  31 

the  tj'pe  species  .S".  airviseta,  Brook,  but  may  be  readily  distinguished  by 
the  absence  of  eyes,  of  teeth  to  the  hinder  foot-claws,  and  of  long  clubbed 
ciliated  thoracic  hairs  ;  and  by  the  possession  of  distinct  rings  of  hairs  on 
the  terminal  joint  of  the  antennae.  There  are  some  long  tapering 
finely-ciliated  hairs  (fig.  15)  on  the  second  and  third  abdominal  segments. 
As  in  S.  airviseta,  there  are  a  pair  of  long  ciliated  sheath-hairs  at  the  apex 
of  the  spring  (fig.  14). 

Simlla  cu7-viseta  has  occurred  both  in  the  north  and  south  of  England, 
as  well  as  on  the  Continent,  but  I  do  not  think  it  has  yet  been  recognised 
in  Ireland.  The  presence  of  a  cave-species  so  nearly  related  makes  it 
likely  that  this  or  another  open-air  insect  of  the  genus  will  be  found  here 

For  a  long  time  I  was  disposed  to  consider  S,  cavernicola  identical  with 
Degeeria  cavernay-wn,  Packard ;  but  the  presence  of  a  tenent  hair  on  the 
feet  in  that  species  obliges  us  to  consider  it  a  true  Entotnobrya.  It  is  hard 
to  find  any  other  distinction  which  warrants  the  separation  of  our  insect 
from  the  North  American  spring-tail. 


Lipura  Wrightll,  sp.  nov. 

(Z.  stiliddii,  Wright  and  Haliday). 

(Plate  2,  fig.  10.) 

Length  2  mm.  White.  Antennae  as  long  as  head;  terminal  joint 
the  longest,  conical.  No  ocelli  or  post-antennal  organ.  Head  longer 
thai:  broad,  with  hind-margin  sinuate.  PronotuLn  with  a  constriction 
on  either  side.     Legs  moderately  long  and  stout.     No  anal  spines. 

When  recording  the  capture  of  this  insect,  and  describing  its 
structure,  in  Dr.  Wright's  paper  already  mentioned,  the  late  Mr.  A.  H. 
Haliday  referred  it  with  doubt  to  Schiodte's  species,  and  pointed  out 
various  particulars  in  which  it  differs  from  that  form.  The  most  striking 
of  these  is  the  entire  absence,  in  the  Mitchelstown  insect,  of  the  ocelli 
(according  to  Tullbergand  Sir  J.  Lubbock,  really  the  post-antennal  organ), 
of  which  Mr.  Haliday  could  find  no  trace.  After  so  accurate  an  observer, 
it  is  needless  to  say  that  I  have  also  failed  to  find  the  organ.  The  legs 
and  antennae  of  our  species,  moreover,  are  not  relatively  so  long  and 
slender  as  those  of  L,  stiliddii.  I  am  quite  inclined  to  agree  with  Mr. 
Haliday's  suggestion  that  Schiodte  was^mistaken  in  figuring  all  the 
thoracic  segments  in  his  form  as  divided  into  an  anterior  and  a  posterior 
part  by  a  transverse  constriction.  When  one  is  examining  specimens 
by  transmitted  light,  the  lateral  extensions  of  the  thorax  which  bear 
the  legs  are  readily  to  be  mistaken  for  dorsal  segments.  There  is  on 
either  side  of  the  pronotum  a  constriction  running  in  for  a  very  short 
distance.  This  is  shown  in  Haliday's  figure,  which  represents  the  side 
view  of  the  insect.  I  have  drawn  the  dorsal  aspect,  which  will  enable 
comparison  to  be  made  with  Schiodte's  figure  copied  by  Haliday.  The 
Mitchelstown  species  in  the  length  of  antennae  and  legs  seems  to  be 
intermediate  between  Lipira  stiliddii  and  L.  fimetaria,  Lubb. — another 
white  species  common  in  damp  mould.    While  not  so  slender  as  those  of 

3^  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

the  former,  the  appendages  of  Z.  Wrightii  are  not  so  short  and  stumpy 
as  those  of  the  latter,  which,  however,  our  species  resembles  much  in 
general  structure,  and  in  the  absence  of  anal  spines.  It  seems  probable 
that  it  may  be  really  an  offshoot  of  L.  fimetaria,  modified  for  cave-life, 
the  lengthening  of  antennae  being  a  common  occurrence  in  subterranean 
insects.  These  considerations  have  induced  me  to  give  the  insect  a  new 
name,  and  none  could  be  more  suitable  than  that  of  the  naturalist  whose 
earliest  paper  announced  its  discovery,  and  who  has  since  done  so  much 
to  advance  the  knowledge  of  Irish  Natural  History. 

Reviewing  these  animals,  we  notice  that  (except  the  mite) 
they  all  present  the  characters  of  true  troglodytes.  All 
are  more  or  less  bleached,  the  two  insects  being  perfectly 
white.  The  two  insects  are  totally  blind  (the  mite,  of  course, 
cannot  be  reckoned,  as  it  belongs  to  a  blind  family),  and  the 
spider  is  clearly  in  process  of  becoming  so.  The  peculiar 
modifications  which  cave  animals  have  undergone  have  been 
variously  explained,  and  have  been  much  used  by  recent 
writers  in  discussions  upon  the  factors  of  evolution.  The 
bleaching  and  loss  of  eye-sight  which  these  creatures  exhibit 
are  by  some  attributed  solely  to  their  life  in  total  darkness,  b}^ 
others  to  the  action  of  natural  selection  with  regard  to  some 
portions  of  their  organization  and  its  necessary  cessation 
(panmixia)  with  regard  to  others,  in  the  new  surroundings. 

No  naturalist  doubts  that  these  cave-dwellers  are  the  modi- 
fied descendants  of  inhabitants  of  the  upper  air,  which  were 
provided  with  eyes,  and  coloured  after  the  usual  manner  of 
their  genus.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  production  of 
pigment  is  largely  dependent  upon  the  presence  of  light,  and 
it  seems  very  likely  that  a  life  in  darkness  is  alone  sufficient 
to  account  for  the  bleaching  characteristic  of  cave-dwellers. 
Instances  are  given  by  Professor  Packard  of  individuals  belong- 
ing to  the  open-air  fauna  being  quite  bleached  when  found  in 
caves,  the  loss  of  colour  having  here  occurred  during  the  life- 
time of  the  individual.  On  the  other  hand,  colour  must  be 
absolutely  useless  to  dwellers  in  total  darkness,  to  conceal 
them  either  from  enemies  or  prey,  and  would  therefore  tend  to 
disappear  through  the  cessation  of  selection  of  individuals 
coloured  in  any  particular  way.  Similarly,  the  loss  of  eyes 
may  be  attributed  either  directly  to  disuse  through  a  life  in 
darkness,  or  to  the  cessation  of  selection  with  regard  to  those 
organs,  since  they  can  be  no  longer  of  use  to  their  possessors. 
Professor   Ray    Lankester  has  suggested  that  animals  with 

A7ii7nals  found  in  the  Mitchehtown  Cave.  33 

defective  vision  would  become  segregated  in  caves,  since  those 
with  the  best  eyesight,  when  carried  in,  would  be  most  easily 
able  to  find  their  way  back  to  daylight.  There  is  another 
factor  to  be  taken  into  account,  that  known  as  "economy  of 
nutrition."  There  is  a  general  tendency  among  cave-animals 
to  a  decrease  in  size,  and  their  food  supply  is  undoubtedly  very 
limited.  Hence,  to  get  rid  of  any  useless  organ  would  seem 
to  be  of  considerable  benefit ;  and  this  last  factor  would  be 
more  likely  to  produce  some  effect  among  cave-dwellers  than 
among  species  living  in  the  open  air. 

A  word  as  to  the  nourishment  of  these  cave  animals  may  be 
of  interest.  Springtails  live  on  vegetable  refuse.  The  food 
canal  of  every  specimen  of  the  Lipura  which  we  collected 
was  filled  with  the  fine  red  earth  already  mentioned  as  lining 
the  bottom  of  the  cave.  The  species  of  Lipura  are  generally 
found  in  damp  mould,  &c.,  and  with  this  their  intestines  are 
filled ;  it  appears  therefore  that  they  obtain  their  nutriment 
from  the  vegetable  substances  contained  in  the  mould.  But 
one  would  think  that  the  amount  of  organic  matter  in  the  red 
earth  of  the  cave  must  be  excessively  small.  No  doubt  it  is, 
but  fragments  of  wood,  &c.,  must  be  often  carried  in  by  water, 
while  some  of  the  lower  fungi  find  in  the  caverns  a  congenial 
home.  From  the  disintegration  of  these,  diffused  through 
the  earth,  the  insects  have  to  win  their  precarious  livelihood. 
Dr.  K.  Perceval  Wright  has  kindly  told  me  that  collectors  in 
the  Carniolan  caves  secure  insects  b}^  leaving  pieces  of  wood 
as  traps.  The  creatures  must  gladly  leave  their  precarious 
nourishment  for  the  opportunity  of  such  a  feast.  The  spiders, 
of  course,  live  by  prey,  though  it  seems  they  can  have  but 
little  to  ensnare.  The  habit  of  the  family  to  which  Porrhomma 
wjj/^/5  belongs  isto  spin  aweb  of  irregular,  intercrossing  threads. 
If  the  cave-dwelling  spider  has  maintained  this  habit,  it 
probably  lives  on  insects  which  stray  into  its  dark  abode  from 
the  outer  world.  But  the  fact  that  the  specimens  taken  were 
found  walking  on  the  rocks  rather  suggests  that  they  hunt  for 
the  cave-insects.  Gamasid  mites  are  stated  by  Mr.  A.  D. 
Michaer  to  devour  Lipuridae,  so  Gamasiis  attemiatus  must  find 
suitable  food  in  the  Mitchelstown  cave. 

The    apparent   geographical   distribution    of    the   animals 
demands  a  short  consideration.     The  Lipura  is  hardly  to  be 

'^J'otirn,  Linn,  Soc.  {Zool^  vol.  xv,,  1881. 


34  Thi  Irish  Naturalist. 

separated  from  a  species  found  in  the  caves  of  Carniola,  and 
the  Sinella  is  almost  identical  with  one  inhabiting  the  caves 
of  North  America ;  while  the  spider  is  apparently  the  same  as 
a  cave-dweller  from  the  Mediterranean  district  of  southern 
France,  which  probably  occurs  in  the  North  American  caverns 
also.  Had  we  to  do  with  animals  of  the  upper  fauna,  these 
results,  though  highly  interesting,  would  not  be  without 
parallel  in  species  alread}^  known.  The  identity  of  certain 
Irish  animals  and  plants  with  south  European  (Pyrenean  and 
Mediterranean)  forms  has  long  been  one  of  the  most  marked 
peculiarities  of  our  fauna  and  flora  ;  while  we  possess  at  least 
a  few  North  American  plants  found  nowhere  else  in  Europe. 
But  the  occurrence  of  cave-dwelling  species  with  so  wide  a 
range  is  a  truly  remarkable  phenomenon.  The  caves  cannot 
be  of  any  great  geological  age.  Any  possible  geographical 
connection  which  would  permit  the  migration  of  subterranean 
animals  between  southern  Europe  and  Ireland,  or  between 
Ireland  and  North  America  seems  altogether  out  of  the 
question  within  any  period- during  which  the  fauna  can  have 
been  .specifically  identical  with  that  of  the  present  da}^  The 
onl}"  conclusion  is  that  from  ancestors,  presumably  of  the 
same  genus,  which  took  to  an  underground  life  in  such 
widelj^-separated  localities,  the  similar  conditions  of  the  caves 
have  evolved  descendants  so  similar  that  when  compared, 
they  cannot  or  can  hardly  be  specifically  distinguished  from 
each  other.  Should  the  identifications  suggested  in  this 
paper  stand  the  test  of  a  comparison  of  t3'pes,  we  shall  have 
proof  that  the  independent  development  of  the  same  species, 
under  similar  conditions,  but  in  widely  distant  localities,  has 
taken  place.  It  must  be  granted,  however,  that  cave-con- 
ditions are  so  marked  and  exceptional,  that  it  might  not  be 
safe  to  argue  from  them  as  to  what  may  have  occurred  in  the 
upper  world. 

With  the  exception  of  Mr.  F.  Cambridge's  record  of 
Porrhomina  egcria  from  the  Wookey  Hole,  I  am  not  aware 
of  the  observation  of  members  of  the  subterranean  fauna  in 
an}^  British  cave  except  Mitchelstown.  It  seems  almost 
certain  that  a  careful  search  would  reveal  further  localities 
and  new  species.  The  great  development  of  the  Carboni- 
ferous I,imestone  area  in  Ireland,  and  the  number  of  caverns 
known  to  exist  in  the  formation,  marks  the  country  out  as 

Animals  foimd  i?i  the  Mitchelstowji  Cave.  35 

a  speciall}^  fruitful  field  for  a  research  into  cave-life.  If  a 
couple  of  hours'  collecting  in  one  cave  has  yielded  such 
interesting  results,  what  may  we  not  expect  when  w^e  have 
adequately  searched  all  the  underground  chambers  which  the 
streams  of  ages  have  hollowed  out  in  the  limestone  of  our 
great  central  plain  ? 


Fig.    I.  Porrlwtnma  myops,  Sim.,      -     Male,  side  view,  legs  removed. 
„      2.  do.  -  -       do.,   front  view,  showing  eyes  and 

,,      3.  do.  -  -     Female,  epigyne. 

4.  Gamasics  atteniiatus^  Koch,  -     Male,  dorsal  view. 
5-  do.  -  -      do.,    ventral  view,  with  leg  of  2nd 


6.  do.  -  -      do.,    epistome. 

7.  do.  -  -       do.,    mandible. 

8.  do.  -  -      do.,   foot  of  leg  of  2nd  pair. 

9.  do.  -  -      do.,  „  ,,      3rd     „ 

10.  Lipura  Wrighiii,  sp.n.,        -     Dorsal  view. 

11.  Sinella  cavernioia,  s-^Ai.,        -     Side  view. 

12.  do.  -  -  Portion  of  terminal  joint  of  antenna. 

13.  do.  -  -  Foot  of  3rd  pair  of  legs. 
13A.  do.  -  -  ,,      1st  pair  of  legs. 

14.  do.  -  -  Apex  of  spring. 

15.  do.  -  -     CiHated  hair   from  3rd    abdominal 


16.  do.  -  -     Ciliated  hair  from  spring. 





Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Carpenter  I  have  received  a 
specimen  of  an  earthAvorm  which  has  not  hitherto,  I  believe, 
been  recorded  for  Ireland.  It  was  found  in  Mitchelstown 
Cave,  Co.  Tipperar>%  and  being  a  perfectly  developed  adult 
form  was  readily  identified.  It  is  the  golden  AUurus,  Allu7us 
flavus,  Friend  {Natziralist,  Jan.,  1893,  p.  20),  and  is  worthy  of 
a  brief  notice.  I  first  found  this  worm  in  the  river  Calder  a 
couple  of  miles  from  Carlisle,  Cumberland,  where  its  colour 
was  a  rich  orange  yellow.  It  was  abundant,  and  had  the 
girdle  extending  over  segments  22-27,  while  segments  23,  24, 
25  bore  the  clitellar  papillae.  I^ater  on  I  found  a  solitary 
specimen  in  a  little  stream  near  Apperley  (Calverley  Woods), 

36  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

in  Yorkshire.  When  preser^^ed  in  alcohol  this  specimen  from 
segments  14  to  16  was  darker  in  colour  than  the  rest  of  the 
worm,  which  on  dissection  proved  to  be  the  result  of  a 
mixture  of  quartz  granules  and  vegetable  matter  intermixed 
in  the  intestines,  and  showing  through  the  semitransparent 
bod5\  I  found  an  opening  in  the  middle  of  segment  10  with  a 
pair  of  penial  setae,  which  differ  widelj^  from  those  which  are 
arranged  in  pairs  on  each  segment  of  the  ho^y.  In  other 
particulars  it  differed  considerably  from  the  type,  and  though 
it  is  difficult  to  specify  any  characters  which  entitle  it  to 
rank  at  present  as  a  distinct  species,  it  is  undoubtedly  a 
distinct  form  or  variety.  Kisen  found  specimens  which  he 
named  var.  hdcics,  but  from  his  brief  description  this  differed 
from  the  present  form.  We  do  not  yet  know  enough  of  the 
habits,  habitats,  structure  and  distribution  of  this  interesting 
genus  to  determine  the  number  of  species  which  exist,  as  ever}^ 
writer  finds  some  particular  in  which  the  specimens  examined 
by  him  differ  from  the  descriptions  of  others.  Rosa's 
"  Revisione  dei  I/Umbricidi "  (Torino,  1893)  contains  (pp.71 
seq.)  one  of  the  latest  summaries,  but  A.  jflavus,  Fr.,  is  not 
included.  The  following  are  the  external  characters  of  the 
Mitchelstown  Cave  specimen,  and  to  this  account  I  shall  be 
glad  to  add  a  further  diagnosis  if  further  specimens  can  be 
obtained  for  dissection  and  microscopic  examination. 

Allurus  flavus,  Friend. 

Found  at  Mitchelstown  Cave,  July,  1894.  Length  in  alcohol  i  incli, 
total  number  of  segments  80,  yellow  in  colour.  Girdle  extending  from 
segment  22  to  26,  with  papillae  on  one  side  only  of  segments  28,  29.  On  the 
under  side  of  the  girdle  the  clitellar  band  extends  over  segments  23,  24, 
25  on  either  side.  Perhaps  to  be  regarded  as  only  a  well-marked  variety 
of  ^.  tdraedrus,  Sav.,  the  variation  being  due  to  some  peculiarity"  of  soil 
or  habitat  yet  to  be  determined. 

[     Zl     ] 

the:  distribution  of  thk  charack^ 

in  irki.and, 

BY  H,  AND  J.  GROViJS,  F.I<.S. 

{concluded  from  page  U.) 

130.  Gal  way,  B., 
133.  Westmeath, 

Chara  tomentosa,  I^. 

R.  Shannon,  below  Portumna,  1843.  ^'  Moore. 

Belvidere  Lake  (L.  Ennel),  1841,  D.  Moore.  Coosan 
Ivough,  J 886,  R.  P.  Vowell.  L.  Derevaragh 
and  I/.  Owel,  1892,  H.  C.  Levinge  and  H.  and 

This  is  perhaps  the  most  interesting  and  characteristic  of  all  the  Irish 
Characece,  and  in  the  British  Isles  is  apparently  confined  to  Ireland.* 
All  the  localities  cited  above  belong  to  the  Shannon  drainage,  although 
L-  Owel  is  now  used  as  a  reservoir  for  the  Royal  Canal.  The  small 
form  with  most  of  the  joints  of  the  branchlets  uncoated  and  much 
vSwoUen,  which  was  first  discovered  by  Dr.  D.  Moore,  and  figured  by 
Hooker  as  C.  latifolia,  Willd.,  is  that  occurring  in  rather  shallow  water 
with  a  comparatively  hard  bottom,  but  the  large  well  developed  form 
three  or  four  feet  high  is  plentiful  in  the  deeper  muddy  bays  of  several 
of  the  lakes.  We  found  a  very  curious  slender  form  in  L.  Owel. 
C.  to?nentosa  is  recorded  from  Sweden,  Denmark,  Germany  (in  many 
places),  France  (Normandy)  Switzerland,  Austria,  Turkey,  Russia,  Persia 
and  Algiers. 

113.  Kerry,  S., 

114-        .>      N., 
121.  Queen's  Co., 

123.  Wicklow, 

124.  Kildare,  - 

125.  Dublin,    - 

127.  Louth,     - 

128.  Limerick, 

129.  Clare, 

130.  Gal  way,  E., 
133.  Westmeath, 
135.  Gal  way,  W., 
138.  Sligo,       - 
140.  Roscommon, 
145.  Armagh, 
147.  Down, 

149.  Londonderry, 

C.  hisplda,  L. 

-  Killarney,  1887.    R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Near  Ventry,  1894.     D.  M'Ardle. 

-  Near  Farmhill,  1890,     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Murrough  of  Wicklow,  1877.     D.  M'Ardle. 

-  Below  Athy,  1890.     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Raheny,  1893.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

-  Dundalk,  1883.    J.  F.  Crofts. 

-  Near  Foynes,  1884.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

-  Near  Ennis,  1884.    S.  A.  Stewart. 

-  L.  Derg,  1881.     Bolton  King. 

-  Belvidere  L.     D.  Moore. 

-  Roundstone,  1868.     C.  Bailey. 

-  Coolgagh  L.ri883.     S.  A.  Stewart 

-  L.  Ree,  1886.     R.  M.  Barrington. 

-  Near  Grange,  1892.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

-  Downpatrick,  1891.     R.  IJ.  Praeger. 
•  R.  Bann,  Coleraine.     D.  Moore. 

*A  curious  sterile  plant  collected  in  Norfolk,  in  1881,  by  Mr.  Arthur 
Bennett,  was  referred  by  Dr.  Nordstedt  to  this  species  and,  at  the  time, 
we  concurred  in  this  view.  It  has  not  so  far  as  we  know  been  collected 
since,  but  in  the  same  locality  we  have  found  some  intermediate  plants, 
which  we  think  may  be  hybrids,  and  which  in  some  characters  approach 
closely  to  Mr.  Bennett's  specimen  though  they  do  not  look  so  much  like 
C.  tomentosa.  We  are,  therefore,  inclined  to  doubt  whether  we  were  right 
in  recording  the  Norfolk  locality  for  the  species. 



The  Irish  Naturalist. 

123.  Wicklow, 
125.   Dublin,    - 

C.  hispida,  var.  macracantha,  Braun. 

-  Hb.  Moore. 

-  Maynooth,  1890.     D.  M'Ardle 

125.  Dublin,    - 
130.  Gal  way,  E., 
^ZZ'  Westmeath, 

135.  Galway,  W., 
140.  Roscommon, 
145.  Armagh, - 
147.  Down,     - 

var,  rudis,  Braun. 

■  Roval  Canal  near  Lucan,  1889.     R.  W.  Scully. 

•  L.  berg,  1S81.     Bolton  King. 

•  Brittas  Lake,    1892.      H.  C.   Levinge  and  H, 

and  J.  G. 
.  Arranmore,  1891.     S.  A.  Stewart. 
.  L.  Ree,  1886.     R.  M.  Barrington. 
Quarries  near  Navan  Fort,  1892.  R.  LI. Praeger. 
.  Loughinisland,  1887.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

C  hispida  is  a  common  European  species,  but  outside  Europe  it  has 
only  been  recorded  from  Tunis  and  Siberia.  The  var.  rudis  is  a  very 
well-marked  plant  and  is  more  entitled  to  notice  than  most  of  the  named 
forms ;  indeed  it  has  sometimes  been  regarded  as  a  separate  species. 
It  is  much  commoner  in  Ireland  and  Scotland  than  in  England. 

113.  Kerry,  S., 

114.  „      N., 
T2I.  Queen's  Co., 

123.  Wicklow, 

124.  Kildare,  - 

125.  Dublin,    - 

126.  Meath,     - 

128.  Limerick, 

129.  Clare, 

133.  Westmeath, 
135.  Galway,  W., 
138.  Sligo,       . 
145.  Armagh,  - 
147.  Down, 
149.  Londonderry, 


114.  Kerry,  N., 

116.  Cork,  N., 

123.  Wicklow, 

125.  Dublin,    - 

127.  Louth,     - 

130.  Galway,  E., 

138.  Sligo, 

147.  Down, 

148.  Antrim,  • 

113.  Kerry,  S., 
121.  Queen's  Co., 
133.  Westmeath, 

140.  Roscommon, 

C.  vulgaris  though 
from  the  number  of 
England.     It  seems 

C.  vulgaris,  L 

-  Caragh,  1888.     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Castle  Gregory.     Hb.  Moore, 

.  Near  Farmhill,  1890.     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Near  Bray,  1866.     R.  M.  Barrington. 
.  Near  Athy,  1890.     R.  W.  Scully. 

.  Sutton,  1871.     W.  T.  T.  Dyer. 

-  Navan,  1879.     C.  Bailey. 

-  Rinekirk,  1885.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

-  Bally vaughan,  1885.     R.  P.  Murray. 

-  Near  Belvidere  Lake,  187 1     W.  T,  T.  Dyer. 

-  Kilronan,  Aran,  1890,    J,  E.  Nowers, 

-  Bartragh  I.,  near  Moyview,  1870,     A.  G,  More. 

-  Bird  Island,  1882.     H,  V/.  Lett, 

-  Loughinisland  Lake,  1887.    S.  A,  Stewart. 

-  Magilligan,  1892,     M,  J.  Leebody, 

longibracteata,  Kuetz. 

-  Blennerville,  1888.     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Middleton,  1872.     T.  Allin. 

-  Base  of  Sugar  Loaf  Mtn,,  1894.   R.  lyl.Praeger. 

-  Swords,  1848,     D,  Moore, 

-  Dundalk,  1883.    J.  F.  Crofts. 

-  L.  Derg,  1881.     Bolton  King. 

-  Glencar  Lake,  1884.     R.  M,  Barrington. 

-  Near  Belfast,  1886.     S.  A.  Stewart, 

-  Springfield,  1857.    W.  M.  Hind. 

var.  paplllata,  Wallr. 

-  Ferry,  Waterv-ille,  1889.     R.  W.  Scully. 

-  Near  Farmhill,  1890.    R.  W.  Scully. 

Lough  Ree,  1886.     R.  M.  Barrington. 

a  fairly  common  species  in  Ireland  is  not,  judging 
specimens  we  have  received,  so  abundant  as  it  is  in 
to  be  a  common  plant  almost  throughout  the  world. 

The  Distribution  of  the  Characece  hi  Ireland*  39 

C.  canescens*  Ivoisel. 

114.  Kerry,  N.,        -        -  Castle  Gregory  Lake,  1894.     R.  W.  Scully. 

A  very  interesting  addition  to  the  Flora  of  Ireland  The  plant  from 
Co.  Cork  (Shanagarry  Bog),  circulated  by  Mr.  Carroll  as  C.  crinita,  is 
C.  polyacantha.  C.  canescens  is  recorded  from  various  parts  of  Europe,  North 
Africa,  temperate  Asia,  and  North  America.  In  Britain  it  has  only  been 
found  in  Dorset  and  Cornwall. 

Tolypella  grioinerata,  Leonh. 

124.  Kildare,  -        -         -  Maynooth,  1894.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

125.  Dublin,    -        •        -  Canal,  near  Glasnevin,  1857.     D.  Moore. 
133.  Westmeath,    -        -  L-  Bnnel,  1892.     H.  and  J.  G. 

138.  Sligo,       -        -        -  Glencar  Lake,  1884.     R.  M.  Barrington. 
139    Leitrim,  •        -        -  Glenade  Lake,  1884.     R.  M  Bariington. 

T,  glomerata  is  widely  distributed  in  Europe,  and  occurs  also  in  Algiers, 
Persia,  India,  Tasmania,  and  North  America.  Wei  think  it  will  probably 
be  foundin  many  other  localities  in  Irelandjbeingoften  a  very  inconspicuous 

{Tolypella  nidifica,  Leonh.  Braun,  in  ''Fragmente  einer  Monographic 
der  Characeen,"  p.  94,  describes  the  plant  collected  in  Lough  Neagh,  near 
Langford  Lodge,  by  Dr.  Moore  in  1840,  as  the  var.  intervudia  of  this 
species ;  but  this  appears  to  need  confirmation  ] 

T.  prollfcra,  Leonh. 

125.  Dublin,    -        -        -  Canal  near  Glasnevin.     D.  Moore. 

Dr.  Moore's  specimen  is  the  only  one  we  have  seen  from  Ireland. 
T.  prolifera  is  recorded  from  a  few  scattered  localities  in  Central  and 
Southern  Europe  and  in  North  and  South  America.  In  Britain  it  is 
apparently  confined  to  a  few  counties  in  the  East  of  England. 

T.  Intrlcata,  Leonh. 

125.  Dublin,    -        -        -  Glasnevin.     D.  Moore. 

T.  intricata  occurs  in  many  localities  in  Central  Europe,  from  Sweden  to 
N.  Italy,  in  Algiers  and  in  Canada.  It  has  been  found  in  the  eastern 
counties  of  England  from  Durham  southwards. 

Nitella  Nordstedtiana,  H.  and  J.  Groves. 

113.  Kerry,  S.,        -        -  Caragh  Lake,  1889.     R.  W.  Scully. 

Killarney,  Lower  Lake,  Muckross  Shore,  1890. 
Near  Swallow  Island,  1892.     R.  W.  Scully. 

This  species  is  recorded  from  Finland,  Sweden,  Germany,  France, 
Spain,  and  Italy,  and  from  North  America  and  Australia.  In  Britain  it 
has  only  been  found  in  the  Outer  Hebrides.  The  Caragh  Lake  plant  is 
larger  and  laxer  than  that  from  Scotland,  and  we  referred  it  in  the  first 
instance  to  N.  gracilis. 

46  '  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

N.  tenulssltna,  Kuetz. 

130.  Gal  way,  E.,     -        -  Near  Ballindooley,  1892.     H.  and  J.  G. 
I33.  Westmeath,    -        -  Scraw    Bog    near    L.     Owel,     1892.      H.   C. 

Levinge,  and  H.  and  J.  G. 

This  occurs  in  Europe,  Asia,  North  Africa,  and  North  America. 
In  Britain  it  has  only  been  found  in  the  widely  separated  counties  of 
Cambridgeshire  and  Anglesey.  It  occurs  in  peat-pits  and  dikes,  but  on 
account  of  its  dark  colour  and  slender  stem  is  often  very  inconspicuous. 
As  we  found  it  in  the  only  two  sets  of  peat-pits  which  we  had  the 
opportunity  of  examining  during  our  short  visit  to  Ireland,  and  as  the 
country  abounds  in  similar  habitats,  we  have  no  doubt  it  will  be  found 
to  be  much  more  generally  distributed. 

N.  srracllls,  Ag. 

123.  Wicklow,  -        -  L.  Luggela  and  L.  Dan,  1892.      R.  M.  Bar- 

rington  and  H.  and  J.  G. 
125.  Dublin,  -        -  Near  Ballybetagh,  Glencullen,  1872.     D.  Orr. 

The  Luggela  plant  is  a  remarkably  fine  form  with  very  longbranchlets. 
N.  gracilis  is  found  nearly  throughout  Europe,  in  Asia,  Africa,  and  North 
and  South  America. 

.  N.  translucens,  Ag. 

113.  Kerry,  S.,        -        -  L.  Caragh,  1876.    A.  G.  More. 

114.  Kerry,  N,,       -        -  Mannabone  Mtns.     D.  M'Ardle. 
135.  Galway,  W.,    -         -  Clifden,  1869.     A.  G.  More. 

145.  Armagh,-         -  -  Cashel  L.,  1892.     R,  LI.  Praeger. 

147.  Down,      -         -  -  Derry  L.,  1887.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

148.  Antrim,  -        -  -  Lissanorn  Castle.    D.  Moore. 
149    Londonderry,  -  -  Kilrea,  1836.     D.  Moore. 

N.  trattsluceiis  occurs  principally  in  Western  Europe,  but  reaches  to 
Sweden  in  the  north,  and  to  Algiers,  &c.,  in  the  south,  and  a  variety  or 
sub-species  is  found  in  New  Zealand.  It  grows  usually  in  ponds,  lakes, 
and  canals,  but  occasionally  in  running  water. 

N.  flexllls,  Ag. 

113.  Kerry,  S.,  •  -  Caragh   Lake  and  L.  Acoose,  1889.      R.  W, 


115.  Cork,  S.,-  -  -  Glengarriff.     I.Carroll. 

J37.  Mayo,  E.,  -  -  Cong,  1885.     E).  F.  and  W.  R.  Linton. 

139.  Leitrim,  -  -  -  L.  Allen,  1883.     S.  A.  Stewart. 

141.  Fermanagh,  -  -  Rossford  Point,  1837.     W.  Thompson. 

148.  Antrim,  -  -  -  Carnlough  River,  1892.     R.  LI.  Praeger. 

Probably  a  commoner  plant  than  the  above  list  would  seem  to  indicate, 
but  many  specimens  we  have  seen  which  may  belong  to  this  species  are 
sterile  and  we  have  not  been  able  to  determine  them,  N.  flexilis  is  widely 
distributed  in  Europe,  and  has  been  recorded  from  Siberia  and  North 
and  South  America, 

The  Dishibuiion  of  CharacecB  in  Ireland.  41 

N.  opaca,  Ag. 

113.  Kerr}',  S.,         -        -  Killarney.      Hb.  Moore, 

114.  ,,      N.,         -         -  Mannaboiie  Mountains.     D.  M'Ardle. 

116.  Cork,  N.,  -  -  Fernio}'.     T.  Chandlee. 

117.  Waterford,  -  -  Dnngarvan,  1S82,     G.  Nicholson. 
123.  Wicklow,  -  -  Kilmacurragli,  1884.     F.  W.  Moore. 
125.  Dublin,    -  -  -  Hill  of  Howth,  i860.     D.  Moore. 
135    Galway,  W.,  -  -  Kylemore  Lake,  1870.     D.  IMoore. 
139.  Leitrim,  -  -  -  L.  Boffin,  1871.     W.  T.  T.  Dyer. 
141.  Fermanagh,  -  -  L.  Erne,  1882.     R.  M.  Barrington. 

145.  Armagh,-         -  -  L.  Neagh,  near  Lurgan,  1874.       S.  A.  Stewart. 

146.  Donegal,  -  -  Iv.  Naminn,  1892.     M.  J.  Leebod}'. 

147.  Down,     -         -  •  Clandeboye  Lake,  1883.     S-  A.  Stevrart. 

148.  Antrim,    •         -  -  Rathlin  I.     D.  Moore. 

149.  Londonderry,  -  Kilrea,  1839.     W.  Thompson. 

This  is  the  commonest  species  oi  Nitella  in  the  British  Isles,  and  is  also 
common  nearly  throughout  Europe.  It  is  recorded  from  Asia,  N.  Africa, 
and  North  and  vSouth  America 

[N.  capiiata,  Ag.,  which  occurs  in  the  fenland  of  Cambridgeshire^  and 
N.  syncarpa,  Chev.,  which  is  common  in  the  West  of  France,  should  be 
looked  for  in  Ireland.  Both  resemble  slender  states  of  N,  opaca,  but  have 
a  gelatinous  covering  to  the  fruits  ;  and  N.  syncarpa  is  distinguished  from 
A',  opaca  and  N.  capitata  by  its  simple  fruit-bearing  branchlets.] 



The  Refreshment-Rooms  organised  by  the  Misses  Gardiner, 
in  a  house  that  actually  stands  upon  the  demesne  of  Trinity 
College,  Dublin,  have  long  been  recognised  as  a  daily  meeting- 
ground  for  the  members  of  the  staffs  of  adjacent  institutions. 
In  man}^  waj^s  these  rooms  have  played  the  part  of  the  old 
London  coffee-houses,  not  to  say  of  the  ever-famous  **  Mer- 
maid "  ;  and  the  manuscripts  and^proof-sheets  of  public  and 
scientific  journals,  including  those  of  the  Irish  Naturalist,  have 
often  derived  an  additional  sparkle  from  the  conversation 
carried  on  around  their  tables.  The  opportunity  afforded  by 
the  reconstruction  of  the  premises  has  been  seized  on  by 
several  of  their  confirmed  habitues,  and  a  New  Year's  gift  ot 
seven  ornamental  tables  has  been  the  result. 

Naturally,  the  polished  tops  have  been  made  of  Irish  marbles 
Under  the  care  of  Mr.  E-  S.  Glanville,  of  Lower  Erne-street, 
Dublin.     A  scientific  committee  of  selection  visited  the  works. 


The  Irish  Naturalist. 

and  the  stones  were  chosen  as  if  they  were  to  ornament  a 
museum.  While  literary  and  antiquarian  visitors  cannot  fail 
to  appreciate  the  artistic  beauty  of  the  slabs,  naturalists  will 
find  many  points  of  interest,  even  in  their  minuter  details. 

Two  of  the  slabs  are  from  the  lyissoughter  quarry  in 
Connemara,  and  show  the  unique  serpentinous  marble  in  all 
the  perfection  of  its  green  and  grey  streaks  and  foldings.  The 
highly  metamorphosed  character  of  the  rock  is  at  once  ap- 
parent, and  in  one  table  the  contortion  of  the  bands  can  be 
traced,  while  in  the  other  a  more  parallel  structure  has  been 
set  up  by  the  continued  deformation  of  the  mass.  The  recent 
paper  by  Messrs.  Lavis  and  Gregory  (^)  on  eozoonal  structure 
in  limestones  from  around  the  vent  of  Vesuvius  has  given  new 
interest  to  these  similar  altered  limestones  of  Connemara. 
The  green  serpentine  seems  to  result  from  the  hydration  of 
bands  and  knots  of  olivine,  which  developed  in  the  heart  of 
the  Lissoughter  limestone  under  the  influence  of  an  adjacent 
igneous  mass.  How  far  the  silica  and  magnesia  required  for 
this  change  already  existed  in  the  limestone,  or  how  far  they 
were  transferred  from  the  invading  igneous  rock,  is  one  of  the 
vexed  questions  of  contact-metamorphism.  Messrs.  Marr  and 
Harker,  working  on  the  alterations  round  the  granite  of  Shap 
in  Westmoreland,  conclude  that  such  transference  has  only 
gone  on  over  distances  of  about  g^tb  of  an  inch  ;  while  Messrs. 
Lavis  and  Gregory,  in  their  stud}^  of  the  blocks  of  Monte 
Somma,  above  cited,  are  forced  to  believe  in  a  more  extended 

These  two  handsome  green  slabs  have  as  companions  two 
from  the  red  quarries  of  Co.  Cork.  These  also  show  the 
effect  of  earth-movements  in  brecciating  and  streaking-out 
the  constituents  of  a  rock.  In  one,  the  remains  of  crinoid- 
stems  are  clearl}^  visible,  and  fragments  of  yellowish  coralline 
limestone,  probably  true  blocks  broken  by  wave-action  from 
adjacent  reefs,  lie  in  the  fine  red  matrix.  But  pressure  has 
already  affected  the  whole  mass,  and  it  has  begun  to  break  up 
and  to  flow,  as  it  were,  under  metamorphic  influences. 

The  second  slab  of  **  Cork  Red"  is  the  tj'pical  brecciated 
variety,  with  abundant  traces  of  crinoids,  in  the  form  of  little 
white  circular  sections,   but  with  no  good  connected  series  of 

'  Trans.  Ro^xl  Dublin  Soc,  1 894. 

The  Geologist  at  the  Ltmcheon-table.  43 

ossicles.  Veins  of  calcite  traverse  the  mass,  as  in  the  well- 
known  Devonian  marbles  of  Plymouth,  and  more  delicate 
thread-like  veins,  filled  with  a  deep  red  material,  run  in  the 
direction  of  the  general  movement  of  the  breccia. 

The  other  three  tables  illustrate  the  fossiliferous  Carboni- 
ferous marbles  of  this  country.  One  is  a  little  known  and 
beautiful  variety  of  "  grey  fossil"  limestone,  consisting  almost 
entirely  of  fragments  of  crinoid  stems.  One  or  two  small 
pieces  of  coral  alone  break  the  uniformit}-  of  the  great  area  of 
encrinites  ;  these  sea-lilies  must  have  here  grown  as  a  veritable 
forest.  Iron  oxides  have  delicatel}^  infilled  the  hollows  of 
the  stems,  and  have  even  stained  with  tender  browns  and 
pinks  the  whole  substance  of  some  of  the  ossicles.  This 
remarkable  stone  has  been  quarried  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lough  Erne. 

Another  slab  comes  from  the  famous  quarries  of  black 
marble  near  Galway  city.  It  has  been  chosen  on  account  of 
its  strong  contrasts  of  effect,  the  fossils  being  grouped  in  it 
with  a  certain  daring  picturesqueness.  From  one  angle,  a 
great  branching  mass  of  the  tubular  coral  called  Syri7igopora 
spreads  across  the  stone  for  a  distance  of  some  25  cm.  At  the 
opposite  angle  is  a  vertical  section  of  a  valve  of  the  brachiopod 
Prodtictus,  while  in  between  is  a  section  showing  the  two 
valves  as  circles  lying  one  within  the  other.  The  smaller 
valve,  being  concave,  is  thus  often  traversed  by  sections  which 
also  cut  across  the  larger  and  convex  valve. 

Nearer  to  the  Syringopora  in  this  table  is  a  bold  section  of 
Pj'od7cctus,  10  cm.  across,  which  largely  influenced  the  selection 
of  this  particular  slab.  A  fine  simple  coral  can  be  seen 
growing  from  its  exterior  ;  and  here  we  at  once  have  a  picture 
of  the  floor  of  the  Carboniferous  sea  in  Co.  Galwaj^  with  large 
valves  of  dead  brachiopods  scattered  upon  it,  their  concave 
sides  characteristically  facing  downwards,  like  those  of 
lamellibranch  shells  on  our  own  shores.  Their  upper  surfaces 
furnished  the  abundant  simple  corals  with  a  fairly  stable  basis 
of  attachment,  while  the  ramifying  and  more  massive  reef- 
building  forms  held  together  and  even  wrapped  round  and 
included  other  forms.  Thus  the  example  of  Syringopora  in 
this  table  shows  one  or  two  other  corals,  Zaphrentis  in  all 
probability^  entangled  in  its  spreading  meshes. 

44  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

The  seventh  table  is  also  of  black  marble,  but  is  relieved 
more  uniformly  by  fossil-sections.  It  is  from  the  Kilkenny 
quarries,  the  history  of  which  is  associated  with  that  of  the 
energetic  famil}^  of  Colles.  Grey  sections  of  detached  and 
unbranching  corals  are  seen  everywhere,  their  septa  being 
beautifully  preserved  ;  they  probably  represent  Zaphrentis 
rather  than  Cyathophylhim.  One  or  two  white  remains  of  spiral 
gastropods,  probabl}-  Euomphahis,  also  occur,  with  a  section 
of  a  turreted  form.  But  the  most  interesting  objects  are  the 
conspicuous  sections  of  a  brachiopod,  evidently  a  form  with 
external  flutings,  and  with  well-marked  dental  plates  and  a  sep- 
tum in  the  larger  valve.  These  sections  provide  a  pleasant 
problem  in  reconstruction,  such  as  will  rejoice  generations 
of  zoologists  and  geometricians  at  the  luncheon-table.  I 
believe  the  shell  to  be  a  Cyrtiiia,''  many  of  the  sections  passing 
horizontally  across  the  upper  part  of  the  larger  valve.  We 
thus  have  a  convex  and  serrated  line  produced  b}^  the  section 
of  the  outer  part  of  the  shell,  with  an  indentation  corresponding 
to  the  external  median  furrow  ;  the  internal  median  septum 
is  seen  running  inwards,  soon  dividing  into  two  portions, 
which  are  styled  *'  dental  plates."  These,  however,  are 
often  traversed  by  the  section  in  the  region  of  the  broad 
'*  area,"  which  runs  from  the  beak  to  the  hinge-margin 
of  the  shell ;  and  hence  the  white  line  formed  by  each  dental 
plate  is  continued  sharply  awa}^  to  right  or  left  by  the 
straight  section  of  the  area,  which  closes  in  the  front  of 
the  shell  and  which  unites  with  the  edges  of  the  serrated 
part  of  the  section.  Here  and  there  a  vertical  section 
across  the  valve  shows  the  median  septum  running  on 
below,  and  its  two  diverging  portions  enclosing  a  sort 
of  oval  space  above,  the  apex  of  which  is  in  contact  with  the 

The  geologist,  at  an}'  rate,  will  no  longer  feel  solitary 
at  his  luncheon -table ;  but,  indeed,  he  is  never  likely  to  sit 
long  alone  in  this  favoured  home  of  quip  and  countercheck, 
of  wise  saws  and  modern  instances. 

■"  Davidson,  "British  Fossil  Brachiopoda  ;  Permian  and  Carboniferous 
species,"  p.  68,  and  plate  xiv.,  fig.  8. 

[    45     ] 


BY  J.  N.  HAI^BBRT. 
(Read  before  the  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  November  13th,  1894.) 

On  the  recent  joint  excursion  of  the  Dublin,  Cork,  and 
lyimerick  Field  Ckibs  to  the  Fermoy  and  Blackwater  district, 
I  collected  insects  for  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  Fauna  and 
Flora  Committee.  Notwithstanding  the  short  duration  of  the 
trip  (5th,  6th,  and  7th  of  July  last),  and  owing,  no  doubt,  to 
the  productive  localities  visited,  I  was  fortunate  in  taking  more 
than  one  species  of  interest,  and  in  making  a  few  additions 
to  our  Irish  records.  There  were  in  all  over  a  hundred  species 
of  Coleoptera  and  forty  of  Hemiptera  observed,  and  in  the 
present  notice  it  is  intended  to  place  on  record  the  most  note- 
worthy of  these,  giving  the  localities  and  circumstances  of 
capture  where  necessar}'^,  but  not  mentioning  a  large  number 
that  are  of  common  occurrence  everywhere.  I  am  indebted  to 
Dr.  David  Sharp,  F.R.S.,  and  E.  Saunders,  F.Iy.S-,  for  kind  help 
in  the  identification  of  certain  critical  species,  and  also  to  those 
members  of  the  different  Clubs  who  assisted  me  in  collecting 

Our  headquarters  were  at  Fermoy,  consequently  on  arrival 
little  time  was  lost  in  the  anxiety  to  begin  work.  The  route 
taken  lay  along  the  south  banks  of  the  Blackwater  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  extensive  Castle  Hyde  woods ;  all  this  proved  to  be 
admirable  collecting  ground.  The  river  was  first  tried  for 
Hydradephaga,  but  previous  experience  had  shown,  that  mid- 
summer is  not  a  good  time  of  the  year  for  water-beetles,  when 
most  of  them  are  in  larval  condition.  Amongst  my  captures 
were  Oredochilus  villostis,  Mull.,  Deronedes  depresstis,  F.,  and 
Haliplus  fluviatilis,  Aube.,  all  of  theiH  species  peculiar  to  clear 
or  running  waters.  The  first  mentioned  is  an  insect  of  con- 
siderable interest,  closely  allied  to  the  Gyrini  or  '  whirligig- 
beetles  '  so  well  known  to  all  observ^ers,  but  differing  from  these 
in  some  essential  points.  Oredochilus  is  nocturnal,  coming 
out  at  night  only  and  hiding  during  the  day-time  under  banks 
in  submerged  logs  and  such  like.  My  specimens  were  obtained 
by  dragging  the  water-net  about  the  roots  of  aquatic  plants. 
Owing  to  this  unusual  habit  the  beetle  has  probably  escaped 
observation   in    many   localities.     Numerous   species  of   the 

46  I  he  Irish  Naturalist. 

StaphylinidcBQiX  'rove-beetles' were  common  in  the  damp  places, 
amongst  these  was  a  single  Actobizis  proceriihis,  Grav.  There  is 
onl}^  one  Irish  example  in  the  Museum  collection,  taken  many 
years  ago  in  the  Mourne  Mountains,  by  that  veteran  of  Irish 
entomolog)',  the  late  A.  H.  Halida}^  which,  like  many  other 
captures  of  equal  interest,  he  seems  never  to  have  recorded. 
The  only  other  noteworth}^  representatives  of  this  section 
taken,  were  Homalota  elongatida,  Bris.,  evidently  common,  and 
Tachyporus  obtzisuSy  var.  nitidicoUis,  Steph.,  a  ver}^  well  marked 
melanic  variet}',  which  would  seem  to  almost  replace  the  type 
in  Ireland,  and,  as  we  would  expect,  is  much  rarer  in  England 
where  the  normal  pale-coloured  form  predominates. 

Quite  a  characteristic  insect  was  Halyzia  co?igIobata,  ly-,  a  local 
'lady-bird'  commonly  obtained  off  the  Alder  bushes  growing 
along  the  bank.  In  Britain  it  has  a  southern  distribution,  and 
as  regards  the  north  it  has  only  been  found  in  two  localities, 
Belfast,  and  Ballj^haise,  Co.  Cavan,  where  I  had  the  pleasure  of 
taking  a  single  specimen  last  autumn.  By  sweeping  plants 
in  a  marshy  place  near  the  Castle  Hyde  woods,  there  occurred 
several  examples  of  a  Galeriicella  which  were  mistaken  for  the 
common  G.  nymphace^  but  which  proved  on  subsequent  ex- 
amination to  be  referrable  to  the  rarer  G.  sagittarice,  Gyll.,  an 
addition  to  the  Irish  list.  The  two  species  are  closely  allied, 
but  when  typical  examples  are  compared,  side  by  side,  the 
differences  are  at  once  apparent ;  in  the  last  British  catalogue 
they  are  evidently  considered  to  be  distinct.  Amongst  other 
captures  I  may  mention  Cyphon  nitidulus,  Thorns.,  Bruchus 
atomarius,  L<.,  Lema  lichenis,  Voet.,  Afiaspis  fnactdata,  Fourc, 
Apion  h2wmli,  Germ.,  Sitones  sidciffons,  Thunb.,  Eyirrhinus 
acridiihis,  L.,  Rhin incus  peiicarpius,  I,.,  and  R.  perpendicidaris, 
Reich.  Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  found  in  a  meadow,  larvae  of 
the  long-horned  grasshopper  Leptophyes  piindatissima,  Bosc, 
which  he  tells  me  had  been  only  previously  recorded  from 

The  Heteroptera  taken  at  Fermoy  were  not  numerous  ;  the 
large  green  'shield  bug'  Peiitatoma p^asiyia,  I^in.,  was  the  most 
important,  our  knowledge  of  this  species  as  Irish  rested  on 
two  specimens  without  localitj-in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Haliday ; 
the  possession  of  definitely  localised  specimens  is  therefore 
satisfactory.  Orthotylus flaviriervis,  Kb.,  occurred  on  the  Alders. 
Several  of   the    members   noticed  the    beautiful    dragon-fly 

Insects  Collected  in  the  Fermoy  and Blackwater  District,     atj 

Calopte7yx  splendens  busily  '  hawking '  for  prey  along  the  river- 

The  following  day  was  fixed  for  the  visit  to  the  renowned 
Mitchelstovrn  Caves,  and  w^as  generall}^  considered  Wi^  piece  de 
resistance  of  the  excursion  ;  owing  however,  to  a  rather  long 
drive,  the  time  allowed  was  insufiicient  for  a  thorough  investiga- 
tion. The  results,  as  can  be  seen  in  the  pages  of  the  present 
number,  have  been  worked  out  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter,  and 
the  account  which  he  furnishes  of  these  curious  cave-fre- 
quenting creatures  is  of  high  scientific  value.  We  w^ere  lucky 
in  escaping  the  disappointment  experienced  by  an  observer  in 
England,  Mr.  Murray,  w^ho  many  3'ears  ago  explored  the 
extensive  limestone  caves  of  Derbyshire  but  was  obliged  to 
report  that  he  could  find  nothing  blind  except  the  allej^s  !  On 
the  journe}^  to  and  from  the  caves  onl}^  a  few  short  interv^als 
were  available  for  collecting,  when  the  following  were  taken, 
chiefl}^  under  stones  on  the  low  walls  bordering  the  roads : 
Calathtis cisteloides,  Panz.,  Barynotus  obscurus,  F.,and  Otiorrhyn- 
chus  ligneus,  01.,  the  last  not  by  any  means  a  common  species. 
Many  of  the  members  were  anxious  to  see  the  magnificent 
pile  of  Mitchelstown  Castle,  so  a  brief  visit  w^as  arranged ;  the 
entomologists  of  the  party  found  time  for  a  short  w^alk  through 
the  grounds,  but  though  their  beautj^  was  evident,  the  chance 
of  finding  rare  insects  was  questioned.  Only  a  few  weevils 
were  beaten  off  the  beech  trees,  i.e.,  Phyllobius  argentatus,  L. 
P.  oblo7ig7is,  ly.,  2Md.  Polydrusus  ptergomalis.  Boh.,  the  latter  is  a 
very  pretty  species,  covered  with  brilliant  green  scales  ;  I  had 
previously  collected  it  onl}^  near  Lucan,  Co.  Dublin. 

Lismore  formed  a  promising  localit}-  for  the  third  and  last 
day's  excursion.  In  order  to  have  a  longer  time  for  collecting  I 
started  on  an  early  train  from  Fermo}^  with  my  friend  ]\Ir. 
Frank  Neale,  Secretary  of  the  Limerick  Club.  The  scenery  of 
the  Blackwater  Valley  onl}^  needs  mention,  to  recall  it  to  those 
w^ho  have  been  fortunate  enough  to  have  spent  an}^  time 
investigating  the  beauties  of  the  '  Irish  Rhine,'  more  especially 
in  the  wooded  portion  surrounding  the  far-famed  Lismore 
Castle,  and  indeed  the  district  has  many  points  in  its  favour 
as  a  centre  for  general  natural  history  observations.  All  the 
former  localities  were  rather  unfavourable  for  collecting  the 
Carabidae  or  ground  beetles ;  but  here  in  a  half  dr^^  water- 
course that  joins  with  the  main  river  Harpalus  rufibarbis,  F., 

48  The  Irish  Nattiralist. 

Amara  familiaris,  V>vSX..,Bembidium  decorum,  Vdi\\z.,B.atrocceru- 
leiwiy  Stepli.,  and  B.  punct2dat2Lvi,  Drap.,  were  more  or  less 
abundant.  Some  damp  fields  near  at  hand  next  claimed 
attention  ;  my  first  capture  by  sweeping  was  Hydrocyphoyi 
dejlexicollis,  MiilL,  a  rare  insect  in  England  but  evidently  quite 
common  here.  I  cannot  find  a  more  recent  Irish  record  for 
this  species  than  1857  when  it  was  recorded  by  Mr.  Haliday 
from  the  river  Vartry,  and  by  Dr.  Perceval  Wright  from  the 
plantations  about  Newcastle,  Co.  Down.  Another  interesting 
find  was  Elmis  volkmaj'i,  Panz.,  a  small  insect  measuring  only 
3  mm.  in  length,  and  the  largest  of  the  six  British  species. 
They  are  all  provided  with  very  long  tarsi  by  which  they 
cling  to  the  undersides  of  stones,  etc.,  and  although  unable  to 
swim  like  true  water-beetles,  they  can  thus  retain  their  hold 
even  in  the  swiftest  rivers.  As  regards  the  distribution  of 
E.  volkmaii,  there  are  some  unlocalised  Irish  examples  in  Mr. 
Halidaj^'s  collection,  probably  taken  in  the  vicinity  of  Lough 
Neagh,  and  Dr.  Power  has  recorded  it  from  Waterford. 

We  next  searched  the  north  bank  of  the  Blackwater  above 
the  Castle  ;  the  presence  of  so  rich  and  varied  a  vegetation  led 
us  to  expect  good  results,  and  in  this  we  were  not  dis- 
appointed. Mr.  Neale  found  a  specimen  of  the  very  rare  moth 
Gnophria  quadra  clinging  to  the  rough  bark  of  an  Oak-tree. 
I  was  fortunate  in  securing  two  perfect  specimens  of  the  local 
Leiopus  ncbulos7is,\^.,  swept  from  amongst  long  grass  ;  they  had 
probably  fallen  from  a  neighbouring  oak ;  the  Lo7igicor?iia  are 
very  poorly  represented  in  Ireland,  and  with  few  exceptions 
are  rare.  In  the  hish  Naturalist  for  September  last  I 
recorded  a  weevil  Orchestes  ilicis,  F.,  from  lyUcan  which  would 
seem  to  be  the  first  record  of  the  species;  it  also  occurred 
here,  and  will  probably  be  met  with  in  other  wooded  localities. 
Many  beetles  are  more  or  less  peculiar  to  certain  varieties  ot 
Salix,  particularly  if  growing  in  a  wild  state ;  even  young 
plantations  will  sometimes  produce  nice  species.  A  small 
osier-bed  near  the  ''  hanging  gardens '  yielded  amongst 
others  Do7iacia  simplex,  F.,  Galerucella  lineola,  F.,  Telepho7us 
thoracicuSj  01.,  Stcuus  tar  salts,  I^5^nn.,  and  Crepidodera  hclxines, 
I/.,  etc.  Of  these  the  most  notable  is  T.  thoracicics,  only  pre- 
viously recorded  from  two  of  the  Irish  Counties,  Armagh  and 
Dublin.  The  T.  fulvicollis  mentioned  in  Mr.  Haliday 's 
Belfast  list,  may  refer  to  this  species,  but  it  might  equally  be  the 

hiseds  Collected  in  the  Fernioy  and  Blackwater  District.    49 

common  T./lavilabris,  as  that  name  is  a  synonym  for  both. 
I  find,  however,  that  he  did  possess  T.  thoracicus,  easily 
recognised  from  its  allies  by  the  clear  red  scutellum.  Three 
species  of  the  curious  genus  Cassida  are  represented  in  the 
district,  i.e.,  Cassida  viridis,  F.,  C.  equestris,  F.,  and  C.  flaveola^ 
Thunb.  Other  captures  were  Anthobiiun  ophthalmicuni,  Payk., 
Adalia  obliterata,  L.,  Halyzia  xiv. -guttata,  ly.,  Athous  niger,  ly., 
PhcEdo7i  ttimidulus,  Germ.,  Lagria  hirtay  I^.,  Apion  cruentatum^ 
Walt.,  Ceuthorrhy7icJnis  litzira,  F.,  etc.,  and  a  single  Ceuthor- 
rynchus  a?igulosus,  Boh.,  one  of  our  rarest  British  beetles  ;  only 
a  few  specimens  appear  to  have  been  taken  in  Britain,  in  the 
Solway  district  and  North  of  Kngland.  Canon  Fowler  remarks 
that  it  is  probably  attached  to  some  Cruciferous  plant ;  my 
specimen  captured  by  geneial  sweeping  rendered  it  impos- 
sible to  tell  off  what  plant  it  came.  The  insect  both  on 
account  of  its  rarity  and  distribution,  forms  an  interesting 
addition  to  our  Irish  records. 

Some  good  Hemiptera  were  taken  at  I^ismore,  in  the  Black- 
water.  I  noticed  what  looked  like  a  minute  and  active  water- 
beetle  darting  about  amongst  the  stones,  in  the  shallow  water 
at  edge,  but  which  proved  on  capture  to  be  the  seldom-taken 
Sigara  rnimitissima,  L,in.  Specimens  of  Pentatovia prasina,  I<in., 
also  occurred,  and  two  additions  to  my  list  of  Irish  Hemiptera 
in  Orthotylus  viridinerius,  Kb.,  and  Labops  viutabilis,  Fall. 

There  only  remain  to  mention  two  notable  insects  belonging 
to  the  Neuroptera.  Calopteryx  virgo,  L,.,  was  noticed,  especially 
about  the  wooded  portions  of  the  bank.  This  is  a  very  brilliant 
dragon-fly  of  a  beautiful  green  or  blue  with  dusky  wings,  which 
in  the  male  are  suffused  with  a  darker  metallic  colour.  It  bears 
a  strong  resemblance  to  the  species  taken  at  Fermoy, 
C.  spleyidens,  Harr.  Curiously  enough,  although  so  closely 
allied,  they  apparently  never  inhabit  the  same  locality. 
When  searching  for  ground  beetles  in  the  bed  of  the  stream 
above  mentioned,  I  succeeded  in  taking,  not  however  without 
some  agility  on  my  part,  the  large  Stone-fly  Pada  maxima^ 
Scop.  Although  this  fine  insect  is  probably  common,  there 
would  seem  to  be  a  scarcity  of  records  from  Ireland,  and  the 
genus  Perla  is  unrepresented  in  the  valuable  list  of  Irish 
Neuroptera  published  by  Mr.  J.  J.  F,  X.  King^  P.  maxima 
occurs  in  the  river  Dodder,  Co.  Dublin. 

^  Trans.  Nat.  His.  Soc,  Glasgow,  vol.  ii.,  1888. 

^0  The  Irish  Naturalist, 




Chara  canescens,  Loisel,  In  Ireland. — I  found  this  pretty 
Chara  growing  in  the  lake  at  Castlegregory,  Co.  Kerry,  last  August. 
This  is  a  welcome  addition  to  the  range  of  the  plant,  hitherto  restricted, 
I  believe,  to  two  localities  in  the  S.  W.  of  England. 

R.  W.  Scui,i.Y,  Dublin. 


Wild   Flowers  in  the  Clynns  of  Antrim   In  IVI id-Winter.— 

Walking  and  driving  through  the  Glens  near  Cushendall  on  the  i6tli  and 
17th  of  December,  with  some  friends  who  were  spending  the  week's  end 
there,  I  collected  the  following  plants  in  flower.  In  Glencarp  and  north 
side  of  Glendun  the  Red  Campion  {Lychnis  diurnci)  ;  Dog  Daisy  {Matruaria 
inodora) ;  and  Sheep's  Scabious  [Jasione  monlana).  On  Tornaniorey  Point, 
or  the  old  road  to  Torr,  on  a  ver}-  exposed  bank  facing  east,  the  Bramble 
{Rubles  friiticosus) ;  Marsh  Ragweed  {Senecio  aquaiicus) ;  Marsh  Thistle 
{Carduiis  palustris) ;  and  Cat's  ^2X  {Hypochccris  radicatd)  ;  on  sheltered  banks 
and  ditches  all  over  the  district,  the  Primrose  {Primula  vulgaris)  w^as  in 
bloom,  and  the  Gorse  ( Ulex  europceus') ;  and  I  noticed  a  few  plants  of  a  small 
Umbellifer,  which  I  did  not  collect,  just  opening.  Owing  to  the  mildness 
of  the  winters  at  Cushendall  medical  men  in  Belfast  frequently  send  their 
patients  there  now,  and  few  hotels  in  Ireland  are  so  beautifully  sheltered 
from  the  north  and  east  or  are  such  "Bomes  from  Home"  as  the 
"  Glens  of  Antrim"  Hotel  there.  I  have  to  thank  Mr.  S.  A.  Stewart  for 
verifying  the  plants  for  me. 

R.  Wei^ch,  Belfast. 



The  Freshwater  Crayfish  (Astacus  fluviatilis)  In  Co. 
Dublin.— On  the  3otli  December  last,  Mr.  Dunlop  of  Lucan  and  his 
sons  pointed  out  to  me  some  remarkable  ponds  at  CoUierstown  along  the 
banks  of  the  Grand  Canal,  about  nine  miles  from  Dublin.  Anyone 
looking  for  a  town  there  or  even  a  village,  Avill  be  disappointed,  though 
large  mounds  of  rubbish  may  mark  the  sites  of  former  habitations. 
Anyhow  zoologists  and  botanists  will  find  this  locality  well  worth  a  visit. 
We  found  the  large  freshwater  Craj'fish  {Astacus fluviatilis)  in  abundance, 
and  although  once  before  recorded  from  Co.  Dublin,  viz.  : — from  the 
Tolka  near  Finglas,  yet  it  is  such  ararity  that  it  is  worth  calling  attention 
to  this  second  locality.  It  had  previously  also  been  taken  on  the  Royal 
Canal  at  Maynooth,  by  the  late  Dr.  Ball,  and  in  several  other  places  in 
the  Co.  Kildare. 

It  is  surprising  that,  as  far  as  I  know,  no  attempt  has  ever  been  made 
in  this  country  to  utilize  this  source  of  wealth,  as  it  is  well  known  that 
Crayfish  are  occasionally  imported  from  abroad,  in  order  to  be  ground 
down  for  the  famous  "  soupe  d'ecrevisses,"  a  dish  greatly  esteemed  by 
connoisseurs.  The  supply  from  the  CoUierstown  ponds  would  hardly  be 
large  enough  to  start  a  commercial  speculation,  but  I  believe  they  are 
more  abundant  in  Kildare,  and  Messrs.  Pile,  Powell  and  Mooney  assure 
me  that  they  could  promote  a  trade  for  them. 

R.  F.  SCHARFFj  Dublin, 

Notes,  54: 


Unusual  retreat  for  Grouse. — A  singular  incident  was  recorded 
to  me  last  week  by  a  gentleman  who  had  been  shooting  during  the 
Christmas  week,  as  showing  the  severity  of  the  gales  that  recently  visited 
the  Irish  coast.  He  mentioned  that  considerable  numbers  of  living 
grouse  had  been  seen  along  the  sea-shore  at  Bally  waiter  and  at  the  Warren 
at  Donaghadee.  The  inhabitants  in  these  neighbourhoods  never 
remember  a  similar  occurrence,  and  they  think  that  the  birds  must  have 
come  from  Donegal.  The  lighthouse-keepers  on  the  Copeland  Islands 
report  the  visit  of  strange  birds  not  known  to  them  as  visiting  the  islands 
previously.  Perhaps  someone  else  may  have  similar  occurrences  to 
record,  and,  as  far  as  I  can  find  from  inquiries,  there  are  no  grouse 
within  a  long  radius  of  above-mentioned  places. 

Arthur  J.  Coi,i.ins,  Belfast. 


RoYAi,  Zooi<oGiCAi<  Society. 
Recent  donations  comprise  a  rat,  from  C  J.  Patten,  Esq.  ;  a  weaver- 
bird,  from  Lady  M'Kenna  ;  a  Parrakeet,  from  Mrs.  A.  Hillas  ;  a  Common 
Fox,  from  Mr.  Reed;  and  three  Guinea  Pigs,  from  E).  M.  Solomons,  Esq. 
•    3,870  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  December. 

BeIvFast  Naturai,  History  and  Phii,osophicai,  Society. 

November  27TH.— An  interesting  illustrated  lecture  on  "Sea Fish  and 
Fishing  off  the  West  of  Ireland  "  was  given  by  Rev.  W.  S.  Green,  M.A., 
F.R.G.S.,  H.M.  Inspector  of  Fisheries.  The  President  (Mr.  ROBERT 
IvIvOYD  Patterson,  J. P.,  F.Iv.S.)  occupied  the  chair. 

Mr.  Green  proceeded  wnth  his  lecture,  which  he  prefaced  by 
throwing  on  the  screen  a  map  of  the  British  Isles,  showing  the  depths 
of  the  sea  frorn  near  the  coast  down  to  the  profound  abysses  of  the 
Atlantic.  Fishing  grounds  were  only  found  at  moderate  depths,  these 
extending  to  a  distance  of  from  ten  to  twenty  miles  off  the  West  of 
Ireland ;  but  in  the  North  Sea  immense  fishing  areas  existed,  each 
having  a  depth  of  about  fifty  fathoms ;  indeed,  these  were  amongst  the 
finest  fishing  grounds  in  the  world.  While  Mr.  Balfour  was  Chief 
Secretary  for  Ireland  he  made  an  effort  with  the  Royal  Dublin  Society 
to  start  an  expedition  with  the  view  of  developing  the  Irish  fisheries. 
They  had  worked  for.  two  years  from  the  south  of  Cork  to  the  north  of 
Donegal  and  had  done  some  good  work.  In  addition  to  spring  mackerel 
fishing  there  was  an  autumn  mackerel  fishing  carried  on  by  the  natives, 
and  the  extent  of  it  could  be  estimated  froin  the  fact  that  last  year  as 
much  as  ^50,000  worth  of  mackerel  had  been  sent  to  America,  and  that 
exportation  had  been  going  on  for  the  -^past  seven  years.  At  several 
places  stations  had  been  established  for  the  curing  of  fish,  these 
numbering  eighteen,  and  they  had  been  successful  on  the  west  coast  of 
Kerry.  The  next  branch  of  the  subject,  which  was  of  a  highly  in- 
teresting character,  dealt  with  the  development  of  several  specie's  offish. 
The  eggs,  he  pointed  out,  floated  in  the  sea  near  the  surface,  the  swing 
of  the  sea  being  sufficient  to  keep  them  from  coming  to  the  surface 
w^here  they  would  be  made  the  prey  of  various  kinds  of  little  enemies. 
There  was  an  exception  to  this  in  the  case  of  the  herring,  which  laid 
its  eggs  in  the  bottom. 

Professor  Fitzgerai^d  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Green,  which 
was  seconded  by  Mr.  John  Bro^vn. 

January  8th.— An  illustrated  lecture  on  "  Old  Belfast ;  the  Origin  and 
Progress  of  the  City,"  w^as  given  by  Mr,  J.  J.  Marshai,i<,  assisted  by 
Messrs.  Ai,i,en  and  Gray.  The  Secretary  exhibited  and  described  two 
sepulchral  urns  recently  presented  to  the  Society. 

52  The  Irhh  Naturalist. 

Bei^fast  Naturai^ists'  Fiei,d  Ci^ub. 

December  i8th.— The  President  (Mr.  F.  \V.  Lockwood,  C.E.) 
in  the  chair.  A  paper  entitled  "  Notes  on  Moel  Tr3-faen,"  was  contributed 
by  Miss  Mary  K.  Andrews,  in  which  it  was  stated  that  Joseph  Wright, 
F.G.S  ,  had  found  a  large  number  of  foranis  in  a  small  quantity  of  sand 
from  the  high  level  sands  there. 

The  next  paper  was  entitled  "  A  Bit  of  Foreshore,"  by  Miss  S.  M. 
Thompson,  Hon.  Secretary  to  the  Geological  Section.  The  paper  dwelt 
chiefly  with  changes  on  the  shore  opposite  Macedon  that  have  been 
observed  by  the  writer  during  the  last  thirt}'  years,  especially  record- 
ing that  the  well-known  cross-dykes  of  basalt,  opposite  Macedon  Point, 
have  lost  eighteen  or  twenty  inches  in  height  during  that  period,  the 
result  being  the  sweeping  away  of  deposits  of  mud  with  their  appropriate 
plant  and  animal  life.  The  former  condition  of  the  shore  was  then 
described,  with  its  predominantly  sandy  character,  and  contrasted  with 
its  present  appearance  when  the  erosion  of  the  numerous  dykes  leaves 
free  play  to  the  waves,  and  bare  tracts  of  Triassic  marl  have  greatly  taken 
the  place  of  the  old  sandy  surface.  Similar  differences  further  down 
shore  were  mentioned,  and  the  influence  of  these  geological  changes 
upon  the  distribution  of  plant  and  animal  life  referred  to,  and  the 
melancholy  prediction  made  that  another  quarter  of  a  century  would 
probably  completely  level  the  familiar  cross-dykes. 

The  papers  were  criticised  by  Messrs.  Wm.  Swanston,  F.G.S.  ;Wm. 
Gray,  M.R.I.A.  ;  John  Hamieton,  and  Aeec.  G.  Wieson. 

Mr.  Wm.  Gray,  M.R.I.A.,  then  made  a  short  report  as  the  Club 
delegate  to  the  British  Association  at  Oxford,  when  the  Club  was 
accorded  the  thanks  of  the  Association  for  their  valuable  contributions 
of  photographs,  &c.,  illustrating  the  geology  of  our  district. 

In  pursuance  of  the  recommendation  of  the  British  Association,  Mr. 
Gray  proposed  and  Mr.  Weech  seconded  the  following  resolution,  which 
was  unanimously  passed  :  —  "  That  the  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club 
should  place  themselves  in  communication  with  the  Belfast  Corporation, 
with  a  view  to  extending  scientific  knowledge  by  means  of  lectures  and 
demonstrations  in  our  museums." 

Mr.  Gray  then  proceeded  with  his  lecture  on  the  "  Missing  Beds  of 
Cave  Hill,"  using  the  geological  features  of  Portland  as  apt  illustrations. 
The  lecture  was  well  illustrated  with  lantern  slides  and  diagrams  shown 
by  Mr.  W.  NichoU.  the  different  organic  remains  being  represented  by  a 
fine  series  of  fossils  on  the  table. 

The  President,  the  Plonorary  Secretary,  and  Mr.  W.  Swanston  having 
complimented  the  lecturer  on  his  admirable  paper,  the  following  new 
members  were  elected  : — Miss  Josephine  Buchannan,  M.A.  ;  Rev.  Douglas 
Walmsley,  B.A. ;  George  Smith,  and  Miss  B.  Corley.  y  ^ 

—  r/  y 


December  iith. — The  President  in  the  chair.  Miss  R.  Hensman 
read  a  paper  on  "Some  Causes  of  the  Disintegration  of  Shells."  Mr. 
Carpenter  lectured  on  "Animals  found  in  the  Mitchelstown  Cave." 
Th€  latter  of  these  papers  appears  in  the  present  number.  The  former 
will  shortly  be  published.  Mr.  Greenwood  Pim  described  a  method  of 
preserving  cut  flowers  in  water,  by  splitting  the  cut  end  into  four  portions 
for  a  short  length.  He  exhibited  specimens  of  Clematis  that  had  been 
treated  in  this  manner,  and  pointed  out  how  they  were  still  quite  fresh, 
while  others  gathered  at  the  same  time,  in  which  the  stem  had  not  been 
split,  were  faded.  Mr.  R.  Leoyd  Praeger  exhibited  on  behalf  of  a  lady 
member  a  fungus  Poly  poms) — stated  to  have  been  found  below  twelve 
feet  of  peat  in  Switzerland.  He  also  showed  fine  specimens  of  the 
Fragrant  Coltsfoot  or  Winter  Heliotrope  {^Petasites  fragrans)  ^2i\.h.^rQ.(!i  that 
day  at  Howth,  the  usual  time  of  flowering  being  January  to  March. 

The  following  new  members  were  elected  ; — Michael  J.  Buckley,  Mrs, 
S.  I^owes,  B.  T.  Patterson,  CE).,  J.  C.  Rea,  B.A.,  A.  L.  C.  Stuart,  I,Iy.D. 

©Ijje  ^vi&lj  Jlatttralt^t. 

Vol.  IV.  MARCH,  1895.  No.  3. 




In  compiling  the  following  notes  I  have  endeavoured  to 
select  from  my  memoranda  of  the  past  j-ear  such  items  only 
as  appeared  likely  to  be  of  general  interest  to  County  Dublin 
botanists.  Though  no  ver}^  striking  results  were  obtained, 
only  three  more  or  less  critical  plants  being  added  to  the 
Count}^  flora  in  addition  to  the  two  already  recorded  in  these 
pages  (Vol.  III.,  p.  202),  the  outcome  of  the  year's  work 
cannot  be  considered  altogether  disappointing.  A  large 
proportion  of  the  rarer  plants  of  the  county  have  been 
extended  to  new  stations,  many  of  the  older  records  have  been 
verified,  and  not  a  few  of  those  curious  absences  of  common 
vSpecies  from  certain  districts  w^hich  one  is  tempted  to  look 
upon  as  freaks  of  distribution  have  been  detected  or  confirmed. 
The  difficulty  of  proving  a  negative  is  admittedly  so  great 
that  it  seems  wiser,  for  the  present,  to  keep  an  open  mind 
with  regard  to  these  conspicuous  absences,  and  to  defer  any 
more  particular  mention  of  them  until  the  systematic  survey 
of  the  county  flora  shall  have  been  fully  carried  out. 

These  Further  Notes  then  will  contain  nothing  more  than  a 
selection  from  my  memoranda  of^the  year  of  some  items 
falling  under  the  two  headings : — I.  Plants  not  previously 
recorded  for  County  Dublin,  and  II.  Rarer  County  Dublin 
Plants  observed  in  new  Stations. 



Callitrlche  hamulata,  Kuetz. — (i).  Quarry  pools  near  Hollywood, 
Naul  Hills,  June,  1894.  (2.)  Pools  at  Loughlinstown,  August,  1894. 
Apparently  rare  in  the  county. 

Lamium  intermedium,  Fries. — Abundant  in  sandy  potato  fields 
near  Rush  harbour,  September,  1S94. 


54  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

J  uncus  diffusus,  Hoppe. — Kilakee  Mountain  at  i,6oo  feet,  Sep- 
tember, 1894.  A  plant  which  has  all  the  appearance  of  a  hybrid,  yet  may 
be  separated  without  any  great  difficulty  from  both  of  its  reputed  parents, 
J.  glaucus  and  J,  cffusns. 



NyiYiphsea  alba,  Linn. — Very  sparingly  in  pits  at  Portmarnock 
brick-fields,  where  there  is  no  appearance  of  its  having  been  intentionally 
introduced  ;  July,  1894.  In  the  Brit.  Ass.  Gtiide,  1878,  the  species  is 
entered  "  Royal  Canal,  &c.,  rather  rare."  I  have  never  seen  the  plant 
there  and  can  find  no  other  definite  county  locality  on  record. 

Fumarla  denslflora,  DC— Potato  field  near  the  brink  of  the  large 
quarry  at  Finglas,  June,  1894.  The  only  previous  county  record  seems 
to  be  Mr.  G.  C.  Druce's  for  Portmarnock  (y.  of  Bot.  1891,  p.  304). 

Alyssum  calyclnum,  Linn.— A  few  plants  in  a  sandy  field  near 
Rogerstown  coast-guard  station,  May,  1894.  This  interesting  little  alien 
has  long  held  its  ground  in  the  county.  Mackay  records  it  from  Port- 
marnock in  181 7  and  1837,  and  Mr.  H.  C.  Hart  from  the  same  place  in 
1867- 1872.  My  slender  Rogerstown  specimens  range  only  from  i  to  2 
inches  in  height,  so  that  the  plant  is  not  hard  to  overlook,  and  may  be 
expected  to  occur  in  other  similar  stations. 

Thiaspl  arvense,  Linn. — (i)  Sparingly  in  cultivation  at  Boherna- 
breena,  October,  1893,  and  (2)  abundantly  in  a  sandy  turnip  field  near 
Rush  harbour,  September,  1894. 

Silene  con  lea,  Linn. — In  considerable  abundance,  more  than  a 
hundred  plants,  on  a  bank  by  the  sea,  to  the  north  of  Portrane  peninsula, 
September  24,  1894.  The  plant  is  well  established  here  over  a  distance 
of  more  than  100  yards,  but  seems  to  be  quite  absent  from  the  adjoining- 
sandy  fields,  whence  it  may  be  presumed  to  have  spread.  The  only 
previous  record  for  the  county  is  Portmarnock,  1837  (6>^.  Hib.^  p.  43). 

Scleranthus  annuus,  Linn. — Road  track  by  the  Rathmines  Water- 
works, Castle  Kell}',  at  the  head  of  Glenasmole,  August,  1S94,  growing 
vigorously  in  "  freestone,"  as  the  disintegrated  granite  is  locally  called. 

Geranium  pusillum,  Linn. — A  single  plant  in  a  sandy  field  to  the 
north  of  Portrane,  September,  1894.  The  only  other  county  station  is 
Lambay  Island,  where  it  was  found  by  Mr,  H.  C.  Hart  in  1882  {Fl. 
Lam  bay'). 

Vicia  tct  rasper  ma,  Moench. — Sparingly  on  the  railwa)^  bank 
between  Rush  and  Skerries,  Jul}-,  1894.  Knockmaroon  is  the  only  other 
recorded  station  {Cyb.  Hib.) 

Arctium  Intermedium,  Lange. — This  sub-species  or  varietj-, 
sufficiently  distinct  in  appearance  from  A.  niimis,  so  common  throughout 
the  county,  is  apparently  rare  in  Dublin.  I  found  a  single  plant  of  it  by 
the  edge  of  a  cultivated  field  above  the  sea  at  Malahide  in  September 
last.  There  is  a  specimen  at  Glasnevin  Herbarium  labelled,  in  the 
handwriting  of  the  late  Dr.  Moore:  "  Arctiiiin  intcrmcdiuin,  near  Baldoyle, 
1840."  Though  the  plant  is  set  down  in  the  Brit.  Assoc.  Guide,  1878,  as 
frequent  in  Dublin,  I  can  find  no  definite  records. 

Campanula  rapunculoldes,  Linn.— Well  established,  at  intervals 
over  a  distance  of  100  yards  on  a  grassy  bank  by  the  roadside  S,W.  of 
Rush,  where  I  gathered  flowering  specimens  in  July,  1893.  A  few  plants 
were  found  by  Mr.  A.  G.  More  near  Bray  Harbour,  Co.  Dublin,  in  1872. 
No  doubt  introduced  in  both  stations,  yet  well  fitted  by  its  creeping 
root-stock  to  effect  a  permanent  settlement. 

Flirt  her  Notes  on  the  J'lora  of  County  Dublin.  55 

CuscutaTrifoIIly  Bab. — (i.)  Two  large  patches  on  Trifolium praiense 
between  Ballyboghil  and  the  Wren's  Nest,  August,  1894,  and  (2)  abundant 
in  a  sandy  field  at  the  northern  extremity  of  Portrane  peninsula, 
September,  1894.  In  the  second  station  the  plant  attached  itself  chiefly 
to  Anthyllis  Vulnerana  which  appeared  to  have  almost  completely  driven 
out  a  sowing  of  Trifolhun  pratense.  The  only  previous  county  record  is 
that  of  Dr.  W.  G.  Smith  for  Ballybrack,  1868.  {Dub.  Nat.  His.  Soc.  Proc, 
vol.  v.,  p.  198). 

Orobanche  minor,  Sni. — Very  abundant  (1)  in  sandy  fields  to  the 
north  of  Portrane  peninsula  on  ^////^j'/ZzV  and  on  Trifolium  hybridum  and 
T.  pratense,  September,  1894,  also  (2)  abundant  on  T.  pratense  in  a  field 
above  the  hotel  at  Malahide,  where  I  gathered  spikes  fully  18  inches  in 
height  at  the  close  of  September  last.  The  only  previous  record  for  Co. 
Dublin  is  Shennick's  Island,  1893  (/.  Nat.,  Vol.  ii.,  p.  283).  This  and 
the  preceding  species  would  appear  to  be  spreading  in  the  county. 

Mentha  sativa,  Linn. — (i)  Watery  places  by  the  roadside  near 
Cockle's  Bridge,  Garristown,  August,  1894,  and  (2)  by  the  Dodder  near 
Newtown,  Tallaght,  September,  1894.  Often  confounded,  no  doubt, 
with  M.  aquatica,  and  perhaps  frequent  in  the  county. 

Calamlntha  Acinos,  Clairv. — A  single  well-grown  plant  in  a 
stubble  field  by  the  Royal  Canal,  E.  of  Clonsilla,  October,  1894. 
Previously  recorded  from  three  other  county  stations,  Portmarnock, 
Portrane,  and  near  Tulla  Church,  Carrickmines.  Though  the  first 
published  record  is  due  to  Mackay  (^Additions,  1859- 1860),  a  specimen  in 
Glasnevin  Herbarium  labelled: — "Portmarnock,  October,  1854,  Thomas 
Chandlee,"  seems  to  show  that  Mr.  Chandlee  was  the  first  to  observe 
the  plant  in  the  county.     A  rare  species  throughout  Ireland. 

Stachys  arvensis,  linn. — This  species,  apparently  spreading  in  the 
county,  though  still  uncommon,  I  observed  during  the  year  at  three  new 
stations— (i)  Garristown,  (2)  Rush,  and  (3)  Ballyedmonduff. 

Anagrams  arvensis,  Linn.,  var.  caerulea.  {A.carulca,  Schreb.)  Of 
this  pretty  blue-flowered  variety  of  the  Scarlet  Pimpernel,  I  gathered  a 
single  plant  in  September  last  in  a  corn-field  near  Raheen  Point,  Portrane. 
There  appears  to  be  no  previous  published  record  for  the  county ;  but 
Mr.  R.  M.  Barrington  of  Fassaroe,  has  shown  me  a  specimen  gathered 
by  his  uncle,  the  late  Mr.  Richard  Barrington,  at  Seapoint  in  1858.  The 
variety  seems  to  be  very  rare  in  Ireland. 

Chenopodium  nriurale,  Linn.— A  few  plants  in  waste  ground  at 
the  angle  of  Oldcourt  cross-roads  south  of  Tallaght,  1893.  Now  very 
rare  in  the  county,  but  once  much  more  common  if  the  older  records 
may  be  trusted. 

Lemna  g^ibba,  Linn.— In  great  abundance  in  the  old  mill-pond  in 
Balbriggan,  August,  1894.  The  conspicuously  buoyant  masses  of  this 
species  often  rising  distinctly  above  the  surface  of  the  water  make  it 
readilv  distinguishable,  by  habit  alone,  from  the  common  Z.  minor. 

Ophrys  apifera,  Huds.— (i)  Sparingly  in  dry  pastures  among  the 
gravel  eskers  W.  of  Drimnagh  Castle,  June,  1894  ;  (2)  on  the  railway  bank 
at  foot  of  Killiney  Hill,  July,  1894. 

Juncus  obtusiflorus,  Ehrh.— (i)  In  a  shallow  drain  at  Garristown 
Bog,  August,  1894  :  (2)  very  abundant  in  marshy  ground  by  the  northern 
shore  of  Portrane,  spreading  for  fully  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  September, 
1894 ;  and  (3)  abundant  in  a  marsh  above  Saggard,  Sef)tember,  1894.  The 
plant  seems  to  thrive  inland  quite  as  well  as  in  maritime  stations.  At 
Cxarristown,  11  miles  from  the  nearest  sea,  I  gathered  specimens  upwards 
of  5  feet  in  height,  and  those  from  the  Saggard  station,  fully  13  miles 
from  the  nearest  sea,  seem  quite  as  vigorous  as  the  Portrane  plant. 

Carex  laevigrata,  Sni.— In  a  marsh  on  the  S.E.  slope  of  Kilmashogue 
Mountain  at  700  feet,  July,  1894. 

A  2 

56  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Festuca  myurus,  Ivinn.— A  few  tufts  on  a  wall  top  near  Lispopple 
cross  roads,  August,  1894.  Very  rare  in  the  count}',  the  only  other 
recorded  stations  being  Howtli  and  Donnybrook,  in  the  latter  of  which 
it  was  gathered  by  ]\Ir.  A.  G.  More  in  1878. 

Lastrea  Orcopterls,  Presl. — This  fern,  so  abundant  in  parts  of 
Wicklow,  seems  extremely  rare  in  Dublin.  A  single  plant  only  rewarded 
my  search  in  the  Dublin  Mountains  this  j-ear  (September,  1S94),  and  as 
this  grew  directly  on  the  Dublin  and  Wicklow  boundary  S.W.  of  Glen- 
cullen  Bridge,  it  is  not  without  hesitation  I  give  it  a  place  here.  M)' 
friend,  Revd.  C.  F.  d'Arcj%  who  is  thoroughly  acquainted  v/ith  the  Dublin 
Mountains,  and  has  made  a  close  study  of  their  ferns,  tells  me  he  found 
a  single  plant  on  Glendhu  Mountain  in  or  about  1880. 

Botrychlum  Lunaria,  Sw.— (i)  Verj'  abundant  on  the  summit 
(1,250  feet),  and  down  the  northern  slope  of  Montpelier  at  intervals  to 
700  feet.  May,  1894  ;  (2)  Pastures  near  the  shore  below  the  monument 
(round  tower)  at  Portrane,  April,  1894,  Still  frequent  in  Mackay's  old 
station,  Kelly's  Glen  or  Glenasmole  [Cat.  1S06)  in  the  upper  portion  of 
which  Mr.  Greenwood  Pim  tells  me  he  found  it  in  1889,  while  Dr. 
M'Weeney  two  years  later  gathered  it  lower  down  the-glen  near  Friars- 

Ophiogrlossum  vulg-atum,  Linn. — (i)  Frequent  in  damp  pastures 
above  Gormanstown  woods,  April,  1894 ;  (2)  Marshy  fields  near 
Dunsoghly  Castle,  abundant.  May,  1894 ;  (3)  Near  the  head  of  Crooksling 
Glen,  above  the  Slade  of  Saggard,  at  650  feet,  June,  1894.  Mr.  W.  H. 
Bloomer  has  shown  me  a  specimen  gathered  by  him  near  the  monument 
at  Portrane  in  April,  1894,  and  Dr.  M'Weeney  informs  me  that  he  found 
the  plant  abundant  in  1891  along  Glenasmole,  from  a  little  above 
Friarstown  to  the  head  of  the  valley.  Near  Friarstown,  I  found  it  in 
great  profusion  and  luxuriance  on  the  24th  June  last.  Appears  more 
widelj'  distributed  in  the  county  than  the  preceding  species,  as  it  is  now 
on  record  from  seven  out  of  the  eight  districts  into  which  I  have  divided 
the  county  for  botanical  purposes. 

Lycopodium  clavatum,  Linn. — In  great  abundance  and  fruiting 
freel}'  on  the  flat  mossy  summit  of  Slieve  Thoul,  near  the  S.W.  extremity 
of  the  county  at  a  height  of  1,300  feet,  August,  1894.  I'erhaps  no 
observ'ation  of  last  season  was  more  satisfactory  to  me  than  this,  as  a 
25  years  close  acquaintance  with  the  Dublin  Mountains  had  failed  to 
give  me  a  single  station  for  this  interesting  species.  Loosel}^  and 
inaccurately  set  down  in  Mackay's  Catalogue,  1824,  as  plentiful  in  the 
Dublin  Mountains,  and  recorded  in  the  Irish  Flora,  1833,  from  Kelly's 
Glen  and  Ballynascorney. 

In  concluding  these  Notes  I  wish  to  express  my  indebtedness 
to  Mr.  A.  G.  More  and  Mr.  Arthur  Bennett  for  assistance  in 
determining  some  of  the  critical  forms  referred  to.  Information 
of  further  stations  for  any  of  the  rarer  County  Dublin  species, 
I  shall  be  ahvaj^s  glad  to  receive,  as  well  as  any  reference  to 
records,  whether  in  the  shape  of  manuscript,  printed  matter, 
or  herbaritim  plants,  likely  to  throw^  light  on  the  history  of 
the  county  flora.-''  Notes  of  new  stations  for  rare  or  critical 
plants  vShotild,  if  possible,  be  accompanied  by  specimens. 

*  Communications  on  the  subject  may  be  addressed  to  i,  Bel  grave- 
road,  Rathmiues,  Co.  Dublin. 

[     57     ] 

BY   R.    F.    SCHARFF,    PH.D. 

Mr.  Carpf;ntfr's  article  in  last  month's  Irish  Naturalist,  on 
the  animals  found  in  the  Mitchelstown  Cave,  is  one  of  the 
most  interesting,  and  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  most 
valuable  contributions  which  has  been  published  in  this 
periodical.  I  fully  agree  with  his  remarks  as  to  the  desira- 
bility of  further  investigating  the  Irish  caves.  A  few  of  them 
have  been  entered  with  a  view  to  the  discovery  of  bats, — others 
have  been  examined  by  archaeologists,  but  hardly  any  of  them 
have  been  systematically  worked. 

Mr.  Carpenter's  interest  in  the  researches  would  be  chiefly 
directed  towards  finding  the  living  creatures  which  are  hidden 
in  the  dark  recesses  of  the  caves,  but  of  equal  if  not  greater 
importance  are  the  remains  of  extinct  animals,  which  may  be 
buried  there.  When  we  consider  the  vast  amount  of  w^ork 
wliich  has  been  accomplished  in  that  direction  by  Prof.  Boyd 
Dawkins  in  England,  it  seems  surprising  how  little  has  been 
attempted  in  Ireland.  The  late  Prof.  I,eith  Adams  directed 
his  attention  to  one  or  two  caves  in  the  South  of  Ireland,  and 
in  the  exploration  of  the  Bally namintra  Cave  he  was  joined 
by  Messrs.  Kinahan  and  Ussher.  Their  united  labours  were 
crowned  with  great  success,  but  the  number  of  extinct 
mammals  hitherto  obtained  in  Irish  caves  remains  surpris- 
ingly small,  when  we  compare  them  with  those  discovered  in 
England  and  the  South  of  Wales.  Although  a  thorough 
exploration  of  caves  is  a  somewhat  costly  undertaking,  I 
venture  to  hope  that  a  commencement  will  soon  be  made,  as 
it  is  probable  that  it  would  lead  to  very  important  discoveries 
and  additions  to  our  extinct  fauna. 

As  a  preliminary  towards  this  exploration,  I  think  we 
should  obtain  a  complete  list  of  all  the  Irish  caves,  with  their 
exact  localities  and  approximate  dimensions.  I  have  made  a 
few  notes  on  the  position  of  some  of  the  caves,  and  with  the 
kind  assistance  of  Dr.  Wright  I  discovered  records  of  several 
additional  ones,  but  I  feel  sure  that  a  very  much  larger 
number  of  them  exist  in  Ireland.  I  therefore  append  a  map 
on  which  all  the  caves  known  to  me  are  marked,  cliiefl}^  with 
a  view  of  eliciting  further  information  from  country  corres- 
pondents who  may  happen  to  read  this  note.  I  also  add  to 
the   number  referring  to   any  particular  cave  a  list  of  the 


The  Irish  Naturalist. 

papers  in  which  it  has  beeu  mentioned.  This  list  naturally  is 
far  from  being  complete,  and  I  hope  readers  of  the  Irish 
Naturalist  will  send  to  the  Editors  any  additional  titles  of 
papers  they  may  come  across. 

Co.  Antrim. 

I  &  2.  Caves  at  Ballinto}'. 

3.  Cave  on  Carrick-a-rede. 

Bryce,  J.     "On  some  caverns  containing  bones  near  the  Giant's 
Cause^v•ay."     Brit.  Assoc.  Report,  1834. 

4.  Caves  on  RathUn  Island. 

Andrews,  T.     "On  some  caves  in  Rathhn  and  adjoining  coast." 
Brit.  Assoc.  Report ^  1834,  p.  660. 

Some  Notes  on  the  Irish  Caves.  59 

Co,  Civ  ARE. 

5.  Ballyallia  Cave, 

Foot,  V.  J.     Froc.  Dublin  Nai.  Hist.  Soc.  Vol.  ii.  April,  1859,  p.  152. 

6.  Cave  at  Eden  vale. 

Kinahan,  J.  R.     Froc.  Dublin  Nat.  Hist,  Soc.    Vol.  iii.  June,  1861, 


7.  Glancrawne  Cave,  Castleton. 

Kinahan,  J.  R.     Froc.  Dublin  Nai.  Hist.  Soc.   Vol.  iii.   June,  1861, 
p.  104, 

8.  Glenallia  Cave. 

Kinahan,  J.  R.     Froc.  Dublin  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.    Vol.  iii.    June,  i86r, 
p.  99. 
9  &  10.  Caves  at  Inchiquin  Lough.  \  Kinahan,  J.  R.     Froc.  Dublin  Nat. 
II,  12,  &  13.  Caves  at  Ouin.  >      Hist.  Soc.    Vol.  iii.    June,  1861, 

14.  Vigo  Cave.  )      p.  94. 

Co.  Cork, 

15.  Ovens  near  Kilumney. 

Liish  Naturalist,  1894,  p.  241. 

Co.  Fermanagh. 

16.  Knockmore  Cave  near  Derrygonelly. 

Wakeman,  W.  F.    Froc.  Royal  Irish  Academy,  Vol.  x.    1870,  pp.  229- 

17.  Knockninny  Cave. 

Plunkett,  T.    Froc.  R.  Irish  Acad.  (2).   Vol.  i.     1870-79,  pp.  329-338. 

Co.  GaIvWay. 

18.  Caves  at  Coole  Park,  Gort. 

Scott.  "  Irish  Fossil  Mammalia."  Gcol.  Mag.  Vol  vii.   1S70,  p.  416. 

Co.  K11.KENNY. 

19.  Dunmore  Cave. 

Kinahan,  J.  R.     Froc,  Dublin  Nat.  Hist.  Soc,    Vol.  iii.    June,  1861, 

P-  95- 
Mallet,  R.     '*  On  some  stalagmites  from  the  Cave  of  Dunmore." 

Quarterly  J^ozir.  Geol.  Soc.  Dublin.     Vol.  iii.     1849. 
Hardman,  G.  T.     "  On  two  new  deposits  of  human  and  other 

liones  in  Dunmore  Cave."     Froc.  Royal  Irish  Academy  (2).    Vol. 

ii.    (Science).     1875-77,  PP-  168-176. 
Foot,  A.  W.    Joicr.  Royal  Hist,  and  Arch.  Assoc.  (4).     Vol.  i. 
Robertson,  J.  G.     Natural  History  Review.    Vol.  i.     1854,  pp.  169- 


Co.  Tipperary. 

20.  Mitchelstown  Cave. 

Apjohn,  J.  "  On  the  newly  discovered  Cave  vsituate  between 
Cahir  and  Mitchelstown."  Jour^  Geol.  Soc.  Dublin.  Vol.  i.  1833, 
pp.  103-111. 

Co.  Waterford. 

21.  Bally namintra  Cave,  Cappagh. 

Ussher,  Adams,  and  Kinahan.  "Report  on  the  Exploration  of 
Ballynamintra  Cave."  Froc.  Royal  Irish  Acadctiiy  (2).  Vol.  ii.  (Pol. 
Lit),  pp.  73-78. 

22.  Shandon  Cave,  Dungarvan. 

Dawkins,  Boyd.     "  Cave  Hunting." 

Adams,  Leith.     Sci.  Froc.  R.  Dublin  Soc.     Vol.  ii.,  pp.  45-86. 

Scott.     Geolog.  Mag.      Vol,  vii.  1870,  p.  417. 

23.  Cave  at  Whitechurch. 

Hull,   E.     Anniversary  address  Royal  Geol.   Society,   Ireland, 
1877.    four.  Royal  Geol.  Soc,  Ireland  {N.S.).     Vol.  iv,,  pp.  49-51. 

6o  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


BY  H.  K.  gore:  CUTHBERT. 
(Read  before  the  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  February  i2tli,  1895.) 

GlknculIvEN,   on    the   boundary    between   the    counties    of 

Dublin  and  Wicklow,  might  be  described  in  the  poet's  phrase 

as  '*  A  populous  solitude  of  bees  and  birds, 

And  fairy- formed  and  many-coloured  things"  ; — 

in  soberer  language  it  is  a  very  interesting  valley  which  the 
Cookstown  river  in  recent,  and  more  violent  agencies  in  former 
times,  have  scooped  out  of  the  granite  wall  of  South  Dublin 
and  the  drift  overlying  its  hollows.  The  geologist  and  the 
botanist  ma}^  spend  a  profitable  day  in  Glencullen.  Let  us 
visit  it  for  the  nonce  as  entomologists,  and,  rambling  thither 
some  sunny  afternoon  in  June,  take  note  of  the  wild  bees  that 
we  meet.  We  can  watch  their  doings,  study  their  habits,  and 
thereby  teach  ourselves  something  of  their  economy  and  the 
complex  w^orkings  of  their  instinct. 

At  starting,  leaving  the  woods  at  the  Enniskerry  end  of  the 
"len,  we  notice  how  the  air  seems  full  of  bees.  Their  brisk  hum 
is  everywhere,  they  seem  to  hover  over  every  bush  and  flow^er, 
and  to  rise  up  before  us  in  protest  as  we  brush  through  the 
grass.  There  is  a  mossy  bank  just  before  us  where  the  com- 
motion seems  keenest.  This  is  the  capital  city  of  a  humble-bee, 
Bombus  vmsconim^  commonly  called  the  Carder,  and  one  of 
the  best  known  of  its  tribe.  The  nest  is  not  yet  complete, 
for  the  season  is  still  early,  and,  as  its  tenants  are  unwarlike, 
we  can  examine  it  in  safety.  Their  dwelling,  oval  in  shape, 
is  entirely  composed  of  moss,  which  the  bees  ingeniously 
heckle  or  card  with  their  feet,  afterwards  working  it  up  into  a 
compact  mass,  resisting  changes  of  weather.  When  possible 
these  architects  like  to  choose  a  site  at  the  foot  of  a  wall  or 
base  of  a  bank,  this  position  giving  them  a  certain  security. 
Lifting  the  roof  of  the  nest  we  find  a  series  of  cells  of  various 
sizes,  connected  by  masses  of  coarse  brown  wax,  somewhat 
in  shape  like  pigeons'  eggs,  but  longer  and  thinner.  These 
cells  are  not  made  of  wax,  but  of  a  silky  material  like  rice- 
paper,  and  are  really  the  cocoons  spun  by  the  bee-grubs.  At 
this  time  of  year  they  will  not  be  very  numerous,  but  towards 
the  end  of  summer  we  may  count  between  two  and  three  score. 
Round  about  these  cocoons,  at  the  sides  and  base  of  the  nest. 

With  the  Wild  Bees  in  Glencidlen.  6i 

we  shall  find  several  masses  of  wax,  very  much  resembling 
the  queen-cells  of  the  Hive-Bee,  containing  young  grubs  and 
bee-bread,  or  kneaded  lumps  of  pollen  and  honey.  These  are 
the  work  of  the  queen-mother,  the  foundress  of  the  colony, 
in  the  early  .spring  days.  According  as  the  grubs  grow  to 
maturity  they  spin  up  the  egg-shaped  cocoons  we  first  noticed, 
wherein  they  undergo  their  changes,  first  into  nymphs,  after- 
wards into  perfect  bees.  The  empty  cocoons  are  then 
strengthened  by  the  workers  with  a  rim  of  wax  and  used  as 
store-pots  for  hone3^  The  older  writers  on  bees,  such  as 
Kirby,  state  that  the  latter  is  never  stored  by  an}^  of  our  wild  . 
bees  in  regular  cells  like  those  of  the  hive-bee ;  but  I  have 
found,  as  we  shall  probably  here  find,  in  the  nests  of  the 
I^apidary  or  Red-tailed  Humble-bee,  several  roughly- shaped 
hexagonal  cells  of  brown  wax,  partly  sealed,  and  filled  with 
honey.  The  queens  and  workers  of  the  latter  bee  are  very 
common  objects  at  this  time  ;  later  in  the  season  we  shall  meet 
with  the  males.  Other  humble-bees  are  in  evidence,  especially 
the  White-tail,  ^^?;/ ^2^^  terrestris;  an  allied  species,  B.  hortonim; 
and  we  ma}''  meet  a  specimen  of  the  less  common  B.  sylvaiimi. 

There  are  other  bees  here  too,  in  numbers  on  bramble 
flowers  and  white-thorn,  or  flying  up  and  down  the  faces  of 
the  cla}^  banks.  These  are  various  members  of  the  large 
genus  Andi'ena,  which,  like  the  bulk  of  our  wild  bees,  are 
"  solitary  "  in  their  habits,  and  of  two  kinds  of  in- 
dividuals only,  males  and  females ;  or  as  we  may  put  it, 
drones  and  workers,  the  untiring  industry  of  the  female 
being  a  characteristic  feature  of  all  the  stinging  Hymenoptera. 
The  lad}^  Andrena  constructs  a  tunnel  or  burrow  in  the  face 
of  a  bank  to  a  depth,  varying  with  different  species,  of  from 
eight  to  fourteen  inches.  These  burrows  are  seldom  straight, 
and  often  branch  out  into  subsidiary  tunnels.  At  the  end  of 
each  the  mother-bee  places  a  ball  of  pollen  and  an  q.%%. 
She  then  closes  the  burrow  with  a  pellet  of  clay  to  prevent 
the  invasion  of  ants  and  predacious  beetles. 

The  members  of  this  genus  we  shall  most  likely  meet  are 

Andreyia    Trimmerana,    A.    albicans,   A.    helvola,   A.  Wilkella 

(easily   known   even   on    the   wing   by   its   silvery   pile),    A. 

Gzvynana,  A.viimitnla,  and  perhaps,  though  I  have  not  taken 

it  in  GlencuUen,  the  handsome  A,  cineraria, 


62  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

In  company  with  the  A^idreucc  we  observe  crowds  of  the 
brightly  coloured  Nomada:  or  wasp-bees,  wath  gaud}^  stripes 
of  black  and  3'ellow,  belonging  to  the  large  group  of  inquiline 
or  "  cuckoo  "-bees.  Thej^  are  so  called  because  they  do  not 
make  nests  for  themselves,  but  use  the  nests  of  other  species, 
their  young  being  reared  upon  the  food  stored  up  for  the 
grubs  of  their  hosts.  Amongst  them  we  notice  the  common 
Noviada  altcniata,  N'.  rujico7'nis,  and  A^  siiccificta ;  we  may  also 
meet  A^.  bijida  and  N".  ftavoguttata.  At  the  upper  part  of  the 
glen  I  have  taken  an  example  ot  the  rare  A',  fcrntginata,  a 
rather  sober-coloured  insect. 

Here  upon  a  Hawkweed  is  a  bee  of  curious  appearance, 
dark-coloured,  with  a  sharpl}^  pointed  tailpiece,  ringed  with 
narrow  greyish  bands.  This  is  another  inquiline,  Ccelioxys 
clongata,  and  we  shall  not  have  far  to  go  for  its  host.  There 
are  several  .species  of  the  latter,  but  the  commonest,  Megachilc 
ccntunciilaris,  is  abundant  in  many  places.  It  is  about  the 
size  of  a  hive-bee,  but  stouter,  and  lines  its  burrow  ver}' 
neatly  with  cuttings  of  Rose  and  Sweetbriar  leaves.  Nor  does 
it  confine  its  attention  to  the  rose  family  only,  for  I  have  seen 
it  cutting  the  leaves  of  such  shrubs  as  Symphoricarptis.  An 
allied  species,  M.  lignisccca^  lines  its  nest  with  cuttings  from 
the  Elm  and  the  Beech. 

Another  genus  of  wild  bee,  Halictus,  cannot  possibly 
escape  our  notice,  from  the  great  abundance  of  some  of  its 
species.  One  of  the  commonest  of  these  is  a  very  pretty 
insect,  Halictus  mbicnndiis,  the  females  being  easil}-  known 
by  their  ashy-grey  banding  and  golden-yellow  pile.  The  male 
Halicti  have  rather  a  peculiar  appearance  from  their  elongated 
bodies  and  slender  antennae.  The  males  of  H.  riibictrndtis 
and  H.  cylindricus  often  congregate  in  a  common  burrow 
where  they  pass  the  night,  and  spend  the  time  when  the  day 
is  wet  or  cloudy.  We  shall  probably  meet  with  some  of  these 
"bachelor's  clubs"  by  exploring  the  cla}'  banks  as  sunset 
approaches.  Most  of  the  Halicti  ^.re  small  black  or  brassy 
insects,  and  all  are  remarkable  for  their  fu.ssv  activitv. 

Flying  about  the  burrows  of  the  Halicti,  but  of  less  active 
habits,  we  observe  other  little  1)ees,  prettily  marked  with 
black  and  scarlet.  These  belong  to  the  genus  Sphccodes, 
fonnerly,   but   wrongly,    thought   to   be    inc|uiline    like    the 

With  the  Wild  Bees  in  Glcnctdlen.  63 

Nomadce.    We  can  distinguish  at  least  two  species,  5.  gibbus 
and  ^S*.  dimidiatus? 

All  the  bees  we  have  dealt  with  up  to  this  belong  to  the 
long-tongued  group,  in  scientific  parlance  A7ithophila 
aciitilingua.  But  there  are  a  couple  of  the  obtusilingual  or 
short-tongued  division  we  shall  pretty  certainl}^  notice  near 
the  Glendhu  side  of  the  valle}-.  One  of  these,  Piosopis  con- 
fusa,  is  a  small  black  insect,  somewhat  like  Halictus  subfaseiatzcs, 
but  distinguished  on  closer  inspection  by  its  light  yellow, 
face  and  the  yellowish  bands  upon  its  legs.  The  female 
Prosopis  constructs  her  tunnel  in  a  bramble  stem,  lining  it 
throughout  with  a  whitish  secretion  ;  the  male  seems  to  be  a 
notably  lazy  insect,  for  he  is  usually  found,  even  in  the  sun- 
niest part  of  the  da}^  coiled  up  asleep  in  the  cup  of  some 

Our  other  short-tongued  bees  belong  to  the  genus  Colletes. 
Two  species  occur  at  Glencullen,  C.f adieus  and  C.  Daviesana. 
The  latter  is  not  uncommon,  a  small  bee  of  compact  shape, 
thinly  clothed  with  light  brown  hair.  Several  of  its  colonies, 
with  burrows  crowded  closely  together,  will  be  found  in  the  cut 
banks  near  the  mountain  end  of  the  glen.  The  Colletidce  con 
struct  a  remarkably  clean-cut  tunnel,  about  five  inches  in 
depth,  terminating  in  a  cluster  of  cells.  These  are  finished 
with  peculiar  care.  In  fact  the  more  we  examine  their  work 
the  more  we  shall  marvel  at  their  method,  and  the  anicunt  of 
industry  involved.  Each  cell  is  oval  in  shape,  about  the 
size  of  a  linnet's  Q:gg,  made  of  fine  mortar,  and  lined  with  a 
waxy  enamel.  When  finished  the}'  are  provisioned,  as  usual, 
with  pollen.  To  dig  them  out  intact  requires  some  care,  but 
we  may  accomplish  it  before  the  daylight  fails  us. 

We  have  now  in  our  afternoon  stroll  taken  a  hasty  glance 
at  a  few  of  the  wild  bees  that  may  be  met  with  any  summer's 
day  in  Glencullen.  There  are  certainly  others  we  have  not 
noticed,  needing  fuller  observations  to  record.     But  using  our 

'  I  may  mention,  however,  that  Mr.  Edward  vSaunders  ("  Ilymenoptera- 
Aculeata  of  the  British  Isles,"  p.  194),  is  incHned  to  adopt'  the  earlier 
opinion  as  to  the  inquiline  nature  of  S^/iecodcs.  The  facts  that  it  is 
always  found  in  company  with  Halictus,  the  absence  of  any  pollinigerous 
organs,  and  its  listless  habit  of  flight,  would  vseem  to  support  this  view  ; 
but  the  question  can  hardly  be  considered  settled. 

The  researches  and  observations  of  vSmith,  Shuckard,  Bridgman,  and 
Sichel,  and  the  analogy  of  the  structure  of  Ceratlna  SinCi  Prosopis  supply 
the  chief  arguments  against  the  quoted  opinion  of  Mr.  Saunders. 

64  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

ej^es  as  naturalists,  and  as  naturalists  seeking  to  gather  the 
meaning  of  what  we  have  seen,  we  have  traversed  Glencullen 
till  we  have  reached  the  end  of  the  valley,  and  with  it  the  end 
of  our  ramble.  The  stars  are  beginning  to  twinkle  overhead 
and  a  bluish  mist  to  enwrap  the  tree-tops  of  the  glen.  Soon 
a  turn  of  the  path  will  hide  from  us  the  late  scene  of  our 
inquiries  ;  but  will  not,  I  trust,  so  easily  efface  the  recollection 
of  the  hours  therein  spent,  and  the  knowledge  we  shall  have 
derived  from  them. 


BY  H.    C.    I^KVINGE,    D.L. 

During  the  past  summer  and  autumn,  the  following  plants 

were  gathered  by  me  in  the  Count}"  Westmeath,  additional  to 

those  recorded  in  the  May  and  June  numbers  of  the  Irish 

Naturalist  for  1894,   thus  bringing  up   the  total   number  of 

species  for  the  county  to  572,  and  the  total  additions  to  the 

Cybele  Hibernica,  Dist.  VII.,  to  77.     The  R^ibi  were  submitted 

to  the  Revds.  E.  F.  I^inton  and  W.  Moyle  Rogers,  who  have 

kindly  examined  and  named  them  : — 

Ranunculus  circinatus,  Sibth  (vii.) — Brittas  Lake,  Knock  Driii. 
Rubus  rhamnifolius,  Aiict.  Aiigl.  (vii.) — Knock  Drin  woods. 

R.  Incurvatus,  Bab.  (vii.)— Knock  Drin.  A  striking  and  handsome 
Briar  with  fine  panicles  of  bright  pink  flowers  and  dark-green  foUage, 
not  previonsly  recorded  from  Ireland,  but  by  no  means  uncommon  in  the 
woods  at  Knock  Drin. 

R.  crythrinus,  Genev.  (vii.) — Roadside  hedge,  near  the  ''  Longford 
gate,"  Knock  Drin. 

R,  nrsucronatus,  Blox.  (vii.) — Deer  Park  fence.  Knock  Drin. 

R.  corylifolius,  Sm.  (=sublustris,  Lees.)  (vii.)— Knock  Drin 

R.  Balfourianus,  Blox.?  (vii.) — Near  "the  vSupply  "  Bridge  near 
Mullingar.  Mr.  K.  F.  Linton  remarks  that  this  is  certainly  Corylifolian 
or  Caesian,  and  Mr.  M.  Rogers  suggests  it  may  be  a  form  oi Ba/foitriantis, 
Blox.,  which  is  a  very  variable  plant. 

Lactuca  muralis,  Fresen.  (vii.) — Ballynegall  roadside  wall,  between 
Portnashangan  Church  and  School-house,  also  in  the  Ballynegall 
Demesne  ;  appears  to  be  truly  indigenous. 

Tragopogon  prate n sis,  L.  (vii.)— Killua  Demesne,  near  Clonmel- 

*OrnlthogaIum  umbellatum,  L.  (vii.)— Rockview,  near  Delvin, 
thoroughly  established  in  ditch  banks  and  meadows. 

tBromus  commutatus,  Schrad.  (vii.)  (fide  Mr.  A.  Bennett). — 
Meadows  at  Knock  Drin. 

Chara  denudata,  Braun.  (  =  C.  dissoluta,  Leonh.) — Brittas  Lake 
Knock  Drin.  Not  previously  found  in  the  British  Islands — vide  descrip- 
tion bv  Messrs.  H.  and  J.  Groves,  Irish  Naltrralisi^  ^smwsiYy,  1S95,  p.  ii. 

•         [     65     ] 

BY  G.  ^.  H.  BARRHTT-HAMIIv'TON,   B.A. 

If,  as  Mr.  Lydekker  truly  remarks  in  the  preface  to  his  recent 
work,'  "  no  monograph  of  the  British  Mammals  as  a  whole 
has  been  published  since  the  second  edition  of  Bell's  '  British 
Quadrupeds'  in  1874"  and  "since  that  date  considerable 
advances  have  been  made  with  regard  to  our  knowledge  of 
the  geographical  distribution  of  our  native  mammals,"  it  was 
surely  all  the  more  incumbent  upon  the  Editor  and  Publishers 
of  the  volume  to  procure  the  services  of  an  author,  vdio 
was  known  to  have  paid  some  attention  to  the  study  of  British 
mammals.  Mr.  I^ydekker,  on  the  contrar}^  starts  with  the 
humiliating  confession  that  he  "  makes  no  claim  to  being  an 
observer  of  the  habits  of  British  mammals,"  and  he  has,  there- 
fore, filled  his  pages  with  quotations  drawn  largely  from  the 
writings  of  Macgillivray,  as  published  in  the  original  series  of 
the  "  Naturalists'  Library.''  To  these  he  has  added  notes  con- 
tributed by  Mr.  A.  Trevor  Battye  and  Mr.  W.  E.  de  Winton— 
gentlemen  whose  names  have  been  until  quite  recently  un- 
knov\m  in  connection  with  the  study  of  our  British  Mammals — 
while  he  has  almost  completely  ignored  the  older  workers, 
with  the  exception  of  Mr.  J.  E-  Harting.  In  his  preface,  the 
author  does,  indeed,  tender  his  acknowledgments  to  Mr.  A- 
G.  More  (whom  he  appears  to  think  is  still  "of  the  Dublin 
Museum  ")  "  for  much  important  information  kindly  com- 
municated by  letter  on  the  subject  of  Irish  mammals,"  but 
there  is  little  trace  of  Mr.  More's  influence  in  the  body  of  the 
work,  and  the  general  meagreness  of  the  references  to  Ireland, 
and  the  quotations  from  Thompson's  "  Natural  History  of 
Ireland  "  with  regard  to  the  distribution  of  mammals  whose 
whole  status  might  well  have  been  completely  changed  since 
the  publication  of  that  excellent  work,  leads  us  to  the  belief 
that  the  author  has  taken  but  little  pains  to  make  himself 
acquainted  with  the  natural  history  of  Ireland. 

It  would  take  more  than  Mr.  Lydekker' s   pleasant  style  of 
writing  and  the  prett}^  binding  of  the  book  to  hide  the  haste 

^  Allen's  Naturalists'   Library,  edited  by  R.    Bowdler    Sharp,    LI/.D., 
F.Iv.S.,    etc. — A    Handtsook  to    the   British    lYIammalia,   by  R. 

IvYDEKKER,  B.A.,  F.R.vS.,   V.P.G.S.,   etc.,  Loudon;  W.  H.  Allen  &  Co., 
Limited,  13,  Waterloo-place,  S,W,,  1S95.     Price  6s. 

A  4 

66  The  Irish  Nahiralist. 

whicli  is  evident  on  almost  all  page.s  of  his  volume,  and  which 
could  hardly  have  been  expected  to  have  been  absent  from  a 
work  which  appears  to  have  been  projected  onl}^  about  a  year 

In  the  present  notice  we  propose  to  confine  ourselves  for 
the  most  part  to  that  part  of  the  book  which  refers  to  mam- 
mals found  in  Ireland,  and,  even  then,  w^ant  of  space  will 
hardly  permit  us  to  notice  all  the  omissions. 

We  cannot  compliment  the  publishers  on  the  thirty-two 
plates.  In  our  opinion  Mr.  lyydekker's  book  would  have  been 
much  improved  had  they  bee;i  left  out.  These  may  have 
been  good  for  the  time  w^hen  the  first  edition  of  the  Natura- 
lists' Library  was  published,  but  in  these  daj^s  readers  expect 
something  more  for  their  money  than  plates  like  No.  2  (the 
Long-eared  Bat),  which  even  the  author  is  compelled  to  de- 
scribe as  *'  not  quite  true  to  nature."  But  if  the  plates  are 
bad,  the  figures  of  the  skulls  are  worse  ;  some  of  them  indeed 
are  hardly  recognizable  as  skulls  at  all,  w^ere  it  not  that  we 
are  told  so  in  the  letter-press.  That  of  the  skull  of  the 
Squirrel  on  page  16S  is  almost  the  worst  of  a  bad  lot. 

The  best  parts  of  the  book  are  the  chapters  on  the  ancient 
mammals  of  Britain,  and  the  introduction,  which  are  pleasantly 
written,  but  even  these  are  by  no  means  perfect. 

In  the  introduction  (pp.  1-13)  Mr.  Lydekker  discusses  the 
origin  of  the  British  mammalian  fauna.  The  British  Islands 
come  under  the  category  of  Dr.  A.  R.  Wallace's  "  Continental  " 
Islands,  that  is  to  say  they  were  lands  which  have  evidently 
been  united  with  the  neighbouring  Continent  of  Europe  at  no 
ver}^  remote  epoch,  to  wdiich  fact  the  general  similarity  of  the 
fauna  and  flora  and  of  the  geological  formations,  the  shallow- 
ness of  the  intervening  seas,  and  the  absence  of  peculiar 
mammals  testify.  Among  the  proofs  which  exist  that  these 
islands  formerly  stood  at  a  much  higher  elevation  than  at 
present  is  the  case,  not  the  least  remarkable  are  the  submerged 
forests  which  occur  on  several  parts  of  the  coast  of  Great 
Britain,  in  addition  to  which  the  author  might  have  mentioned 
many  which  occur  in  Ireland,  such  as  that  on  the  coast  of 
the  Barony  of  Forth  in  the  Count}'  of  Wexford. 

Mr.  Lydekker  credits  Britain  with  forty-seven  species  of 
terrestrial  mammals  (including  several  doubtful  species),  which 
have  been  known  to  have  inhabited  the  British  Islands  during 

.    Irish  Mammals.  C>j 

the  historic  period.  Of  these  tv/ent3^-six  are  Irish,  but  the 
Wolf,  the  Brown  Bear,  and  the  Wild  Boar  are  now  extinct, 
while  the  Black  and  Brown  Rats,  the  Rabbit,  the  Fallow  Deer, 
and  the  Squirrel  are  introduced  as  doubtfully  indigenous 
species,  so  that  our  present  list  of  truly  indigenous  Irish 
mammals  fairly  includes  only  eighteen  species,  and  in  historic 
times  Ireland  appears  never  to  have  had  more  than  twenty- 
one  species.  Great  Britain,  on  the  contrary,  has  been  inhabi- 
ted by  about  forty  species,  while  the  neighbouring  parts  of  the 
Continent  of  Europe  possess  many  more. 

In  discussing  the  cause  for  this  difference  in  richness  of  the 
fauna  of  countries  lying  so  close  to  each  other,  Mr.  I^ydekker 
brings  forward  three  theories— (i.)  That  of  Dr.  Wallace,  who 
attributes  the  disappearance  of  the  ancient  British  Fauna  to  a 
submergence  of  comparatively  late  date  ;  (ii.)  that  wdiich 
attributes  the  disappearance  of  the  greater  part  of  the  fauna  to 
the  ice-sheet  of  the  Glacial  Epoch,  and  (iii.)  that  of  Mr.  G.  W. 
Bulman  (expressed  in  a  recent  paper)  that  the  ice-sheet  did 
not  extend  further  south  than  the  latitude  of  I^ondon,  if  as 
far  south  as  that,  whence  the  fauna  again  spread  northwards 
with  the  return  of  more  favourable  conditions,  although  with 
the  loss  of  such  forms  as  were  unable  to  withstand  a 
considerable  amount  of  cold.  On  this  latter  view  it  is 
considered  that  Britain  never  was  connected  with  the 
Continent  after  the  passing  away  of  the  Glacial  Period. 
On  the  two  former  views  we  must  attribute  our  new  fauna 
to  a  short  connection  with  the  Continent  subsequent  to  the 
destruction  by  the  ice  of  the  Glacial  Period.  Of  these  theories, 
Mr.  lyydekker  is  more  inclined  to  agree  with  the  second — 
indeed,  Mr.  Bulman's  ingenious  suggestion  does  not  seem  to 
account  for  the  poverty  of  the  mami;iaiian  fauna  of  Ireland  as 
compared  wdth  that  of  the  rest  of  Britain. 

At  this  point  we  should  have  expected  some  attempt  at  an 
explanation  of  the  peculiarities  of  our  Irish  mammalian  fauna, 
but  not  a  word  have  we  on  the  subject,  in  fact  the  difficulty 
has  been  ignored  by  Mr.  lyydekker  in  a  manner  similar  to 
that  in  which  he  has  ignored  many  others  in  his  book.  Not 
even  is  there  a  reference  (we  believe,  in  the  whole  book)  to 
the  work  of  the  late  Professor  A.  I^eith  Adams,  who  wrote  in 

^  Nalural  Science^  Oct.,  1S93. 

68  I  he  Irish  Naturalist, 

one  of  his  papers'  that  "  The  probabilitj'  is,  that  the  migra- 
tion came  from  Scotland,  and  that  there  was  a  land  communi- 
cation between  the  two  countries  at  the  close  of  the  Glacial 
Period,  b}^  which  the  greater  portion  of  the  mammals  that 
had  found  their  way  to  Scotland  crossed  to  Ireland." 
Professor  Leith  Adams  was  led  to  make  this  suggestion  hy 
the  fact  that  all  the  living  and  extinct  mammals  of  Ireland, 
with  the  exception  of  the  Grizzly  Bear,  have  been  recorded 
also  from  Scotland,  while  a  large  number  of  extinct  English 
mammals  are  absent  from  both  Ireland  and  Scotland.  This 
suggestion  has  been  .supported  by  the  recent  investigations  of 
Scottish  naturalists  into  the  Fauna  of  the  islands  lying 
between  Ireland  and  Scotland. 

In  an  ingenious  paper  lately  published.  Dr.  R.  F.  Scharfif^ 
has  stated  his  opinion,  based  upon  the  distribution  of  the 
Fresh-water  Fish  and  the  Mollusca  that  ''Ireland  was  in  later 
Tertiary  times  connected  with  Wales  in  the  South  and  Scot- 
land in  the  North,  whilst  a  freshwater  lake  occupied  the  present 
central  area  of  the  Irish  Sea.  The  Southern  connection  broke 
down  at  the  beginning  of  the  Pleistocene  Period,  the 
Northern  connection  following  soon  after.  There  is  no 
evidence  of  an}-  subsequent  land  connection  between  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland."  There  is  much  to  be  said  in  favour  of 
this  view,  but  it  seems  to  us  that  perhaps  an  adaptation  of 
Mr.  Bulman's  views  to  Ireland  might  account  for  the  pecu- 
liarities of  the  flora  and  fauna  of  the  south  and  west,  such  as  the 
presence  of  the  Mediterranean  Heath  and  the  Natter-jack  toad. 

Passing  on  to  the  systematic  part  of  the  work — which 
commences  with  the  Bats  (pp.  13 — 53),  of  which  seven 
species  have  been  found  in  Ireland,  we  find  the  statement 
that  "  since  Bats  are,  on  the  whole,  less  interesting  than 
many  other  British  mammals,  our  notices  of  the  various 
species  will  be  comparatively  brief"  Thus,  Mr.  I^ydekker 
again  avoids  a  difficulty,  and,  while  giving  us  anj^  quantity  of 
quotations  from  writers  on  the  habits  of  our  more  common  and 
easil}^  observed  mammals,  contents  himself  with  most  meagre 
notes  on  the  rarer,  or  less  easily  observed,  and  therefore,  we 
should  have  thought,  more  interesting  species.      The  list  of 

1  '*  Report  on  the  History  of  Irish  Fossil  Mammals,"  Proc.  Roy.  Irish 
Acad.  (2)  Vol.  iii.,  1883. 

2  Pi'oc.  R.  Irish  Acad,  (3)  Vol.  iii.,  1S94,  No.  3. 

Irish  Mammals.  69 

the  localities  where  the  rarer  Irish  Bats  have  been  obtained 
is  very  meagre,  and  in  very  few  cases  has  the  author  taken 
the  trouble  to  give  the  references  for  his  statements.  The 
subject  of  the  migration  of  Bats  is  barely  touched  upon  (page 
27),  the  words  "the  fact  that  Bats  do  migrate,  either  occasion- 
ally or  periodical!}',  being  well  ascertained  on  the  testimony 
of  several  trustworthy  observers,"  being  a  very  inadequate 
reference  to  so  interesting  a  subject,  with  regard  to  which  we 
may  note  that,  though  we  once  tried  to  obtain  information  on 
this  subject  by  a  correspondence  with  the  light-keepers  at 
the  light-stations  on  the  Irish  coast,  we  entirely  failed  to 
obtain  any  valuable  information  as  to  the  occurrence  of  Bats 
at  these  stations. 

On  the  distribution  of  the  Hedgehog  (in  Ireland)  (page  58), 
Mr.  Lydekker  has  no  more  recent  authority  to  quote  than 
Thompson  for  the  statement  that  it  "is  found  everywhere  in 
suitable  localities."  But,  indeed,  there  is  little  w^ork  to  be 
done  with  regard  to  the  distribution  of  Irish  mammals. 
With  the  exception  of  the  Bats,  the  Cetaceans,  the  Squirrel, 
the  Black  Rat,  and  the  Red  deer,  all  our  mammals  are  found 
from  north  to  south  of  the  island,  and  many  of  the  cases  in 
which  their  distribution  is  curtailed  are  due  to  the  direct 
agency  of  man.  Referring  to  the  depredations  of  Hedgehogs 
among  game-birds  and  their  egg-stealing  propensities,  he  pre- 
sents us  with  the  statements  of  two  writers  in  the  Field  and 
La7id  and  Water,  without  giving  either  their  names  or  a 
reference  to  the  pages  where  their  remarks  occur,  and  then 
goes  on  to  announce  triumphantly  that  "  this  evidence, 
although  circumstantial,  appears  to  be  pretty  conclusive." 
Although,  no  doubt,  the  Hedgehog  is,  on  the  whole,  a 
nocturnal  animal,  that  this  is  not  always  the  case  we  can  testify 
from  personal  experience,  having  found  a  Hedgehog  moving 
about  in  broad  daylight  in  the  Co.  Wexford.  It  is  a  pity  that 
Mr.  Lydekker  has  not  given  us  any  notes  on  the  habits  of  the 
Hedgehog  in  captivity — an  omission  which  we  have  also  to 
regret  in  the  case  of  many  other  species. 

Passing  over  the  Mole,  the  Water-Shrew  and  the  Common 
Shrew,  which  are  not  found  in  Ireland,  we  find  an  exceed- 
ingly short  account  of  the  I^esser  Shrew,  an  interesting  and 
but  little  known  mammal,  which  is  the  only  representative  of 
its  genus  in  our  country.     It  appears  to  be  widely  distributed 

7^6  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

and  frequent,  at  least  in  parts  of  Ireland.  Sir  Douglas 
Brooke  has  an  albino  example,  obtained  in  Fermanagh. 
Mr.  L3^dekker's  statement  with  regard  to  Shrews  that  "  during 
the  winter  they  retire  beneath  the  roots  of  trees  or  bushes,  to 
the  deserted  holes  of  other  small  mammals  or  other  secure 
nooks,  where  they  pass  the  cold  months  in  a  state  of  profound 
torpor"  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  a  serious  one  in  the  face  of 
the  receipt  b}^  the  writer  of  several  specimens  of  the  I^esser 
Shrew  from  the  Co.  Wexford  during  the  recent  severe  frost. 
Mr.  Oldfield  Thomas  also  writes  that  he  has  received  four 
Common  and  one  I^esser  Shrew  from  Norway,  caught  on  three 
feet  of  snow,  with  the  thermometer  below  zero  !  Among  the 
synonj^ns  of  the  I^esser  vShrew  we  do  not  note  that  of  Sorex 
hiber?iicus  given  to  it  by  Jenyns.  Quite  recently  a  note  has 
been  published  by  Mr.  Oldfield  Thomas^  in  which  he  shows 
that  the  correct  names  for  the  two  British  species  of  Shrews 
are  Sorex  araiietis,  Linn.,  for  the  Common  Shrew,  and  6*. 
mi^iutiis,  Linn.,  for  the  Lesser  or  Pygmy  Shrew.  Mr. 
Lydekker,  however,  retains  the  name  of  ^S.  vulgaris,  Linn., 
for  the  Common  Shrew. 

The  first  of  the  Carnivora,  in  Mr.  Lydekker's  book,  which 
has  been  found  in  Ireland,  is  the  Wolf,  and  we  are  glad  to  be 
able  here  to  give  a  word  of  praise  to  Mr.  Lydekker  for  having 
included  in  his  book  notices  of  the  extinct  members  of  our 
fauna,  which  are  undoubtedly  entitled  to  their  place  beside 
their  more  fortunate  survivors.  As  is  so  often  the  case  in  this 
book,  Mr.  Lydekker  has  given  no  reference  for  his  statements 
with  regard  to  the  Wolf,  and  our  readers  ma}'  be  glad  to  refer 
for  further  details  to  Mr.  Harting's  article  on  the  extinct 
British  Wolf,"  also  to  an  interesting  note  by  Mr.  G.  H. 
Kinahan\  It  is  a  pity  that  Mr.  Lydekker  has  omitted  any 
reference  to  the  Wolf-dogs,  for  which  Ireland  Avas  famous,  and 
for  accounts  of  which  the  writings  of  Prof.  Leith  Adams, 
Sir  William  Wilde,  Dr.  V.  Ball  and  others  should  be  consulted, 
as  well  as  Captain  Graham's  work  on  the  Irish  Wolthound-'. 

As  in  the  case  of  the  Wolf,  so  with  regard  to  the  Wild  Boar 
in  Ireland  (pp.  255-257)  Mr.  Lydekker's  statements  are  not 
quite  satisfactory,  and  he  has  given  no  reference  to  prove  the 

^  Zoologist,  Feb.,  1895,  pp.  62-4.    ^  Popular  Science  Review,  1878,  pp.  396-406. 
8  Land  and  Water,  November  3rd,  1894.  '^  Dursley,  1885. 

h'ish  Manwtals.  71 

existence  of  this  animal  in  historic  times.  Although  the 
absence  of  pig-bones  in  the  older  Irish  deposits  has  caused 
some  doubt  to  be  expressed  as  to  whether  this  animal  was 
trul}^  indigenous  to  Ireland,'  there  is  no  doubt  that  herds  of 
pigs,  either  truly  wild  or  feral,  infested  the  woods  and  forests 
of  Ireland  in  historic  times. 

As  to  the  Fox  (pp.  98-104)  Mr.  Lydekker  seems  to  have  no 
more  recent  authorit}^  to  quote  than  Thompson,  and  this  is 
also  the  case  with  regard  to  the  Badger  and  Otter,  which 
animals  all  survive  from  north  to  south  of  Ireland,  and  in 
many  parts  of  the  country  are  plentiful.  A  reference  to  our 
packs  of  Foxhounds  would  not,  we  think,  have  been  out  of 
place,  nor  would  a  reference  to  the  weight  of  this  animal,  an 
interesting  note  on  which  was  published  last  3'ear. 

On  the  distribution  of  the  Marten  Mr.  I^ydekker  has  quoted 
the  latest  paper  on  the  subject,  but  has  again  omitted  to  give 
the  reference.^  Since  that  article  was  written  we  have 
obtained  records  of  the  occurrence  of  the  marten  in  Roscom- 
mon,-*  in  Dublin  in  1877,5  and  from  several  other  counties 
from  which  it  had  been  already  recorded.  Interesting  notes 
on  Martens  robbing  bee-hives  of  the  honey  will  be  found  in 
the  Field.' 

That  the  Polecat  ever  existed  in  Ireland  will  be  news  to 
many  Irish  naturalists,  and  we  should  like  to  know  on  what 
authority  Mr.  Lydekker  makes  the  statement  (p.  114)  that 
"  although  Thompson  had  doubts  of  its  occurrence,  there 
appears  good  evidence  that  the  Polecat,  in  his  time  at  least, 
was  an  inhabitant  of  the  woods  of  Kerry,  Down,  and  other 
parts  of  Ireland." 

"The Stoat," says  Mr.  Lydekker  (page  1 19),  "does  not, accord- 
ing to  Thompson,  undergo  a  personal  colour-change"  in 
Ireland.  Occasionally,  however,  Stoats  undergo  a  partial 
change  iu  Ireland  in  the  winter,  and  Mr.  Kinahan'  records 
examples  from  Dublin,  Galway,  Clare,  and  Mayo.  Mr.  More's 
experience  is  not  in  accordance  with  this,  and  after  many  years 

1  V.  Ball,  in  Sci.  Trans.  Royal  Ditblin  Soc.  (2),  vol  iii.,  No.  x  ,  p.  339. 

'-  Fidd,  March  roth,  1894.  =•  Zoologist,  April,  1894. 

*  Field,  April,  4,  1874.  '^  Britisli  Assoc.  Guide  to  Dublin y  part  ii.,  p.  90. 

6  Feb.  10,  1877,  May  17,  1873,  and  April  4,  1871. 

7  Land  and  Water,  June  11,  1892, 

72  The  IrisJi  Nahu-alist. 

of  close  attention  to  Irish  Natural  History,  he  informed  us 
that  he  had  never  met  with  a  white  Stoat  in  winter  ;  but  such 
a  specimen  certainly  exists,  from  Co.  Wexford,  in  the  Dublin 
Museum  of  Science  and  Art,'  and  Mr.  R.  M.  Barrington  has 
another  from  Meath.=  In  the  County  Cork  there  is  a  pack 
of  hounds  which  are  trained  to  hunt  the  Stoat  in  summer, 
when  there  is  no  Fox  hunting,  and  they  give  excellent  sport, 
but  of  course  are  followed  on  foot. 

Although  Mr.  J.  K-  Harting^  seems  still  to  have  a  lingering 
hope  that  the  Weasel  may  yet  be  found  in  Ireland,  Mr. 
Iy3-dekker  (p.  122)  rightly  states  that  "  it  appears  tobe  unknown" 
there,  and  indeed  the  question  may  now,  w^e  think,  be  fairly 
considered  as  settled  that  the  Weasel  does  7iot  occur  in  Ireland. 
Often  as  the  Weasel  has  been  reported,  no  specimen  has  ever 
been  produced,  and  such  specimens  as  have  been  produced 
and  submitted  to  competent  naturalists  have  invariably  proved 
to  be  Stoats. 

(TO  be;  concIvUdkd.) 



Recent  donations  comprise  a  porcupine  from  C.  A.  James,  Esq  ;  a 
Peacock  and  a  pair  of  White  Guinea-fowl  from  J.  Dah',  Esq. ;  and  a 
cockatoo  from  Mrs.  Paul.  Three  Great  Eagle-Owls,  an  Axis  D^er,  two 
Peccaries,  an  Ocelot,  three  Paradoxures,  a  Viverrine  Cat,  a  Prairie 
Marmot,  two  Armadillos,  a  hundred  Java  vSparrows,  an  Aoudad,  and  an 
Antelope  have  been  acquired  by  purchase. 

2,060  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  January. 

Dubinin  MicroscopicaIv  Ci.ub. 

December  2oth. — The  Club  met  at  Dr.  M'Weeney'S,  who  showed 
a  series  of  serial  sections  of  the  human  central  nervous  system  prepared 
by  Van  Gehuchten's  modification  of  Golgi's  method.  This  consists  in 
impregnating  the  ganglion  cells  and  their  processes  with  chromate  of 
silver  b}-  immersion  of  the  pieces  of  tissue  in  nitrate  of  silver  solution  after 
treatment  of  bichromate  of  potash  and  osmic  acid.  The  finest  rami- 
fications of  the  non-medullated  protoplasmic  processes  of  the  nerve-cells 
can  thus  be  followed,  and  the  method  maybe  said  to  have  revolutionized 
our  ideas  of  the  structure  of  the  central  nervous  organs.  A  peculiarity 
is  that  the  sections  must  be  mounted  without  a  cover-glass.  Contrast 
sections  by  Weigert's  method  were  also  shown. 

^  Vide  Land  and  IJ'afcv,  May  28,  1892. 
'^  Op.  Cii.,  June  4,  1892.  ^  Zoologist,  Dec,  1894. 

Proceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  73 

Mr.  F.  W.  Moore  exhibited  Verlid/Iivm  latertiiim,'Etrt.  It  was  found 
growing  on  a  piece  of  decaying  stem  of  Cattlcya  Doiviana,  which  had  been 
imported  recently  from  Costa  Rica,  on  which  it  formed  bright  red 
patches.  Under  the  microscope  the  colour  did  not  appear  nearly  so 
brilliant  as  in  the  growing  condition. 

Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  showed  preparation  of  the  head  of  the  sea-midge, 
Cliinio  marimis,  Halid.,  drawing  special  attention  to  the  large  size  and 
circular  shape  of  the  eye-facets,  and  to  the  vestigial  condition  of  the 

Dr.  Scott  showed  sections  of  caries  of  teeth  prepared  by  Dr.  Baker, 
showing  the  micro-organisms  filling  the  dentinal  tubules— also  photo- 
graphs of  the  sections  coloured  to  represent  the  original  sections. 

Proe.  G.  CoIvE  showed  a  section  of  banded  Gneiss  from  Cushendun 
Co.  Antrim.  It  has  been  recognised  that  some  gneisses  result  from 
parallel  igneous  intrusions.  In  this  case  a  eurite  has  formed  parallel 
veins  in  what  appears  to  be  an  altered  basalt,  and  granular  crystals  of 
quartz  and  felspar  from  the  eurite  appear  scattered  in  the  latter  rock. 
Deformation  of  the  mingled  rocks,  accompanied  by  re-arrangement  and 
re-crystallisation  of  quartz  and  felspar,  has  gone  on  subsequently  to 
the  intrvision. 

Mr.  M'Ardi^E  exhibited  specimens  of  Lejeunca  calyptrifolia.  Hook.,  in. 
fruit,  which  he  collected  last  year  at  Auniscaul,  Co.  Kerry.  On  account 
of  the  small  size  and  scarcity  of  the  plant  it  is  rarely  met  with  in  this 
condition.  The  perianth  is  large  for  the  size  of  the  plant,  somewhat 
campanulate  in  ovitline,  with  five  projecting  angles  or  teeth  at  the  apex, 
which  are  decurrent  to  the  base.  Cal3^ptra  spherical,  strongly  reticulated, 
with  a  stalk  or  peduncle  about  twice  its  length,  divided  by  transverse 
septa  into  a  number  of  tubular-like  cells. 

Mr.  W.  N.  AivTvEN  exhibited  a  drawing  of  Scapania  aspera,  Mull. ,.  which 
he  made  from  plants  collected  by  Mr.  M'Ardleinthe  Co.  Cavan.  The 
plate  shows  a  plant  the  natural  size,  portion  of  a  branch,  magnified 
leaves  and  leaf  cells,  bracts,  perianth  with  spinose  ciliated  mouth  highly 
magnified,  a  shoot  wdtli  gemmae  at  apex  of  leaves.  Mr.  Allen  also 
exhibited  a  good  figure  of  Metzgeria  conjugata  (Dill)  Lindb.,  clearly  showing 
the  moncecious  character  of  the  plant.  These  excellent  delineations 
with  others  are  for  Mr.  M'Ardle's  coming  paper  on  plants  collected  by 
him  in  the  Co.  Cavan  for  the  Flora  and  Fauna  Committee  of  the  Royal 
Irish  Academy. 

Professor  A.  C.  Haddon  exhibited  sections  of  a  small  sea-anemone 
commensal  with  a  calcareous  polyzoon  which  he  had  collected  in  Torres 
Straits.  The  actinian  has  not  yet  been  determined,  but  it  is  probably  the 
same  as  that  recorded  by  Prof,  W-  A,  Haswell,  in  the  Proc.  L.  S.,  N.  S. 
Wales,  vol.  vii.,  p.  608. 

January  17th.— The  Club  met  at  Dr.  Frazer'S. 

Prof.  G.  C01.E  showed  the  glassy  edge  of  an  oliviue-basalt  dyke,  S.  of 
Annalong  Port,  Co.  Down.  This  is  a  pleasing  and  transparent  example 
of  basalt  passing  into  brown  tachylyte,  with  very  trifling  development 
of  magnetite,  so  that  the  glass  resembles  the  modern  examples  from  the 
Pacific  islands  far  more  than  the  well-known  and  darker  types  from  the 
western  isles  of  Scotland. 

Mr.  F".  W.  Moore  showed  Ncdria  sangtiinea,  Fr.  This  pretty  and 
interesting  species  was  found  growing  on  a  decaying  pseudo-bulb  of  an 
unnamed  Eriopsis  imported  fiom  Brazil.  As  seen  growing,  the  colour  was 
extremely  bright,  but  under  the  microscope  it  was  much  duller.  It 
belongs  to  Cook's  fourth  section  '«  Denudatse,"  and  is  characterised  by 
having  the  perithecia  ovate  in  shape,  and  blood  red  in  colour,  the 
sporidia  being  elliptical  and  colourless. 

74  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

Mr.  Greenwood  Pim  exhibited  Macrosporium  cheiranthi  from  damp 
wall-paper,  showing  its  peculiar  muricate  spores. 

Prof.  T.  Johnson  exhibited  Girandia  sphacelarioides,  a  brown  alga  found 
growing  on  the  leaves  oi  Zostera  at  Roundstone  (Moynes)  in  Co,  Galway. 
The  plant  is  recorded  from  the  south  coast  of  England  and  is  an  addition 
to  the  Irish  marine  flora.  The  peculiar  lateral  wart-like  sori  of  sporangia 
were  shown,  and  Goebel's  investigations  on  the  mode  of  reproduction  in 
the  species  were  described. 

On  the  same  Zosiera  leaves  were  growing  plants  of  Castagnea  zostera;,  Thin., 
showing  plurilociilar  zoosporangia.  This  brown  alga  was  found  growing 
on  the  leaves  of  the  marine  monocotyledon  Zostera  at  Moynes  near 
Roundstone,  the  only  known  Irish  locality.  Here  it  was  discovered 
fifty  years  ago  by  McCalla,  and  is  recorded  in  Harvey's  Phycologia 
Britannica  under  the  synonym  Mesogloia  virescens  /3  Zoostericola.  The 
species  is  also  recorded  from  the  south  coast  of  England  and  the  west 
of  Ireland. 

Mr.  McArdIvE  exhibited  a  proliferous  form  oiLejeimea  serpyllifolia^which. 
he  collected  last  year  in  Mr.  Hickson's  wood  at  Lispoll,  near  Auniscaul, 
Co.  Kerry.  The  adventitious  shoots  grew  from  all  parts  of  the  branch. 
Under  a  high  magnifying  power  he  showed  a  portion  of  the  stem  and 
attached  leaf  lobule,  with  young  shoots  arising  from  each.  The  leaves 
showed  still  more  remarkable  examples  of  adventitious  shoots.  The 
specimens  showed  the  first  stage,  the  outgrowth  of  a  simple  cell  from 
the  margin  ;  the  second  stage  in  which  several  additional  cells  were 
formed  ;  a  perfect  leaf  with  five  adventitious  .shoots  in  various  stages  of 
development,  on  some  the  leaves  were  well  marked;  and  a  further  stage, 
a  shoot  with  three  leaves  and  two  perfectly  formed  stipules  or  folioles, 
and  at  the  attachment  of  the  stem  to  the  old  leaf,  root  hairs ;  the  contents 
of  the  cells  had  disappeared,  the  walls  near  the  attachment  showing 

Mr.  McArdle  also  exhibited  a  drawing  of  five  figures  demonstrating 
the  different  stages  of  development  of  the  young  plantlets  of  Lejewiea, 
and  a  proliferous  form  of  Meizgeria  conjiigata,  a  specimen  under  the  micro- 
scope showed  secondary  branching  of  an  adventitious  shoot  from  the 
thallus.  This  uncommon  mode  of  re-production  in  Lejeimca  will  form  the 
subject  of  an  article  on  the  vegetative  propagation  amongst  Hepaticae, 
with  plate,  Avhich  will  shortly  appear  in  the  Irish  Naturalist. 

Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  showed  a  slide  (prepared  by  Mr.  J,  E.  Duerden) 
of  a  hydroid,  Boiigainvillia  ramosa,  in  which  some  of  the  cups  were  much 
enlarged  and  thickened,  forming  a  kind  of  "  gall"  inhabited  by  the 
parasitic  embryo  of  a  Pycno^on.  Clinging  to  the  stem  of  the  hydroid 
was  a  larval  Nymphon^  but  it  could  not  be  definitely  stated  that  the 
embryos  in  the  cups  belonged  to  the  same  species.  Dohrn  and  others 
have  described  the  embryos  of  Phoxichilidiiun  as  sometimes  parasitic  in 
the  polyps  of  Podocoryne. 

Dr.  M'Weeney  showed  j5ure  cultures  and  a  slide  of  the  Bacillus 
diphtheria  (Klebs-I^offler)  obtained  from  a  diphtheritic  membrane  sent  to 
him  for  bacteriological  examination  by  a  Dublin  physician.  The  micro- 
organisms were  quite  typical  and  were  contained  in  pure  cultivation 
from  the  membrane.      The  patient  recovered. 

Mr.  J.  N.  HAI.BERT  exhibited  two  very  rare  Irish  beetles,  Micropeplus 
iesserula,  Curt,  and  Pseudopsis  sulcata,  Newm.,  from  the  collection  of  Mr.  A. 
H.  Haliday,  the  former  taken  in  a  marsh  near  Holywood  {Entomologist, 
vol.  I.,  1840),  the  latter  also  from  Holywood,  and  Avoca.  He  was  in- 
duced to  bring  these  forward  as  both  were  entirely  overlooked  as  Irish 
in  Canon  Fowler's  "  British  Coleoptera."  Judging  from  the  records,  both 
are  rare  in  England,  where  Psetidopsis  sulcata  seems  not  to  have  been  taken 
north  of  Yorkshire. 

Proceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  75 


January  15.— The  President  in  the  Chair.— Mr.  Joseph  Wright, 
F.G.S.,  stated  that  a  few  weeks  ago  he  had  visited  Divis  Mountain  in 
company  with  Mr.  S.  A.  Stewart  to  examine  Boulder-cla}',  which  Mr, 
Stewart  had  observed  high  up  on  the  mountain  exposed  in  vSections 
by  the  side  of  a  mountain  stream.  Two  gatherings  of  this  clay  (about 
10  lbs.  weight)  were  made  at  the  height  of  about  1,300  and  1,400  feet  respec- 
tively above  the  sea.  These  on  being  microscopically  examined  were  found 
to  contain  two  fry  of  mollusca,  one  Buccimwi  imdatnvi,  the  other  doubtfully 
referable  to  Littorina  litomlis,  also  a  foraminifer,  Nonionina  depressula,  and  six 
ostracoda  too  young  to  name  with  certainty.  Through  the  courtes}-  of 
Mr.  Gray  he  had  also  received  a  few  pounds  weight  of  Boulder-clay  from 
WolthilljSoo  feet  above  the  sea.  In  thissamplewerefoundthreespecimens 
oi  Nonionina  deprcssida.  These  discoveries  are  of  interest  on  account  of 
the  great  height  at  which  the  clay  occurs  and  of  the  marine  organisms 
found  in  it ;  foraminifera  and  ostracoda  have  not  hitherto  been  recorded 
from  local  Boulder-clay  at  such  high  elevations.  Some  discussion 
ensued,  in  which  Messrs.  William  Gray,  M.R.I.A.  ;  W.  Swanston,  F.G.vS. ; 
J.  Templeton,  and  others  took  part. 

The  President  then  called  upon  Professor  A.  C.  Haddon,  of  the  Royal 
College  of  Science,  Dublin,  to  deliver  his  lecture  upon  "Modern  Relics 
of  Olden  Time,"  which  dealt  with  primitive  means  of  transport,  imple- 
ments, ornaments  and  ceremonies  which  still  survive  among  the 
peasantr}^  in  Ireland.  The  lecture  was  fully  illustrated  by  a  representa- 
tive series  of  slides  of  Irish  and  foreign  subjects,  the  lantern  being  worked 
by  Mr,  R.  Welch.  Messrs  W.  H.  Patterson,  Wm.  Gray,  Richard  Patter- 
son, and  R.  Welch  having  spoken,  the  wish  being  expressed  that 
Professor  Haddon  would  deliver  a  course  of  lectures  next  season  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Club,  the  President  conveyed  to  the  lecturer  the  best 
thanks  of  the  Club.  The  following  new  members  were  then  elected  ; — 
Miss  M'Cutcheon,  B.A.,  Messrs.  J.  M'Clelland  Martin,  W.J.  Stewart,  and 
Charles  J.  lyanyon. 

BeIvEast  Natural,  History  and  Phii^osophicai.  Society. 
February  5th. — The  following  papers  were  read— John  MacCormac, 
M.D.,  "Education  and  Innerv^ation."  Illustrated  by  a  special  series  of 
lantern  photo-.slides.  SeaTON  F.  Mii,i,igan,  M.R.I.A.— "  Antiquarian 
Collections  in  Ulster,  with  special  reference  to  the  forthcoming 
Exhibition  in  the  L,inen  Hall." 

Dubinin  Naturai^ists'  FieIvD  Ci,ub. 
January  8th. — The  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Club  was  held  at  the  Royal 
Irish  Academy  House,  the  President  (G.  H.  Carpenter,  B.Sc.)  in  the 
chair.  The  Secretary  (R.  Li^oyd  Praeger)  read  the  annual  report,  of 
which  the  leading  features  were  as  follows : — The  membership  of  the 
Club  stands  at  158,  having  risen  by  over  25  per  cent,  during  the  year. 
The  summer  excursions  and  winter  evening  meetings  were  all  carried  out 
as  arranged,  and  the  attendance  of  members  and  visitors  at  them  was 
satisfactory.  The  winter  session  was  opened  by  a  conversazione,  which 
was  largely  attended.  A  highly  successful  three-day  excursion  was  made 
to  Fernioy  and  Lismore,  in  conjunction  with  the  Cork  and  Linierick 
Naturalists'  Field  Clubs.  Very  good  natural  history  work  was  done  on 
the  excursions,  the  results  including  the  male  and  female,  respectively,  of 
two  animals  of  which  the  other  sex  alone  had  previously  been  known, 
and  a  number  of  plants  and  animals  not  hitherto  known  in  Ireland,  or 
very  rare  in  that  country.  A  successful  course  of  lectures  on  Botany  were 
given  by  Prof.  Johnson  during  the  spring.  A  committee  has  been 
appointed  to  investigate  the  flowerless  plants  of  Dublin  and  Wicklow  and 
the  flowering  plants  of  Wicklow.  The  Committee  have  taken  part  in  the 
formation  of  an  Irish  Field  Club  Union,  the  objects  of  which  are  to  bring 
about  an  increased  intercourse  between  the  Clubs,  to  furnish  mutual 

76  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

assistance,  and  to  look  after  matters  of  general  Field  Club  interest.     The 
proceedings  of  the  Club  have  been  regularly  reported,  and  selected  papers 
printed  in  full,  in  the  Irish  Naturalist.     The  Committee  return  thanks  to 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy  for  the  continued  loan  of  their  rooms.     The 
Treasurer  (Prof.  T.  Johnson)  subsequently  submitted  the  statement  of 
accounts,  which  showed  a  larger  expenditure  than  usual,  which  was  ex- 
plained by  the  Treasurer.     The  adoption  of  the  report  and  accounts  was 
moved  by  Prof.  A.  C.  Haddon,  M.A.,  and  seconded  by  Mr,  W.  F.  de  V. 
Kane,  M.A.,  and  passed,  after  a  discussion,  in  which  Mr.  J.  J.  Dowling, 
Prof.  Cole,  Miss  Hensman,  Mr,  J.  B,  Palmer,  the  Treasurer,  and  the  Sec- 
retary took  part;  the  opinion  was  generally  expressed  that  so  much  money 
should  not  be  spent  on  the  excursions  and  conversazione.   The  President 
next  declared  the  officers  for  1895,  whose  names  had  been  submitted  to 
the  last  meeting,  duly  elected,  and  referred  to  the  regretted  departure 
from  Dublin  of 'Mr.  J.  E-  Duerden,  a  most  useful  member  of  Committee. 
A  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  for  the  use  of  their  rooms 
for  the  purposes  of  the  winter  meetings  was  proposed  by  Miss  Hensman, 
seconded  by  Mr.  J.  B-  Palmer,  and  passed.    A  donation  of  ^^5  to  the  funds 
of  the  Irish  Naturalist  was  proposed  by  Mr.  J.  J.  Dowling  and  seconded  by 
Mr.  R.  P.  Vowell.     The  proposer  and  seconder  spoke  in  complimentary 
terms  of  the  good  natural  history  work  which  is  being  done  by  this  journal. 
Mr.  Kane  moved  and  Mr,  M.  J.  Buckley  seconded  an  amendment  that, 
instead  oi  £'S,  one-tenth  of  the  gross  receipts  of  the  Club  for  the  coming 
year  should  be  devoted  to  the  magazine  ;  this  arrangement  would  slightly 
increase  the  proposed  grant.     After  a  discussion,  in  which  Prof.  Johnson, 
Mr.  Dowling,  and  Prof.  Haddon  took  part,  the  amendment  was,_by  per- 
mission, withdrawn.  Mr.  Carpenter,onbehalf  of  the  editorsof  the  journal, 
thanked  the  Club  for  their  continued  support  of  this  enterprise    On  the 
motion  of  Prof  Haddon,  seconded  by  Prof.  Cole,  a  vote  of  thanks  was 
given  to  the  Press  for  their  courtesy  in  reporting  the  proceedings  of  the 
Club.     The  following  were  then  elected  members  of  the  Club : — E.  P. 
Farran,  Mrs.  Merewether,  Miss  J.  Orr,  H.  J.  Seymour. 

Mr.  R.  Lloyd  Praeger  subsequently  exhibited  some  curious  varieties 
of  the  Mistletoe.  In  one  of  these  the  leaves  and  stem  were  variegated 
with  yellow  ;  in  the  other  the  stem  divided  at  each  node  into  four  or  six 
branches,  instead  of  the  normal  two.  Prof.  Johnson  gave  his  views  on 
the  origin  of  this  abnormalit3\  Mr.  Praeger  also  showed  some  remark- 
ably overgrown  specimens  of  plants  found  this  year  in  Ireland. 

January  22nd.— The  President  in  the  Chair.  Mr.  Joseph  Wright, 
F.G.S.,  of  the  Belfast  Nat.  Field  Club  lectured  on  "  Foraminifera, 
Recent  and  Extinct. "  The  President,  in  introducing  the  lecturer,  pointed 
out  that  was  the  first  meeting  held  in  Dublin  under  the  Irish  Field  Club 
Union  scheme,  one  object  of  which  was  to  arrange  for  occasional  inter- 
changes of  lecturers  among  the  Irish  Clubs,  that  they  might  know  more 
of  each  other's  work.  Mr.  Wright  proceeded  with  his  lecture,  which  dealt 
fully  with  the  classification  and  structure  of  the  various  forms  of 
Foraminifera,  and  with  their  distribution,  recent  and  fossil.  The  lecture 
was  illustrated  with  a  large  series  of  diagrams,  and  with  many  microsco- 
pic slides.  A  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Wright  was  passed  on  the  motion 
of  Mr.  W.  S.  Green,  M.A.,  H.M.  Inspector  of  Fisheries,  seconded  by 
Prof.  Haddon,  M.A. 

February,  12th. — Prof.  C01.E,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair.  Mr.  H. 
K.  Gore  CuThberT  read  a  paper  on  ''The  Wild  Bees  of  Glencullen," 
which  is  published  in  our  current  issue.  Prof.  Sofi,i,AS,  F.R.S.,  and 
Mr.  R.  IvEOYD  Praeger  contributed  a  paper  on  the  Boulder-clay  of 
Kill-o'-the  Grange.  This  paper  will  shortly  appear  in  our  pages.  In  the 
discussion  on  each  paper  which  ensued.  Rev.  T.  B.  Gibson,  Mr.  N.  Colgan, 
Mr.  Cuthbert,  Mr.  Praeger,  Prof.  J  Johnson,  and  the  Chairman  took  part. 
The  following  new  members  were  elected  : — Richard  Burnett,  Miss  A. 
Jellett,  Lieut. -Colonel  Plunkett,  J.  R.  Redding,  Miss  A.  B.  Stack,  Miss 
Gertrude  Webb. 

Proceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  77 

Limerick  Naturai,ists'  Fiei<d  CIvUB. 

Jan.  24th. — Dr.  W.  A.  Fogerty,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair.  Mr.  Joseph 
Wright  lectured  on  "  Foraminifera,  Recent  and  Fossil,"  examples  being 
shown  from  varying  strata— Chalk,  Lias,  esttiarine,  and  Boulder  clays  from 
the  North  ot  Ireland,  as  well  as  recent  specimens  dredged  in  the  Atlantic 
Ocean  on  some  of  the  expeditions  sent  out  by  the  Royal  Irish  Academj'. 
Besides  these,  the  lecture  was  illustrated  by  a  number  of  diagrams, 
photographic  lantern  slides,  &c.,  exhibiting  the  marvellous  beauty  and 
complexit}^  of  the  shells  formed  by  these  very  minute  creatures.  Mr. 
Wright's  visit  to  Limerick  marks  a  new  departure  in  Field  Club  work  in 
Ireland,  he  having  come  here  by  arrangement  with  the  recently-formed 
Field  Club  Union  as  representing  the  Belfast  Club,  whereby  an  inter- 
change of  lectures  is  to  take  place  occasionally  in  future  amongst  the 
various  Irish  Field  Clubs.  On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Robert  Gibson,  a 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  unanimously  passed  to  Mr.  Wright  for  his 
interesting  lecture. 




Irish  Characeae. — A  Correction. — In  Messrs.  Groves'  paper, 
under  Nitella  Jlexilis  (p.  40)  "  148.  Antrim — Carnlough  River.  1892.  R. 
LI.  Praeger  "  should  read  "  145,  Armagh— Camlough  River.  1892. 
R.  LI.  Praeger."  The  mistake  was  mine,  as  I  find  that  on  the  label 
of  the  specimen  submitted  to  Messrs,  Groves,  "  Antrim  "  was  written  by 
inadvertence  for  "Armagh."  The  fact  that  I  had  sent  other  specimens 
from  Carnlough,  explains  the  second  alteration.  .A^.  flexilis  is  still  a 
desideratum  of  the  flora  of  North-east  Ireland. 

R.  Lt.oyd  Praeger. 


Second  Flowering  of  Artemisia  stelleriana.  -Mr.  Praeger,  in 
the  Irish  Naturalist  for  November,  refers  to  the  interesting  fact  of  this 
Artemisia  coming  twice  into  flower  on  the  North  Bull  in  the  summer  of 
1894.  It  may  be  worth  mentioning  that  it  continued  to  flower  into  the 
second  week  of  December,  In  the  middle  of  October  it  was  in  profuse 
bloom,  and  to  the  best  of  my  recollection  I  also  saw  it  in  flower  in  the 
autumn  of  1S93. 

C.  B.  Moffat,  Ballyhyland,  Co.  Wexford. 

Eythraea  pulchella  on  the  North  Bull. — lean  corroborate  Mr. 
Scully's  statement  as  to  this  plant's  still  growing  on  the  North  Bulk  I 
gathered  it  there  last  summer,  about  a  mile  north  of  the  station  given 
by  Mr.  Scully. 

R.  Li,OYD  Praeger. 



Erebia  epiphron,  var.  casslope,  near  Sligro. — I  am  glad 
to  be  able  to  record  the  rediscovery  of  this  mountain  butterfly  in 
Ireland.  For  forty  years,  since  the  late  Mr.  Birchall  took  "  a  fine  series 
in  June,  1854  .  .  .  about  halfway  up  Croagh  Patrick  on  the  Westport  side 
in  a  grassy  hollow,"  no  entomologist  has  seen  the  species  in  this  countr}-. 
The  captor  of  the  specimen  now  recorded  is  the  Rev.  R.  A.  M'Clean, 

78  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

late  of  Sligo,  the  greater  part  of  whose  valuable  collection  of  lepidoptera 
has  been  secured  by  the  Dublin  Museum.  He  informs  me  that  he  took 
the  insect  on  the  edge  of  a  wood  at  Rockwood  near  Sligo,  at  the  height 
of  about  a  thousand  feet,  during  the  summer  of  last  year  (1894).  A  high 
wind  was  blowing  at  the  time,  and  he  believes  that  the  butterfly  had 
been  blown  down  from  higher  ground.  The  specimen  is  a  female 
somewhat  rubbed,  the  wings  expanding  ij  inches,  and  with  the  fulvous 
markings  and  black  spots  rather  clearer  than  in  most  of  the  British 
specimens  of  var.  cassiope  in  the  Museum  collection. 

As  this  locality  is  about  fifty  miles  from  the  previous  station  for  the 
insect  (Croagh  Patrick,  Co.  Mayo),  we  may  hope  that  the  species  has  a 
fairly  wide  distribution  among  our  western  mountains,  though  it  is 
doubtless  excessively  local.  Like  many  other  alpine  insects,  it  ranges 
much  further  south  in  Ireland  than  in  Great  Britain,  where  it  is  known 
from  the  hills  of  Scotland  and  Cumbria,  but  not  from  those  of  Wales. 
On  the  continent  it  is  found  in  the  Alps,  the  Pyrenees,  and  the 
mountains  of  Hungary,  Avhile  the  type  of  epiphron  occurs  in  the 
mountains  of  German}^  and  northern  France. 

Geo.  H.  Carpenter. 

Thecia  betulae  in  Co.  Wexford. — I  owe  Mr.  Kane  an  apology  for 
having  quoted  him  at  second  hand.  It  was  not  in  his  Catalogue,  but  in 
the  resume  of  the  first  part  of  it  given  in  the  IrisJi  Naturalist  for  March,  that 
I  saw  the  distribution  of  Thecia  bet  11 'ae  set  down  (p.  59)  as  "  Munster  ; 
Co.  Galwa3%"  I  ought  to  have  stated  this  when  writing  my  note,  the 
only  object  of  which  was  to  make  it  clear  that  the  butterfly  is  not  con- 
fined to  those  limits. 

C.  B.  Moffat,  Ballyhyland,  Co.  Wexford. 

[We  regret  that  we  omitted  the  Co.  Wexford  locality  for  this  butterfly 
in  our  review  of  Mr.  Kane's  Catalogue. — Eds.] 

Coleoptera  from  Co.  Dublin, — Owing  to  many  causes  my  collec- 
tingin  Co.  Dublin  last  season  was  not  as  successful  as  I  should  have  wished, 
most  of  my  rambles  being  spoiled  as  far  as  entomolog}'  was  concerned, 
by  bad  weather,  and  ever3thing  considered,  insects  were  in  my 
experience,  not  nearly  so  plentiful  as  in  1893.  Amongst  others  the 
following  species  were  secured  in  addition  to  those  given  in  the  Ii-ish 
Naturalist  for  September  last.  Very  few  of  the  Geodcphaga  were  met  with, 
the  only  novelty  was  Patrobius  assi/fiilis,  Chaud.,  a  local  highland  form 
of  P.  excavatus  taken  in  a  fir  plantation,  Tibradden,  Dublin  Mountains, 
being  a  very  critical  species,  Dr.  Sharp  kindly  verified  the  identification  ; 
Dyschiriiis  salinus  appears  to  be  not  uncommon  on  the  shore  near  Sutton, 
whilst  Homaliiimripariuni  was  in  great  numbers  undersea-weed  in  the  same 
locality.  Drotniiis  nigriventiis,  Portmarnock  sand-hills,  and  in  a  decayed 
tree-stump,  Howth ;  Taphria  nivalis^  Bray  river,  near  Bray.  The  old 
quarries  near  Raheny  that  yielded  Enochrus  bicolor,  etc.,  also  produced 
three  beetles  new  to  me,  Lathrobium  terminatiim  (with  yellow  spots  at  apex 
of  elytra  very  obsolete,  approaching  var.  iminaciilatti?)i,  Fowler.)  Qiiedius 
inaiirornfns  and  KhampJu(s  flavicornis,  the  two  former  were  taken  in 
damp  moss  at  edge  of  pools  and  are  additions  to  the  Dublin  list. 
Agabus  Sttirmii,  Hydroporus  erythrocephalusyf'iih.  other  common  water-beetles 
were  fished  from  the  pools.  The  Portmarnock  and  Donabate  districts 
were  tried  on  more  than  one  occasion.  The  sand  hills  lying  between  the 
latter  locality  and  Malahide  Point,  are  very  productive ;  here  an  un- 
common burying-beetle  Nrrodes  littoralis  with  Choleva  grandicollis  and 
other  things  were  shaken  out  of  a  dead  rabbit.  Heliopathes  gibbiis  and 
Otiorrhynchus  ovatus  occur,  and  what  seems  to  be  a  new  record  for  Ireland 
in  Apion  onopordi,  Kirby.  At  Portmarnock  Orchestes  salicis  plentifully  off 
dwarf  Salix  growing  on  the  sand-hills,  Corticariafiiscula^  Apion  seniculuni,A. 
hiunidi,  A.  a:neiij)i,  A.  radiolus,  A.  nthiops  and  Sitones  pxmcticollis ;  some  of 
these  are  not  as  yet  included  in  our  Dublin  list.  Acalles ptinmdes  in  moss 
from  Bray  Head.  Baryfeithes  sulcifrons,  Howth.  Hype^^a  plantaginis,  North 
Bull ;  also  a  ver}'  puzzling  Anisotoma  which  Dr.  Sharp  considers  to  be  a 

Notes,  79 

very  large  specimen  oi  A.  dubia,  previously  recorded  by  Professor  McNab 
from  same  locality.  Otiorrhynchtis  ligneus,  Alophus  triguttattis  and 
Bradycelhts  harpalimis  were  almost  the  only  species  taken  during  a  day's 
collecting  on  the  hill  near  Carrickmines.  In  an  old  pond  overgrown 
with  vegetation  in  the  Santry  Demense,  Bagons  alismatis  and  Poophagns 
sisymbrii  occurred  in  numbers.  The  following  species,  though  unrep- 
resented in  the  Dublin  and  Wicklow  list  of  1878,  are  apparently  common 
in  suitable  places,  i.e. — Ocypus  ater  (sea-shore),  Qiiedhis  setnicsneus  (coast  sand- 
hills), Cercyon  flavipes,  C.  pyginceiis,  Conosoma  lividiiin,  Philonthus  piidlus 
(Dublin  Mountains,  etc.),  Stemis  ossium,  S.  nitidi  us  cuius,  S.  pallitarsus,  S. 
piibescens,  ScydmcBUus  collatis,  Enicmus  transverstts,  Corticaria  fusaila,  C 
elongata  (Drumcondra),  Ceuthorrynchtts  inarginatus,  C.  pimctiger. 

Mr.  G.  lyow  collected  some  Coleoptera  at  Dundrum  including  three 
uncommon  species,  i.e. — Omosita  discoidea,  TrophipJioyjis  viercuralis  and 
Scaphisoina  boleii.  In  the  autumn  of  1893  I  was  fortunate  in  retaking  two 
local  insects,  Liosoma  ovatului/i,  var.  collaris,  and  Laf/iprosana  concolor  at 
Woodlands  near  Lucan,  where  the  first  Irish  examples  were  collected 
some  years  ago  by  Dr.  Power.  I  have  also  a  specimen  of  Cholrua  agilis, 
taken  in  a  damp  place  at  Tibradden  in  the  September  of  the  previous 
year.  There  are  probably  more  noteworthy  species  in  my  collection 
still  awaiting  identification,  and  a  few,  although  named,  I  should  prefer 
to  get  verified  before  recording. 

J.  N.  Hai^berT,  Dublin. 

Coleoptera  from  the  North  of  Ireland.— That  successful 
observer,  Mr.  R.  Welch  of  Belfast,  was  kind  enough  to  send  some 
Coleoptera  collected  by  him  in  various  localities  in  the  north  of  Ireland 
during  the  past  season.  The  best  thing  amongst  these  was  Cercyon 
aquatiais,  Muls.,  taken  in  damp  moss  on  Cave  Hill  near  Belfast.  It 
has  not,  I  think,  been  previously  noted  from  Ireland.  He  also  took 
on  Cave  Hill  the  following  species : — Hypera  trilineatus,  Barypeit/ies 
stdcifrous,  and  Niptus  hololaicus.  At  PORTSAI^ON,  Co.  Donegal,  Anchoinenus 
marginaius,  Oliorrhynchtis  atroapterus.,  Cneorrhiftus  gei/iitiatus,  Gastrophysa 
polygoni  and  Serrica  brunnea.  At  Woodburn  G1.EN,  Co.  Antrim,  one 
specimen  of  the  rather  local  Choleva  agilis  and  Phccdon  tumidulus.  Near 
BEIvFAST,  Alophus  triguttatus,  Barynotus  nicc7-ens,  Bruchus  atomarius,  Exo7nias 
areneiforfnis ;  and  in  the  People's  Park  near  Belfast,  Ccclainbus  inipressopunc- 
tatus,  Philhydrus  niariiinius,  Deronectes  xii-pustulatus,  and  D.  depressus. 

J.  N.  Hai^berT,  Dublin. 

The  Stridulation  of  Corixa, — The  stridulation  ot  Corixa  having 
been  seldom  remarked,  I  think  it  may  be  interesting  to  relate  that  nearly 
fifty  years  ago  the  late  Dr.  Robert  Ball  brought  under  the  notice  of  the 
Zoological  Section  of  the  British  Association  at  the  Cambridge  INIeeting, 

1845,  the  fact  that  Corixa  striata  produced  loud  sounds  while  immersed 
in  water.  Dr.  Ball  stated  that  the  sounds,  which  had  been  heard  by 
Miss  M.  Ball  a  few  years  previously,  had  since  been  heard  both  by  Miss 
M.  Ball  and  himself  A  very  interesting  and  more  detailed  account  of 
the  observations  is  given  in  a  note  from  the  original  observer  and 
communicated  by  Dr.  Ball  to  the  Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  History, 

1846.  Miss  M.  Ball  noticed  two  distinct  sounds,  which  agrees  with  INIrs. 
Thompson's  account  of  the  stridulation  of  a  Corixa  {Irish  Naturalist, 
1894,  p.  114).  One  of  the  sounds  is  probably  due  to  the  movement  of  the 
teeth  on  the  feet  as  shown  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  {Irish  Naturalist, 
December,  1S94),  but  further  observations  seem  necessary  to  arrive  at  a 
satisfactory  explanation  of  the  other  sound,  which  Miss  M.  Ball  states  to 
be  accompanied  by  a  movement  of  the  body  from  side  to  side. 

A.   R.  Nichols,  Dublin. 

[I  am  very  grateful  to  my  friend  Mr.  Nichols  for  having  discovered 
this  early  Irish  observation  on  the  stridulation  of  Corixa.  Like  Mrs. 
Thompson,   and   Dr.    Schmidt-Schwedt,   as  quoted  in  my  paper.  Miss 

So  The  h'isJi  Naturalist. 

Ball  observed  the  motion  of  the  front  feet  across  the  face  to  accompany 
the  chirping ;  she  suggests  that  possibly  the  transverse  ridges  on  the 
face  have  a  part  in  producing  the  note.  The  edge  of  the  face  seems, 
however,  more  probably  the  part  concerned,  as  it  would  be  more  easily 
reached  by  the  feet  than  would  the  front. — G.H.C.] 


Testacella  haliotldea,  F.  Big.,  in  Co.  Dublin.— Mr.  Burbidge 
recently  discovered  this  species  in  one  of  the  greenhouses  of  Trinity  Col- 
lege Botanic  Gardens.  The  difference  in  the  shell  between  T.  haliotidea 
and  T.  scuiuht/n  is  so  slight  that  an  anatomical  examination  is  necessary 
for  a  diagnosis  of  the  species.  As  I  was  able  to  convince  myself,  this 
specimen  is  undoubtedly  T.  haliotidea,  so  that  we  have  in  it  an  addition  to 
the  fauna  of  Go.  Dublin.  Hitherto  this  species  had  been  known  only 
from  Youghal,  Cork,  and  Bandon. 

R.  F.  SCHARFi^,  Dublin. 


Irish  Rat  (IVIus  hibernicus  Thomps.)  at  Lougrh  Brickiand, 
Co.  Down. — Having  been  told  that  black  rats  lived  in  some  fields  on 
the  north  margin  of  Lough  Brickland,  which  is  close  to  my  glebe  house, 
I  offered  a  reward  for  one,  but  none  turned  up  in  the  course  of  several 
years.  However,  to-da}-,  5th  February,  1895,  when  some  members  of  ni}' 
family  were  returning  from  skating  on  the  above  lough  a  black  rat,  a 
male,  was  found  on  the  road  near  their  reputed  haunt.  It  was  just  dead 
and  bore  no  marks  of  how  it  had  lost  its  life.  Having  been  brought  to 
me,  I  now  enclose  it. 

H.  W.  Lett, 
Aghaderg,  lyougbrickland. 


On  Saturday  evening,  12th  January,  Prof.  G.  A.J.  Cole  commenced  his 
second  course  of  geological  lectures  delivered  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club.  In  spite  of  exceptionally  inclement 
weather  there  was  a  large  attendance.  We  hear  that  the  number  of  ap- 
plications for  the  practical  class  which  is  held  after  each  lecture  has  been 
in  excess  of  the  available  accommodation. 

Kitchen  lYIiddens  of  Donegal. — I  think  Mr.  Kinahan  and  Mr. 
Welch  have  not  observed  my  first  and  second  reports  to  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy  on  "  Pre-historic  Remains  from  the  Sandhills  of  the  Coast  of 
Ireland,"  read  T4th  January,  1889,  and  i2tli  January,  1891.  In  these  I 
report  pottery  from  pre-historic  sites  at  Buncrana,  Dunfanaghy,  Bunbeg,  y^ 
and  Bundoran.     I  have  since  found  pottery  at  Ballyness  and  Portsalon.      ^ 

W.  J.  Knoavi.KS,  Ballymena, 

Kitchen  IVIIddens  of  Antrim.— Among  the  various  remains  from 
the  pre  historic  sites  of  Co.  Antrim  I  reported  to  the  Royal  Irish  Academy 
in  January,  1891,  the  finding  of  bones  of  the  Great  Auk.  I  have  since 
fonnd  some  more  bones  of  that  bird,  which  leads  me  to  believe  that  it 
was  a  native  of  the  north  of  Ireland  when  the  people  of  the  stone  age 
lived  there.   I  have  not  seen  any  notice  of  this  find  in  the  Irish  Naturalist. 

W.  J.  Knowlks,  Ballymena. 

Glacial  Deposits  of  Dublin  and  Bray. — In  the  Proc.  Liverpool 
Geol.  Soc.  (Vol.  vii.,  pp.  183-206),  Mr.  T.  Mellard  Reade  has  an  interesting 
paper  on  observations  on  the  glacial  deposits  around  Dublin,  made 
during  a  visit  in  the  summer  of  1893.  The  conclusions  which  Mr.  Reade 
has  come  to  regarding  the  origin  of  these  beds  have  been  already  set 
forth  in  a  paper  which  he  contributed  to  the  Irish  Naturalist  (1894,  pp. 
1 17-121,  150-153).  The  paper  is  illustrated  by  some  excellent  sketches  and 

Irish  Naturai^ist,  Voi,.  IV.j 

[Pirate  3. 


I,  2.  Metzgeria  conjtigata.  3—7-  Lejeunea  serpyllifolia. 

Vol.  IV.  APRII.,  1895.  No.  4. 


(Read  before  the  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  March  12th,  1895). 

Vkgktativk  propagation  amongst  Hepatics  is  well  demon- 
strated by  some  of  the  species  which  are  of  frequent  occurrence 
in  Ireland,  and  good  examples  are  to  be  seen  in  plants  of  both 
frondose  and  foliose  groups.  Marchayitia  and  Luyiularia  have 
special  receptacles  on  the  upper  side  of  the  frond  or  thallus 
called  gemmae- cups,  from  the  floor  of  which  cellular  papillae 
arise,  which  grow  into  flat  or  spherical  stalked  bodies,  the 
gemmae.  In  Lunularia  the  rim  of  the  cup  is  partial  or 
crescentic.  In  Marchantia,  on  the  contrary,  it  is  complete. 
The  escape  of  the  gemmae  is  facilitated  by  club-shaped  hairs 
which  grow  between  them.  The  cell-walls  of  these  hairs  are 
mucilaginous,  swell  up  and  force  the  gemmae  out  of  the 
receptacle,  when,  under  favourable  circumstances,  each  one  is 
capable  of  producing  a  perfect  plant. 

In  the  genus  Blasia  these  receptacles  are  flask-shaped  ;  the 
gemmae,  floating  in  a  transparent  mucilaginous  substance,  are 
often  found  at  this  early  stage  furnished  with  a  single  root-hair 
before  emerging  from  their  mucous  receptacle. 

The  smallest  portion  of  the  frond  oi  Marchantia  or  Ltcmdaria 
broken  off  and  placed  in  a  favourable  position,  will  grow.  I 
have  divided  a  number  of  plants  of  "the  rare  Codojiia  Ralfsii, 
Gott  (frequently  cultivated  at  Glasnevin)  bypassing  the  sharp 
blade  of  a  knife  through  them  as  they  grew  ;  after  a  few  days 
I  gently  moved  these  parts  a  little  distance  and  added  soil 
between  them,  watered  and  covered  the  pot  in  which  they 
were  growing  with  a  bell-glass,  and  in  no  instance  did  they 
show  any  bad  effects  from  this  treatment,  but  grew  on  rapidly 
and  bore  fruit. 

In  the  genus  Metsgeria  adventitious  shoots  frequently  grow 
from   the  margin  and  other  parts  of  the  frond,  notably  in 


82  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Metzgeria  conjugata  of  which  a  small  portion  is  shown  magnified 
in  Plate  3,  fig.  i,  bearing  copious  adventitious  shoots.  In  fig. 
2,  secondary  branching  of  an  adventitious  shoot  is  shown. 
The  normal  branches  of  the  plant  proceed  from  the  pseudo- 

Through  the  genera  Btasia  and  Pellia^^  have  the  transition 
to  the  foliose  group,  which  is  well  shown  in  Pellia  calyci^ia 
and  the  variable  Riccardia  multifida.  These  plants  are  found 
growing  in  large  patches  in  damp  places,  increasing  year  after 
3^ear  by  innovations,  or  young  growths.  Often  a  patch  is 
found  crisped  and  apparently  dead  in  dry  weather,  but  on  close 
examination  a  few  green  shoots  will  be  observed  nourished  by 
the  detritus  of  the  mother-plant ;  these  shoots  are  sufficient  to 
reproduce  the  species. 

Amongst  the  foliose  group,  in  the  genera  Ka?itia  and 
Ccphalozia  we  have  examples  of  the  gemmae  borne  on  the  apex 
of  attenuated  branches.  In  Cephalozia  Fjnncisci  and  C.  denu- 
data,  they  are  copious  and  remarkable,  of  a  bright  yellow  colour 
when  mature  ;  in  Kantia  they  form  bright  pellucid  clusters  of 
a  brilliant  green  or  yellow  colour  at  the  apex  of  the  branches, 
leaves,  &c.  Dr.  Spruce  very  aptly  calls  these  bodies 
"propagula."  Of  leaf-gemmae  we  have  familiar  instances  in 
Jitngermania  incisa  and  J.  veiitricosa  and  species  in  the  genus 
Scapania.  In  Radiila  compla7iata  and  Madotheca  platyphylla 
we  have  examples  of  simple  cells  becoming  detached  as  gemmae 
from  the  margin  of  the  leaves.  Dr.  Spruce  records'  an  instance 
of  shoots  or  branchlets  growing  from  the  leaves  oi  Jurigermaiiia 
juniperina,  which  he  collected  at  Cromaglown,  Killarne}^  when 
on  a  visit  to  Dr.  Taylor.  This  interesting  notice  is  illustrated 
by  a  woodcut  showing  two  leaves  with  a  branchlet  on 

In  his  exhaustive  work  on  the  Hepaticae  of  the  Amazon  and 
Andes,  Dr.  Spruce  notices  the  disintegration  of  the  marginal 
cells  in  the  genus  Plagiochila  ;  the  loosened  cells  hang  awhile 
in  little  masses,  then  fall  away,  and  are  dispersed,  some  to 
renew  their  growth  as  distinct  individuals.  Sir  William 
Hooker  in  his  grand  work  on  the  British  j2cngcrma7ii(B  mentions 
a  few  species,  now  in  the  genus  Lejeimea,  on  which  he  found 
gemmae,  and  these  appeared  to  be  produced  on  their  stems. 

^  Phytologist,  vol,  ii.,  1845,  p.  85. 

A  dven titious  Branching  in  L iverworts.  83. 

lyast  year  I  collected  Lejeunea  serpyllifolia  in  Mr.  Hickson's 
wood  at  lyispoll  near  Auniscaul,  Co.  Kerry,  and  when  exaniin- 
ingthe  plant  on  the  table  of  a  dissecting  microscope,  I  was  struck 
with  the  unusual  and  abnormal  branching  of  one  of  the 
specimens,  and  I  proceeded  to  ascertain  the  cause  of  it.  From 
copious  material,  I  found  that  these  shoots  or  branchlets  came 
from  all  sides  of  the  stem  and  elsewhere.  Figure  3  represents 
a  portion  of  the  stem  and  attached  leaf-lobule,  with  young 
shoots  arising  from  each.  The  leaves  of  the  plant  exhibited 
still  more  remarkable  examples  of  adventitious  shoots.  Figure 
4  shows  the  first  stage  of  growth.  It  is  from  a  portion  of  a 
leaf-margin  highly  magnified,  and  shows  these  shoots  to  be 
outgrowths  of  a  simple  cell.  I  noticed  that  the  cells  in  these 
proliferous  plants  were  more  than  usually  chlorophylliferous. 
Figure  5  shows  a  further  stage  of  development.  Figure  6 
shows  a  leaf  of  Lejeunea  serpyllifolia  with  six  adventitious 
shoots,  in  some  of  which  the  leaves  are  well  marked.  Figure 
7  shows  further  development  of  a  leaf-shoot  with  three  leaves 
and  two  perfectly  formed  stipules,  and,  at  the  base  of  the  stem 
a  couple  of  root-hairs.  The  contents  of  the  cells  in  the  old  leaf 
have  disappeared,  the  walls  near  the  attachment  of  the  plantlet 
are  beginning  to  disintegrate,  and  very  shortly  it  would  become 
independent  from  the  mother-plant. 

The  delegation  of  rooting  apparatus  called  the  flagellae  to 
leafy  branchlets,  which  occurs  in  some  liverworts,  is 
remarkable.  These  flagellae  enable  the  plants  to  fix  them- 
selves firmly  where  they  grow,  and  assist  them  to  resist 
drought  or  to  start  off  on  a  separate  existence  and  continue 
the  life  of  the  parent  plant.  That  the  reproduction  of  the 
species  of  Lejeimea  by  adventitious  shoots  is  an  unusual 
occurrence  amongst  those  which  grow  in  Ireland,  there 
can  be  no  doubt.  I  have  examined  .many  specimens  from  all 
parts  of  the  country  during  a  number  of  3^ears,  and  have  not  pre- 
viously found  the  vegetative  budding  in  Lejeunea  as  now 

This  mode  of  reproduction  is  important  in  a  marked  degree, 
as  occurring  in  a  genus  of  which  we  have  tropical  and  sub- 
tropical species  growing  in  Ireland,  and  is  favourable  to  the 
views  held  by  my  late  excellent  friend,  Dr.  Spruce,  in  his 
treatise   on   an    Irish  Lejetmea^ : — "  No    existing    agency   is 

1  "On  Lejeunea  Holtii  from  Killarney."    jottrnal of  Bot.,  vol.  xxv.,  1887 
p.  72. 

A  2 

$4  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

capable  of  transporting  the  germs  of  our  hepatics  of  tropical 
type,  from  the  torrid  zone  to  Britain,  and  I  venture  to  suppose 
that  their  existence  at  Killarney  dates  from  the  remote 
period  when  the  vegetation  of  the  whole  northern  hemisphere 
partook  of  a  tropical  character." 

My  own  recent  discovery  of  Radula  vohita  by  the  shores  of 
I,ough  Cultra  in  the  County  Cavan,  remote  enough  from 
Killarney,  its  only  other  Irish  habitat,  further  strengthens  the 
opinion  held  by  this  gifted  observer.  My  specimens  received 
a  searching  examination  at  the  hands  of  Mr.  M.  B.  Slater, 
F.i,.s.  The  late  Professor  lyindberg  considers  that  the 
Killarney  plant  is  identical  with  specimens  of  Radida 
Xalapensis,  a  native  of  Mexico  (New  Granada),  also  found  at 
Tullulah  Falls,  Georgia,  United  States.  The  late  Dr.  D. 
Moore  in  his  excellent  work  on  the  Irish  Hepaticse^  agrees 
with  lyindberg  and  calls  the  plant  Radula  Xalape7isis. 


Fig.  I.  Metzgeria  conjugata,  with  adventitious  shoots,  x  150. 

Fig.  2.  Metzgeria  conjugata,  showing  adventitious  shoots  with  secondary 
branching,  x  150. 

Fig.  3.  Lejetmea  serpyllifolia^  portion  of  stem  and  attached  leaf-lobule  with 
young  shoots,  x  250. 

Fig.  4.  Lejmnea  serpyUifolia,  portion  of  leaf-margin  showing  first  stage  in 
growth  of  shoot,  x  700. 

Fig.  5.  Lejetmea  serpyllifolia,  further  stage  of  growth,  x  750. 

Fig.  6.  Lejeunea  serpyllifolia,  leaf  with  six  adventitious  shoots,  x  250. 

Fig.  7.  Lejeiinea  serpyllijolia^  leaf  shoot  with  leaves,  stipules,  and  root 
hairs,  x  400. 

^  Royal  Irish  Academy  Proc.  (2)  Vol.  ii.,  1876. 

t    85    ] 



BY  G.  E;.  H.  BARRBTl'-HAMII.TON,  B.A. 

{Concluded /rom  page  72). 

To  the  synonyms  of  the  Otter  Mr.  I^ydekker^  might  have 
added  Lutra  Roensis,  a  name  given  by  Ogilby  to  the  Irish 
Otter,  chiefly  on  account  of  its  beautiful  dark  fur.  Some  other 
IrivSh  mammals  have,  at  one  time  or  other,  been  described  as 
distinct  species,  e.g.,  the  lycsser  Shrew,  as  Sorex  hibernicuSy  by 
Jenyns,^  the  Hare  and  the  Rat,  but  the  two  latter  are  mentioned 
by  Mr.  I^ydekker.  These  names  are  of  at  least  sufficient 
interest  to  Irish  naturalists  to  deserve  a  passing  notice. 
Another  point  not  touched  upon  by  Mr.  lyydekker  in  regard 
to  the  Otter  is  its  weight.  In  stating  also  that  the  female 
gives  birth  to  her  young ''  in  the  month  of  April  or  March  "  he 
appears  to  have  overlooked  a  paper,  written  by  Mr.  T. 
Southwell, 4  wherein  the  writer  endeavours  to  show  that  in 
England  the  Otter  almost  invariably  breeds  in  winter,  but  this 
does  not  seem  to  apply  so  well  to  Ireland,  where  young  Otters 
have  been  met  with  in  most  of  the  summer  months^  As  far 
as  we  are  aware  there  is  at  present  only  one  recognised  pack 
of  Otter  Hounds  in  Ireland,  that  of  Mr.  W.  C.  Yates,  who 
hunts  parts  of  the  Counties  of  Wexford  and  Wicklow,  where 
Otters  are  very  plentiful. 

The  last  of  the  terrestrial  carnivora  treated  of  by  Mr. 
lyydekker  is  the  Bear,  Ursus  arctos,  which,  though  said  to  have 
been  exterminated  in  Great  Britain  in  the  historical  period, 
does  not  appear  to  have  survived  so  long  in  Ireland.^ 

Of  the  marine  carnivora  (pp.  142-164)  the  undoubtedly  Irish 
species  are  the  Great  Grey  Seal  {Halichoerus  grypus)  and  the 
Common  Seal  {Phoca  vitulind).  No  other  species  can  as  yet 
with  certainty  be  admitted  to  our  list  of  mammals,  although  it 

^  Allen's  Naturalists'  Library,  edited  by  R.  Bowdler  Sharp,  LJ^.D., 
F.Iv.S.,   etc. ;   A   Handbook  to   the    British   lYIammalia,   by   R. 

Lydekker,  B.A.,  F.R.S.,  V.P.G.S.,  etc.,  London  ;  W.  H.  Allen  &    Co., 
Limited,  13,  Waterloo-place,  S.W.,  1895.     Price  6s. 

^  P.Z.S.,  1834,  iii.  ^  Annals  of  Nat.  History,  1838. 

*  Zoologist,  1888,  p.  248.  ^  Irish  Sportsman,  July  9th  and  30th,  1892. 

6  V.  Ball,  Sci.  Trans.  Royal  Dublin  Society  (2),  vol.  iii.,  pp.  334-5. 

86  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

is  possible  that  the  Harp  Seal  {P.  grcenlandicd)  and  the 
Hooded  Seal  {Cystophora  cristaia)  have  occurred  (pages  158 
and  160). 

Pages  164  to  232  of  Mr.  Lydekker's  work  are  devoted  to  the 

important  order  of  the  Rodentia,  first  among  which  we  come 

to    the   Squirrel    {Sciu7'tis  imlgaris),    and   here   we   miss   an 

allusion  to  Mr.  R.  M.  Barrington's  paper  on  the  distribution  of 

the  Squirrel  in  Ireland,'  an  important  paper,   which  should 

not  have   been   passed   over,    though,    since   it  was  written, 

Squirrels,  which  have  been  introduced  in  many  parts  of  the 

country,   have   considerably  increased   their  range.     On  the 

changes  of  the  colour  of  the  Squirrel  at  different  times  of  the 

year,  Mr.  L3^dekker  quotes  Macgillivray  and  Bell.     A  series  of 

skins  all  collected  at  the  same  place  and  for  each  month  of 

the  year  shows  us,  how^ever,  that  we  cannot,  like  the  former 

naturalist,  lay  down  any  fixed  rule  as  to  the  exact   time  of 

year  when  the  changes  will  occur.     Probably   the   Squirrel 

moults  twice  in  the  year — roughly  speaking,   in   spring  and 

autumn,  and  before  each  moult  the  old  coat  becomes  thin  and 

faded,  but  we  can  lay  down  no  special  time  for  such  change  to 

take  place — indeed  some  vSpecimens   received  during  the  late 

frost  were  already  losing  their  winter  coat.       It  follows  from 

the   amount   of  individual   variation  shown    that    the   light 

cream-coloured  tail  may  be  observed  at  almost  all  times  of  the 

year,  and  this  we  have  actually  found  to  be  the  case.     The 

statements  of  Bell-  notwithstanding,  w^e  have  notes  of  having 

seen  Squirrels  with  cream-coloured  tails  in  March,  May,  June, 

July,    August,    and    December.     The    assertion    that    "  the 

female  produces  three  or  four  young  ones  about  mid-summer" 

appears  to  have  been  adopted  from  Bell,^  and  we  must  refer 

our  readers  to  notes^  of  newly-born  Squirrels  found  in  the 

second  week  of  February,  and  in  March.     We  ourselves  have 

seen  quite  young  and  blind  Squirrels  taken  from  the  nest  on 

August  14th,  1891,  in  Ireland — a  fact  w^hich,  perhaps,  indicates 

the  birth  of  two  lots  of  3^oung  in  the  }'ear. 

Passing  over  the  Beaver,  the  Dor-mouse,  and  the  Harvest- 
mouse,  which  species  do  not  appear  to  have  ever  occurred  in 

^  Proc.  R.I.  A  ,  n.s.  vol.  ii.,  1880. 

2  "  Hist,  of  British  Quadrupeds,"  (Ed.  ii.),  p.  279. 

8  Op.  cit.  p.  278.  *  Field,  March  6th,  1886.     Zoologist,  March,  1891. 

Irish  Mani77ials.  87 

Ireland,  we  come  to  the  L,ong- tailed  Field-mouse  {Mus 
sylvaticus),  which  Mr.  Lydekker  not  inappropriately  calls  the 
Wood-mouse,  to  distinguish  it  from  the  Voles,  which  are 
usually  known  as  "Field-mice."  Among  the  characters 
of  this  species  which  distinguish  it  from  the  House-mouse  are 
the  mammae,  which  number  six,  as  opposed  to  ten  in  M2is 
viusculus.  The  tail  of  this  species  is  often  quite  as  long  as,  or 
longer  than,  the  head  and  body,  and  the  skull  is  distinguish- 
able from  that  of  the  House-mouse. 

Mr.  I^ydekker  includes  in  his  work  a  supposed  species  of 
Mouse,  recently  added  to  the  British  list  by  Mr.  W.  K. 
De  Winton,'  viz.,  the  Yellow-necked  Mouse  {Mus  flavicollis  of 
Melchior).  Although  we  do  not  wish  to  judge  too  hastily  of 
Mr.  De  Winton's  discovery,  we  are  inclined  to  think  that  this 
supposed  species  is  merely  a  very  fine  and  handsome  variety ^of 
M.  sylvaticus,  and  we  question  Mr.  I^ydekker's  wisdom  in 
hastening  to  include  it  in  the  British  list.  Mr.  De  Winton's 
characters  laid  down  for  this  Mouse  seem  to  us  to  be  very 
insufficient,  considering  that  it  occurs  everywhere  with  AIus 
sylvaticus ;  although  the  case  might,  we  admit,  be  different 
were  the  geographical  area  inhabited  by  Mus  flavicollis  clearly 
defined.  We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  De  Winton  for  kindly  per- 
mitting us  to  examine  his  fine  series,  and  we  have  carefully 
compared  them  with  those  of  specimens  in  our  own  collection, 
and  we  confess  that  we  cannot  see  where  Mus  sylvaticus  ends 
and  M,  flavicollis  begins. 

The  Black  Rat  {Mus  rattus),  says  Mr.  lyydekker,  quoting  from 
Mr.  J.  K-  Harting,  "must  now  be  regarded  as  very  rare"  in 
Ireland.  In  fact  it  may  be  said  to  be  confined  entirely  to  the 
seaport  towns,  the  Black  Rats  which  are  recorded  from  inland 
localities  having  invariably  in  our  experience  proved  to  be 
examples  of  Thompson's  M21S  hibernicus.  We  have  seen 
specimens  of  the  true  Black  Rat  taken  in  recent  years  at 
Waterford  and  Belfast,  but  its  presence  at  these  towns  is  by 
no  means  constant,  and  appears  to  be  entirely  due  to  its  having 
been  brought  there,  sometimes  in  numbers,  by  foreign  ships. 
The  variety  known  as  Mus  Alexafidrifius  has  been  taken  in 
a  corn  ship  at  Belfast,  and  a  specimen  is  in  the  Museum  of  that 
city.=     As   regards   the  introdiiction   of  the  Black   Rat  into 

1  Zoologist,  Dec,  1894,  p.  441.  *  Irish  Sportsman^  Dec.  19th,  1891. 

88  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Britain  from  the  Continent,  which,  we  are  told,  "  appears  to  be 
evident  from  the  circumstance  that  it  is  not  mentioned  as 
occurring  here  previous  to  the  fifteenth  century,  coupled  with 
the  fact  that  its  remains  are  unknown  in  English  cavern 
deposits,"  we  very  much  doubt  the  application  of  this  state- 
ment to  Ireland,  since  Rats  are  certainly  mentioned  in  Irish 
literature  of  much  older  date  than  the  fifteenth  century. 
Those  who  are  curious  on  this  subject  would  do  well  to  con- 
sult Mr.  David  Comj^n's  ''Irish  Illustrations  to  Shakespeare  " 
(p.  2i),  recently  published  at  the  Ficemafi's  Ofiice,  in  Dublin, 
where  will  be  found  much  interesting  information  on  this 
matter,  as  well  as  on  the  ancient  Irish  custom  of  rhyming 
Rats  to  death. '  The  whole  subject  takes  up  more  space  than 
is  at  our  disposal  if  gone  into  thoroughly,  and  we  must  con- 
tent ourselves  with  merely  mentioning  that  Rats  are  alluded  to 
by  Giraldus  Cambrensis'  as  having  existed  in  Ireland  in  the 
6th  century.^  Other  allusions  in  Irish  literature  seem  to  show 
the  existence  of  the  common  House-mouse  in  Ireland  in  very 
early  times,  and  the  date  of  its  introduction,  if  it  was 
introduced,  is  certainly  shrouded  in  mystery. 

The  Rat  described  by  William  Thompson  in  1837  as  Mus 
hibernicus  is  rightly  placed  by  Mr.  Lydekker  under  Mus 
decumanus  as  a  variety  of  that  species.  Since  the  paper'*, 
in  which  that  conclusion  was  finally  come  to,  was  written,  we 
have  been  able  to  amass  a  great  deal  of  additional  information, 
all  of  which  strengthens  the  position  there  taken  up. 
Specimens  have  been  examined  which  were  intermediate  in 
coloration  between  Mus  hibernicus  and  Mus  deciwiajiuSy  and 
an  interesting  family  of  rats  which  was  brought  to  our  notice 
through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  D.  R.  Pack  Beresford,  of 
Bagnalstown,  Co.  Carlow,  consisted  of  an  old  female  Mus 
decumanus  and  ten  young  ones,  eight  of  which  were  Mus 
decumanus  and  two  Mus  hibernicus  (one  of  the  latter  having  the 
typical  white  breast-spot).  In  addition  to  the  specimens 
alluded  to  in  the  above  paper,  we  have  now  examined 
specimens  from  the  following  additional  Irish  counties,  viz. : 

^  Vide,  "  As  you  Like  it."     Act  iii.,  Sc,  2. 
'^  Top.  D.  Z.,  c.  6,  and  in  other  places. 

8 Vide  also   "The  Proceedings  of  the  Great  Institute,"  published  in 
i860  by  the  Ossianic  Society. 
*  Zoologist^  1891,  p.  I. 

Irish  Mavimals.  ^9 

— Monaghan,  Wicklow,  and  Tipperary.  Its  occurrence  in 
England  has  also  been  proved  in  I^undy  Island'  ;  in  Surrey^ 
at  Norwich^ ;  almost  certainly  at  I^ittle  Whelnetham,  in 
Suffolk-*,  and  quite  recently  at  Cambridge.  In  Scotland  it 
has  occurred  in  North  Uist^ 

Passing  over  the  Voles  (pp.  201-219),  which  do  not  occur  in 
Ireland,  we  come  to  the  Rabbits  and  Hares,  and  here  Mr. 
I^ydekker  must  be  commended  for  his  support  of  a  change  in 
nomenclature,  which,  though  certain  to  prove  inconvenient 
at  first  to  those  who  have  used  the  older  names,  is  undoubtedly 
a  right  one,  viz.  : — Lepus  europcsus,  Pallas,  for  the  Common 
Hare  of  England,  instead  of  Lepus  timidus  of  many  authors, 
and  Lepus  timidus,  lyinnseus  (formerly  applied  wrongly  to  the 
preceding  species)  instead  of  Lepus  variabilis,  Pallas,  for  the 
Mountain  Hare  (the  common  Hare  of  Ireland)  the  reasons  for 
which  are  given  on  page  222.  As  Mr.  I^ydekker  has  given 
an  introduced  species  such  as  the  Fallow-deer  a  place  among 
our  Irish  mammals,  he  might  have  alluded  to  the  fact  that 
English  Hares  have  more  than  once  been  introduced  into 
Ireland,  though  we  are  not  aware  that  any  of  the  introductions 
have  as  yet  proved  a  success.  The  introduced  species  is  said 
to  keep  apart  from  the  Irish  Hare  and  to  make  no  attempt 
to  interbreed  with  it ;  and  in  most  of  the  instances  which  have 
come  under  our  notice  it  has  died  out  unless  protected.  Some 
instances  of  the  introduction  of  English  Hares  into  Ireland 
will  be  found  collected^  where  will  also  be  found  other  notes 
on  the  Irish  Hare,  but  the  list  is  by  no  means  perfect,  and  we 
possess  notes  of  several  other  instances.  Irish  Hares  have 
several  times  been  introduced  into  Great  Britain  and  have 
done  well,  notably  at  Vaynol,  in  North  Wales^  and  in  Islay, 
off  Argyleshire%  where  they  are  stated  to  have  been  dis- 
tinguishable from  the  Scotch  Hare." 

^  Irish  NaUiralist,  September,  1892. 

^  Zoologist,  February,  1893,  p.  103. 

8  Described  as  hybrids  in  Zoologist,  Sept.,  1889. 

*  Field,  Jan.  24,  1891. 

^  Annals  of  Scottish  Natural  History^  April,  1891,  p.  134. 

'°  Irish  Sportsman,  September  19,  1891. 

'  Field,  August  I,  1 891. 

^  Thompson's  "  Natural  History  of  Ireland  ". 


90  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

The  Mountain  Hare  {Lepus  tiviidus,  Linn.)  comes  in  for  a 
very  moderatel}^  liberal  treatment  at  Mr.  Lj^dekker's  hands, 
and  we  could  add  considerably  to  his  account  of  this  species 
did  space  permit  us.  We  must,  however,  be  content  to  point 
out  a  few  things  which  seem  to  have  escaped  Mr.  Lydekker's 
attention.  Thus,  there  is  no  allusion  to  the  weight  of  this 
animal,  which,  according  to  Mr.  J.  E.  Harting,^  in  Scotland 
averages  "  probably  between  5  lbs.  and  6  lbs.  ;  the  heaviest  I 
have  noticed  weighed  7J  lbs."  In  the  South  of  Ireland  we 
have  found  the  average  weight  of  the  hares  to  agree  very  much 
with  the  above,  but  we  have  weighed  hares  in  January  (does) 
which  turned  the  scale  at  9  lbs.  and  ()\  lbs.  Doubtless  the  fact 
that  they  were  lowland  hares  had  something  to  do  with  it. 
Although  we  have  weighed  hares  which  were  heavier  than 
these,  we  cannot  at  this  moment  find  the  note  we  made  of  it. 
It  is  certainly  wrong  to  say  of  this  Hare,  as  far  as  concerns 
Ireland  at  least,  that  **  instead  of  making  a  '  regular  form'  it 
skulks  among  stones  or  in  the  clefts  of  rocks,  or  hides  among 
the  heather  or  fern. "  In  the  lowlands  at  least  of  Ireland  this 
Hare  makes  a  regular  form,  and  in  this  and  some  other 
respects  seems  to  have  almost  entirely  adopted  the  habits  of 
the  English  Hare. 

The  date  of  the  supposed  introduction  of  the  Rabbit  into 
Ireland  seems  to  be  completely  a  matter  of  conjecture,  but 
the  animal  would  appear  to  have  been  well  established  during 
all  the  historical  period.  In  1741  Rabbit's  fur  was  one  of  the 
exports  of  the  city  of  Cork.""  As  regards  the  weight  of  wild 
Rabbits  (a  point  not  touched  upon  by  Mr.  Lydekker),  we  may 
refer  to  a  note  by  Mr.  Harting.^  In  Irish  Rabbits  there  does 
not  seem  to  be  any  difference  in  weight  from  that  of  those 
killed  in  England. 

That  the  Red-deer,  now  confined  as  a  wild  animal  to  Kerry, 
was  once  widely  distributed  over  Ireland,  is  proved  by  the 
numerous  discoveries  of  its  bones  over  the  island,  and  by  the 
historical  allusions.  An  interesting  paper  on  this  species 
appeared  in  1882,  written  by  Mr.  R.  J.  Ussher.'*    This  is  the 

^  Field,  September  5,  1891.  ^Journal  Cork  Arch.  Soc,  1893,  p.  392. 

^  Field,  Dec.  3,  1892.  ^  Zoologist,  March,  1882. 

Irish  Mammals.  91 

only  species  of  Deer  now  found  in  a  wild  state  in  Ireland, 
the  Reindeer  being  long  extinct,  and  the  Fallow-deer  an 
introduced  species. 

Of  the  Cetaceans,  or  Whales,  Dolphins,  and  their  allies  (pp. 
257  to  298)  Mr.  Lydekker  has  not  very  much  to  say,  and  he 
has  evaded  the  trouble  of  looking  up  accounts  of  the  habits 
and  life-history  of  these  interesting  mammals  by  the  use  of 
sentences  such  as  the  following  (applied  in  this  case  to  the 
Sperm  Whale  (p.  276),  but  similar  sentences  will  be  found  on 
pages  259,  261,  265) ; — '*  In  the  case  of  such  a  casual  visitor  to 
our  shores  it  will  be  unnecessary  to  say  anything  about 
habits"  !  Time  will  not  permit  us  to  go  through  the  whole 
list  of  Irish  Cetaceans  in  detail,  and  we  must  be  content  with 
regretting  that  we  found  no  allusions  in  Mr.  Lydekker's  book 
to  several  recent  records  of  the  occurrences  of  Cetaceans  on 
the  Irish  coast,  such  as  of  the  Hump-backed  Whale  {Megaptera 
boops)  in  Sligo' ;  of  Sibbald's  Rorqual  {Balcsnoptera  Sibbaldt) 
in  Wexford^  these  two  examples  being  the  first  and  only 
one  of  their  species  which  have  been  recorded  from  Ireland  ; 
of  the  Lesser  Rorqual  {B.  rostrata)  in  Kerry^ ;  of  the  Sperm 
Whale  {Physeter  macrocephahcs)  in  Mayo'^ ;  of  the  Bottle-nose 
{Hyperoodon  rostrafus)  in  Wexford"^ ;  and  of  the  White-sided 
Dolphin  at  Portrush^  and  Co.  Wexford^ 

Far  the  best  part  of  this  book  is  the  account  of  the  ancient 
Mammals  of  Britain  (pp.  298  to  328),  but  this,  as  we  learn 
from  a  foot-note,  is  not  new,  having  originally  appeared  in 
Knoivledge.  In  connection  with  the  Gigantic  Irish  Deer,  Mr. 
I^ydekker  might  have  alluded  to  the  evidence  in  favour  of  the 
view  that  this  animal  was  contemporaneous  with  man  as 
afforded  by  the  discovery  by  Mr.  R.  J.  Ussher  of  its  long  bones, 
split  as  though  for  the  extraction  of  marrow,  in  connection 
with  stone  implements  in  Ballynamintra  Cave,  Co.  Waterford.^ 

In  conclusion,  we  regret  that  we  cannot  recommend  Mr. 
lyydekker's  book  as  one  which  may  take  the  place  of  Bell's 

1  Zoologist,  May,  1883,  p.  188.  -  Zoologist,  1891,  pp.  215  and  306. 

3  Irish  Sportsman,  Dec.  19,  1891.  *  Zoologist,  1890,  p.  72. 

5  Zoologist  (loc.  cit.)  6  Zoologist,  1876,  p.  5007. 

'  Zoologist,  1890,  p.  3S4.              8  S(i.  Trans.  R.D.S.  (2),  vol-  iii.,  pp.  337-8. 

92  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

'*  British  Quadrupeds,"  a  worthy  successor  of  which  has  yet 
to  be  written.  One  thing  we  can  commend  him  for  is  his 
refusal  to  introduce  into  his  work  the  S co77iber  sco77iber  ^rinci^XQ, 
whereby,  according  to  Dr.  Bowdler  Sharpe  (vide  Preface)  "  the 
correct  title  of  the  Badger  should  be  Meles  vieles  (ly.)  ;  of  the 
Otter,  Ltctra  lutra  (ly.) ;  of  the  Roe-deer,  Capreolus  capreolus 
(L-) ;  of  the  common  Porpoise  Phoccz7ia  phoccc7ia  (ly.),  and  of 
the  Killer,  Orca  orca  (I..) "  ! 


BY   R.   J.    USSHER,   J. P. 

Referring  to  Dr.  Scharffs  paper  on  Irish  Caves  in  the  Irish 
Naturalist  for  March  (p.  57),  I  am  delighted  that  he  has  called 
attention  to  this  subject,  for  there  is  no  reason  why  this 
country,  so  rich  in  limestone,  should  not  contain  hoards  of 
remains  of  extinct  animals  in  its  cavern-deposits  like  other 
countries,  and  like  the  two  caves  in  this  district  (Dungarvan 
and  Blackwater)  at  Shandon  and  Ballynamintra,  whose  animal 
remains  have  been  reported  on.'  Dr.  ScharfPs  object  in  com- 
mencing a  list  of  caves  is  evidently  with  a  view  to  future 
searches  in  them  for  similar  finds.  It  is  well  therefore  to 
bear  in  mind  that  limestone  caves  alone  have  the  property  of 
preserving  animal  relics,  and  that  it  is  vain  to  search  caves  in 
other  rocks  for  them.  Nor  are  all  limestone  caves  by  any 
means  suitable  places.  Those  that  are  large  and  open,  such 
as  are  most  likely  to  be  known  and  visited,  are  as  a  rule  un- 
promising, as  well  as  those  which  contain  a  quantity  of  soft, 
wet  cave-earth,  for  there  the  drip  is  too  copious  and  rapid  to 
form  stalagmite. 

Nor  again,  can  we  hope  for  results  from  caves  which,  like 
those  near  Mitchelstown,  have  been  until  recently  inaccessible 
from  without,  however  intricate  and  extensive  they  may  be. 

*  Trans.  RL  Irish  Academy^  vol.  xxvi.,  part  v.,  pp.  187-230, 

Notes  071  the  Irish  Caves.  93 

The  lucky  cave  is  one  which  having  in  past  ages  been  open, 
and  having  become  the  resort  of  animals  or  primeval  men, 
has  received  their  remains  as  its  deposits  were  being  formed, 
and  having  entombed  them  beneath  a  stalagmite  floor  which 
formed  over  them,  has  remained  undisturbed  until  the  present 

Such  a  cave  may  now  be  wholly  or  partially  choked. 
Thus  when  I  discovered  the  Ballynamintra  Cave  and  com- 
menced to  open  it  with  Professor  I^eith  Adams  it  was  filled  to 
within  six  inches  of  its  roof  with  the  strata  which  represented 
the  several  chapters  in  its  history.  It  was  then  difficult  to 
realize  that  we  had  found  an  orifice  of  any  importance.  I  have 
recently  had  the  pleasure  of  rearranging,  with  the  permission 
of  Dr.  Ball,  the  collections  from  this  cave  in  their  new  case  in 
the  annexe  of  the  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin.  But  it 
contains  only  a  fragment  of  our  pre-historic  records.  Bone- 
caves  should  be  brought  to  light  north,  south,  east,  and  west 
in  Ireland.  Not  only  caves  but  pitfalls  (pits,  and  vertical 
fissures  in  limestone)  may  contain  stores  of  bones  of  extinct 
animals.  A  series  of  such  caves  were  explored  by  Professor 
Leith  Adams  in  Malta  and  yielded  exuviae  of  very  specialized 
animals,  e.g.,  the  Pigmy  Elephant. 

In  many  cases  the  roofs  of  our  caves  and  rock-shelters  have 
been  quarried  away,  and  the  fossiliferous  strata  have  probably 
been  left  undisturbed  beneath  the  quarry  rubbish.  I  have 
heard  of  quarry  men  saying  **  When  we  came  to  the  dirt  we 
stopped,"  such  dirt  as  would  repay  the  most  careful  and 
laborious  examination. 

It  does  not  follow  from  what  I  have  said  that  the  presence 
of  stalagmite  is  essential  to  the  preservation  of  bones.  The 
remains  of  Irish  Klk  in  the  refuse-heap  of  the  early  hunters  at 
Ballynamintra  were  not  covered  with  stalagmite,  but  were  in 
limestone  soil  dry  enough  to  prevent  the  bones  from  decom- 
posing. Still,  a  floor  of  stalagmite  is  the  greatest  safeguard  to 
fossil  bones  beneath  it,  not  only  preserving  them  beautifully, 
but  affording  a  guarantee  that  the  newest  object  beneath  it  is 
more  ancient  than  the  oldest  object  above  it. 

In  proceeding  to  dig  out  such  deposits,  the  most  careful 
records  must  be  kept  of  the  exact  position  of  each  object,  for 
unless  the  sequence  of  events  is  recorded,  the  history  of  the 
cave  is  broken  up  like  the  mixed  letters  in  a  spelling  game, 

▲  4 

94  ^^^^  Irish  Naturalist. 

while  the  whole  value  of  the  fossils  in  most  cases  depends  on 
the  connection  in  which  thej-  are  found  and  the  objects  with 
which  they  are  associated.  Accordingly,  when  a  cave  rich  in 
suitable  deposits  is  found,  competent  aid  should  be  obtained 
in  the  removal  of  its  contents. 

In  the  Report  on  the  remains  referred  to  above^  the  follow- 
ing caves,  not  referred  to  by  Dr.  ScharfF,  are  mentioned  : — 

Co.  Waterford. 

1.  (i,  Ordnance  Sheet  31).  An  additional  cave  at  Shandon,  which 
proves  to  be  very  extensive,  and  by  no  means  quarried  away,  as  believed 
when  the  above  paper  was  written. 

2.  (10,  Sheet  30)  Coolanav  Cave,  named  Ooanagoloor,  a  vast  cavern. 

3.  (12,  Sheet  30),  Kilgreany  Cave,  at  Mrs.  Williams's  farm. 

4.  (16,  Sheet  30),  Bridgequarter,  a  cave  north  of  Condon's  house. 

5.  (20,  Sheet  30)  Bridgequarter,  cave  in  Whitechurch  House  Demesne. 
6-9.  (23-26,  Sheet  29),  Bewley,  four  caves  near  the  Dun  of  Bewley. 

Particulars,  with  a  map  showing  the  position  of  these  caves, 

is   given  in  the  above  paper,  and  the  numbers  in  brackets 

denote  the  several  caves  on  that  map.     Several  others   are 

mentioned  but  need   not  be   quoted   in  connection  with  an 

enquiry  into  the  number  and  position  of  caves  likely  to  yield 

a  subterranean   terrestrial  fauna  or  the  remains  of  extinct 


10.  (Sheet  30)  Ballynamintra  Middle.  In  the  rock  called  Carrigmurrish 
I  discovered  an  extensive  system  of  cave-galleries  since  the  above  report 
was  written.  The  letter  "  B  "  on  the  map  would  correspond  with  the 
position  of  this  spot. 

Cave  at  Ballymote,  Co.  Sllg-o.— With  reference  to  my  note  on  the 
Irish  Caves  in  last  month's  Irish  NatiiraUst,  Dr.  V.  Ball  mentioned  to  me 
that  Mr.  Somerset  Ward  had  found  a  portion  of  a  Bear's  skull  in  a  cave 
near  Ballymote,  County  Sligo,  in  18S7. 

R.  F.  SCHARFF,  Dublin. 

Additional  Irish  Caves. — Having  read  Dr.  Scharff's  paper  in  the 
Irish  Naturalist  for  March,  I  send  the  names  of  one  or  two  not  mentioned 
in  his  list : — 

Co.  Cork.  Anua-Clogh,  Mallow,  Archceologia,  1806.  Carrigacrump,  near 
Cloyne,  stated  in  Windele's  "  Cork  "  to  be  of  great  interest,  Pooleen 
Caves,  four  miles  west  of  Berehaven,  also  mentioned  in  Windele's 

Co.  Kerry.    Ballybunion. — W.  Ainsworth,  Dublin,  1834. 

James  Coi^Eman,  Southampton. 

^  Explorations  in  the  Bone  Cave  of  Ballynamintra,  near  Cappagh,  Co. 
Waterford,  by  Leith  Adams,  G.  H.  Kinahan,  and  R.  J.  Ussher.  Trans, 
Royal  Dublin  Society  (2),  vol.  i.  1881,  pp.  177-226. 

[     95     ] 




COMMITTKE,  JUI.Y,  1894. 
BY  RKV.   W.    F.  JOHNSON,  M.A.,  F.EJ.S. 

As  I  described  Cool  more  and  the  surrounding  district  in  my 
last  report,'  I  need  not  repeat  the  description.  This  year  I 
made  expeditions  to  some  neighbouring  localities,  those 
visited  being  Bruckless,  Coxtown,  Mervagh,  and  Templenew. 
Bruckless  is  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  bay  to  Coolmore  and 
about  four  miles  from  Killybegs.  The  shore  there  is  very 
different  from  that  at  Coolmore,  the  sand  being  replaced  by 
coarse  gravel  and  large  boulders.  It  did  not  prove  a  very 
productive  locality,  though  I  obtained  some  nice  specimens 
there.  Coxtown  is  near  the  town  of  Donegal.  I  spent  two 
afternoons  there,  and  the  grounds  produced  some  interesting 
specimens,  chiefly  by  beating  Oak  trees.  Mervagh  is  near 
Ballintra  on  the  lower  course  of  the  river  that  flows  through 
that  town.  I  was  particularly  anxious  to  visit  it,  as  I  had,  last 
year,  taken  Siagara  minutissima  there,  and  wished  to  obtain 
more.  My  kind  friend,  the  Rev.  John  Hamilton,  of  Coolmore, 
drove  Mrs.  Johnson  and  myself  over  to  the  spot.  The  afternoon 
turned  out  wet ;  however  being  equipped  with  waterproofs 
we  faced  the  weather,  and  were  rewarded  by  capturing  a  large 
number  of  Siagara  as  well  as  some  other  insects.  The 
Siagara  were  confined  to  one  spot  at  the  edge  of  the  river, 
and  seemed  to  rest  on  the  mud  at  the  bottom.  Templenew 
is  about  two  miles  from  Beleek  on  the  River  Erne.  On  a 
former  occasion  I  had  tried  the  river  and  found  it  barren  of 
insects,  so  I  turned  my  attention  ta  other  parts,  and  in  a  pond 
took  Donacia  crassipes  and  D.  versicolorea. 

On  the  day  after  my  arrival  at  Coolmore  the  beach  was 
strewn  with  numbers  of  insects.  Where  these  came  from  I 
cannot  tell,  though  it  seemed  most  probable  that  they  came 
from  the  opposite  side  of  the  bay,  having  been  blown  across 
by  the  strong  north-west  wind  which  prevailed  at  the  time. 

I  sugared  diligently,  but  it  was  not  a  success,  and  melanic 
forms  were  entirely  absent.  I<ast  year  matters  were  quite  the 
reverse,  sugar  was  most  productive,  and  dark  forms  abounded. 

*  Irish  Nat.f  vol,  iii.,  1894,  p.  83. 

96  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

In  spite,  however,  of  these  drawbacks,  I  obtained  a  goodly 
number  of  Lepidoptera,  among  them  some  *'  micros,"  most  of 
which  I  picked  up  on  a  patch  of  meadow  on  the  verge  of  the 

The  total  number  of  insects  collected  amounted  to  353 
species,  exclusive  of  some  unidentified  Diptera,  &c.     They 

comprise — 

Coleoptera,  220  species ;  new  to  district,  126  species. 

Hemiptera,  22  „  „  14  „ 

Hymenoptera,     4  „  „  2  „ 

Lepidoptera,  87  „  „  60  „ 

Neuroptera,  18  „  „  13  „ 

Orthoptera,  2  ,, 

I  am  indebted  to  Dr.  D.  Sharp,  Mr.  C.  G.  Barrett,  Mr.  K. 
Saunders,  and  Mr.  J.  Edwards  for  kind  assistance  in  identifying 
insects  with  which  I  was  not  acquainted. 

I  subjoin  a  detailed  list,  with  notes,  of  those  insects  which 
are  now  recorded  from  the  district  for  the  first  time.  It  will 
be  seen  that  several  are  new  to  Ireland. 


Nebi*Ia  brevlcollls,  F.— Coolmore. 

Pelophila  boreal !s,  Payk. — Coolmore,  washed  up  on  the  beach. 

Loriccra  pilicornis,  F. — Coolmore. 

Clivina  fossor,  L. — Bruckless. 

Dyschirius  impunctipennlSp  Daws. — Coolmore,  on  the  sandy 
beach  in  company  with  D.  politus.  It  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
previously  recorded  from  Ireland,  and  is  local  in  England  and  Scotland. 

Bradycellus  verbasci,  Duft. — Coolmore. 

Harpalus  aeneus,  F, — Coolmore,  not  at  all  as  plentiful  as  on  the 
east  coast. 

H.  latus,  L. — Coolmore. 

Ptcrostlchus  versicolor,  Sturm. — Coolmore,  numbers  washed  up 
on  beach. 

Pt.  vernalls,  Gyll.— Coolmore,  Bruckless. 

Amara  plebela,  Gyll. — Coolmore. 

Bembidium  lam  pros,  Herbst.— Bruckless,  Coxtown. 

B.  aeneum,  Germ. — Coolmore. 

Hallplus  obllquus,  F.    \ 

H.  fulvus,  F.  f  J    ^j^g  j^^gj.  ^^  Mervagh. 

H.  fluvlatllls,  Aube.         j  ^^ 

H.  lineatocollis,  Marsh.  ) 


Coelatnbus  inaequalls,  F.— Coolmore.  I  was  unable  to  find  either 
C.  ix-lineatus  or  C  vnpressopundatus  in  the  locality  in  which  they  abounded 
last  year,  probably  owing  to  the  difference  of  the  two  seasons. 

Agabus  paludosus,  F. — Coolmore,  Templenew. 

A.  unguicularls,  Thorns. 

Ilybius  fuliglnosus,  F.        [  Coolmore. 

Rhantus  blstriatus,  Berg. 

Dytiscus  punctulatus,  F. 

Report  on  Insects  collected  at  Coolmore,  Co.  Donegal.         97 

Laccobfus  alutaceus,  Thorns.— Templenew. 
L.  faipunctatus,  F.— Coolmore. 
Limnebius  truncatellus,  Thorns.— Templenew. 
Cercyon  depressus,  Steph.— Coolmore, 
C.  haemorrhoidalis,  Herbst.— Templenew. 
C.  unipunctatus,  I^.— Coolmore. 


Aleochara  nitida,  Grav.J  ^     , 
V.  billneata,  Gyll.  \  Coolmore. 

MfcroiTlossa  nidicola,  Fairm.-  -Coolmore,  in  nests  of  Sand-martin. 
The  only  other  Irish  record  is  Killiney  (M'Nab). 

Homalota  currax,  Kr.— Coolmore.     The  only  other  Irish  record  is 
Powerscourt,  Co.  Wicklow,  in  shingle  (G.  C.  Champion). 
H.  eIong:atuIa,  Grav.)  ^     , 
H.  sordida,  Marsh      \  Coolmore. 

Gnypeta  labilis,  Er.— Coolmore.    An  addition  to  the  Irish  list. 
Tachyporus  nltidicollis,  Steph.— Coolmore,  Bruckless. 
T.  solutusy  Br.— Coolmore,  Bruckless. 
T.  Xirwwweiws,  F. — Coolmore. 

IVIycetoporus  longrulus,  Mann. — Coolmore. 

Leistotrophus  murinus,  L. — Bruckless,  a  single  specimen. 

Ocypus  cuprcus,  Rossi. — Bruckless. 

Philonthus  varius,  Gyll. — Coolmore. 

Ph.    albipes,    Grav. — Bruckless.     Is   not  previously  recorded  from 


Ph.  sordldus,  Grav. — Coolmore. 

Ph.  quisquiliarius,  Gyll.  \  Coolmore. 

Xantholinus  ochraccus,  Gyll.       j 

X.  punctulatus,  Payk. — Coolmore,  Bruckless. 

Othius  laeviusculus,  Steph.  \ 

Lathrobium  multipunctatum,  Grav.  J  Coolmore. 

Stilicus  affinls,  Er.  ) 

Stenus  fornicatus,  Steph. — Coolmore,  new  to  the  Irish  list,  appears 
to  be  a  southern  species  in  England. 

Bledius  crraticus,  Er. — Coolmore,  a  very  large  colony  occurred 
among  the  sandhills.  This  is  an  addition  to  the  Irish  list.  Rare  in 

Oxytclus  laqucatus,  Marsh— Coolmore. 

Omalium  Allardi,  Fairm. — Coolmore,  also  recorded  from  Waterford 
(Dr.  Power)  and  Armagh. 

IVlegarthrus  dcprcssus,  Lac— Coolmore. 


Hlstci*  ncglcctus,  Germ.       j 

Saprlnus  nitidulus,  Payk.    >  Coolmore,  in  carrion. 

S.  aeneus,  F.  ) 


Cocclnclla  vM-punctata,  L.)  Coolmore. 
C.  xxii-punctata,  L.  i 

Hyperaspis  reppensis,  Herbst.— Coolmore,  a  few  specimens 
washed  up  on  the  beach.  It  has  not  been  previously  recorded  from 


Brachypterus  pubescens,  Er.— Bruckless. 
Bi  urtlcae,  F. — Coolmore. 

9^  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Cononlmus  nodlfer,  Westw.  >  ^     i 
Enicmus  transvcrsus,  01.     \  *-oolmore. 


Cryptophagus  scanicus,  L.,  v.  patruells,  Sturm. )  ^     , 
IVIIcratnDe  vlni,  Panz.  j  Loolmore. 

ByiThus  fasclatus,  F.)  ^     ,  ^1,1.1, 

Cytilus  varius,  F.  \  Coolmore,  on  the  beach. 

Aphodlus  fossor,  L.— Bruckless. 
A,  rufesccns,  F. — Coolmore. 

A,  fCBtlduSy  F. — Coolmore.    The  only  other  record  is  Bellurgan,  Co. 
A.  nitldulus,  F. — Coolmore.    I  have  also  taken  it  at  Greenore. 
A.  punctato-sulcatus,  Stm. — Coolmore,  Bruckless. 
Serica  brunnea,  L.  >  r^^i^^^^o 

iviclolontha  vulgaris,  F.]"  Coolmore. 

Phyllopertha  horticola,  L.— Coolmore,  a  number  on  the  beach. 


Lacon  murinus,  L.— Coolmore,  a  large  number  washed  up  on  the 
beach  ;  and  I  also  took  it  on  Amuiophila  on  the  sandhills. 

Cryptohypnus  quad riguttatus,  Lap. — Bruckless.  I  took  a  good 
many  under  stones  on  the  shore.  I  have  also  taken  it  at  Ardara,  and  it  is 
recorded  from  Dublin  and  Killiney. 

Attious  hsemorrhoidalis,  F. — Coolmore. 

Adrastus  limbatus,  F. — Coolmore,  Coxtown. 

Agrfotes  lineatus,  L-  ) 

Dolopius  marginatus,  L.  [  Coolmore. 

Corymbitcscuprcus,  F.     ) 

C.  tessulatus,  F. — Coolmore,  washed  up  on  the  beach  in  some  num- 
bers. The  only  other  Irish  record  is  in  M'Nab's  list.  "  Dublin,  taken  by 
Mr.  Tardy." 

C.  Qucrcus,  Gyll.  >  Coolmore. 
V.    ochroptcrus,  Steph.) 


Dascillus   cervlnus,    Latr. — Coolmore,     numbers    washed   upon 
Helodes  minuta,  L. — Coolmore,  Coxtown. 

H.  marglnata,  F.  I  Coolmore. 

Cyphon  coarctatus,  Payk.  /  ^      '""'^ 


Telephorus  bicolor,  F. — Coolmore,  Bruckless,  Templenew. 
T.  flavllabris,  Fall.— Bruckless. 


Donacla  crasslpcs,  F. — Coolmore. 

D.  vcrslcolorea,  Brahm. — Templenew. 
D.  sericca,  L. — Coolmore,  Templenew. 
Lema  Ilchcnis,  Voet. — Coxtown. 
Chrysomcia  pollta,  L.— Coolmore. 

C.  fastuosa,  Scop. — Coolmore,  a    single     specimen  on  the  beach, 
previously  recorded  from  Courtown,  Co.  Wexford. 
Castroldea  virldula,   De  G.  \ 
Phaedon    tumldulus,    Germ.  \ 
P.  armoraclae,  L.  >  Coolmore. 

Lochmea  caprcae,  L.  I 

CalcrucellacalmarlensiSjL.  / 

Report  071  insects  collected  at  Coohnore,  Co.  Donegal.        99 

Haltlcaerlcetiy  All. — Coolmore,  a  single  specimen  washed  up  on  the 
Phyllotreta  nemorum,  L.      1  r     1 
Crcpldodcra    helxines,  L.      \  '-ooimore. 
Psylliodes  plcina,  Marsh.— Templenew. 
Casslda  flaveola,  Thunb.— Coolmore. 

Anaspls  ruflcollis,  F.— Coxtown. 

Anthicus  floral ls»  L.— Bruckless. 


Aplon    aprlcans,  Herbst.      ?  r^     1  * 

A.  carduorum,  Kirby.  \  '-oo^more. 

A.ervl,  Kirby. — Coolmore,  Coxtown. 

Polydrusus  pterygromalis,  Boh.    )  ^a     1  r^     ^ 

Phyllotolus  argcntatus,  L.  \  Coolmore,  Coxtown. 

Phllopedon  gretninatus,  F.— Coolmore. 
Sitones  Ilneatus,  L.         \ 
Hypcra  nlgrirostrls,  F.  >  Coolmore. 
Hylobiusabietis,  Iv.  ) 

Orchestes    quercus,   L. — Coxtown,  a  single  specimen  by  beating 
Oaks  ;  also  recorded  from  Cultra,  Co.  Down,  and  Dublin. 
O.  fagrl,  L,. — Coxtown. 

Ceuthorrhynchldlus  troglodytes,  F.)  <-     1 
Phytoblus  canal  leu  latus,  Fahr.  j  ^oo^™ore. 


Zlcrona  coerulea,  L. — Coolmore,  a  single  specimen  washed  up  on 
the  beach.  I  can  find  no  previous  record  from  Ireland.  It  seems  to  be 
of  southern  distribution  in  England. 

Cerrls  thoracica,  Schum.,  H.  S. — Coolmore. 

C.  lacustrls,  ly. — Templenew. 

Nabis  flavomarglnatus,  Scholtz,— Coxtown, 

Salda  Ilttoralls,  L.  Icoolmore 

Anthocorls  sylvestris,  L,  j  ' 

A.  ncmoralis,  F,— Mervagh. 

IVIonalocorls  flllcis,  L.— Bruckless. 
Lygus  pratcnsis,  F.— Coolmore. 

Phylus  melanocephalus,  L.— Coxtown,  beating  Oaks. 
Psallus  lepldus,  Fieb.— Coxtown  on  Ash. 
P.  varlans,  H.  S.— Coxtown  on  Oaks. 

lYIacropsls  lanio,  L.— Coxtown.    I  have  also  taken  it  at  Loughgilly, 
Co.  Armagh. 
Bythoscopus  aim,  Schr.— Mervagh. 

Crabro  dlmldlatus,  F.— Bruckless.   They  had  their  nests  in  holes  in 
a  large  boulder  on  the  shore. 
Bombus  hortuorum.— Coolmore. 

{To  be  concluded^ 

loo  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


BY  GRKNVII,I.E  A.  J.  COLK,  M.R.I. A.,  F.G.S. 

Professor  of  Geology  in  the  Royal  College  of  Science  for 


In  the  present  preliminary  paper,  I  can  do  little  more  than 
call  attention  to  the  beauty  and  variety  of  a  family  of  fossil 
polyzoa,  the  remains  of  which  are  widely  distributed  across 
Ireland.  The  Fenestellids  are  among  the  commonest  fossils 
wherever  the  great  Carboniferous  Limestone  retains  traces  of 
organic  remains  ;  members  of  the  famil}^  are  figured  in  almost 
every  text-book  of  geology ;  and  the  reticulated  character  of 
their  funnel-shaped  or  spreading  zoaria  renders  their  detection 
easy,  even  on  rough  surfaces  of  the  rock. 

The  family,  which  was  a  favoured  one  in  the  days  of  Sir 
Richard  Griffith  and  Frederick  M'Coy,  has  suffered  in  recent 
years  from  the  criticism  of  Mr.  G.  W.  Shrubsole^,  who  has 
been  able  largely  to  reduce  the  number  of  species  of  the  type- 
genus  Fenestclla.  His  papers,  we  should  note,  do  not  deal  with 
the  '*  Fenestellidse,"  as  ordinarily  understood,  but  with 
Fenestellc^  only ;  and  they  show  how  species  have  been 
founded,  not  only  upon  imperfect  specimens,  but  upon  the 
characters  of  different  portions  of  the  same  zoarium. 

However,  Mr.  Shrubsole's  method  of  dealing  with  the  super- 
ficial markings  and  accessory  parts  of  the  Fenestellid  zoarium 
was,  to  say  the  least,  drastic  and  indiscriminate,  and  formed 
a  marked  contrast  to  the  careful  observation  expended  upon 
these  details  on  the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic.  It  may  fairly 
be  said  that  Mr.  H.  A.  Prout,  Professor  James  Hall,  and  Mr. 
E.  O.  Ulrich  have  taught  us  much  of  the  beauty  of  our  own 
fossil  polyzoa ;  and  the  abundance  of  material  in  our 
Carboniferous  strata  is  surely  sufficient  to  rouse  us  now  to 

The  delicate  outer  structures  of  polyzoan  colonies  are  bCvSt 
preserved  in  shales ;  but  a  great  deal  can  be  learned  from  the 

^  "  A  Review  of  the  British  Carboniferous  FenestelHdae,"  Quart,  /ouj-n. 
Geol.Soc.  London,  vol.  xxxv.  (1879),  p.  275;  "A  Review  and  Description 
of  the  various  species  of  British  Upper-Sihirian  FenestelHdse,"  ibid., 
vol.  xxxvi.,  p.  241 ;  "  Further  Ncrtes  on  the  Carboniferous  Fenestellidae," 
ibid.,  vol.  xxxvii.,  p.  178. 

Oil  the  Fe7iestellidcB — Irish  Carboniferous  Strata.         loi 

weathered  surfaces  of  fossiliferous  limestones,  and  from  the  free 
use  of  sections. 

The  general  character  of  the  Feyiestellidce  is  as  follows  :  — 
The  zoarium  forms  a  delicate  calcareous  mesh-work,  on  one 
surface  of  which  the  cellules  or  zooecia  occur.  These  are 
grouped  along  the  main  bars  or  colum^i^  of  the  mesh.  The 
columns  bifurcate  as  the  zoarium  grows  broader  from  its 
base,  and  the  adjacent  ones  either  approach  and  join  one 
another  at  intervals,  then  separating  again,  or  are  united  by 
little  cross-bars  called  dissepiniejits.  In  the  former  case, 
elliptical  apertures,  called  fenestrules,  are  left  between  the 
sinuous  bars  ;  in  the  latter  case  the  fenestrules,  elliptical  or 
rectangular,  are  bounded  on  each  side  by  the  main  columns, 
and  above  and  below  by  the  dissepiments.  The  fenestrules 
are  far  larger  than  the  zooecial  apertures. 

Ulrich^  admits  the  genus  Thainniscus  into  the  family,  and  is 
thereby  forced  to  extend  his  definition  to  forms  that  possess 
no  fenestrules ;  but  this  seems  an  unnecessary  complication. 
The  genera  included  by  different  authors  vary  somewhat,  but 
amount  to  about  fourteen,  and  the  greatest  development  of 
the  family  as  a  whole  is  in  the  Carboniferous  period.  For 
our  purposes,  the  following  genera  are  of  immediate  interest, 
and  will  be  briefly  discussed  in  order  : — 

1.  Phyllopora,  King  {Retepora  auct.)  The  columns  are  rounded,  and 
are  sinuous  in  the  plane  of  the  zoarium,  uniting  with  one  another 
laterally  and  leaving  practically  circular  fenestrules.  The  zoarium  is 
funnel-shaped  when  perfect,  as  in  so  many  of  the  Fenestellids,  and  the 
zooecia  open  on  its  outer  surface,  forming  two  or  more  rows  on  each 
column.     Orduz'ician  to  Permian. 

2.  Polypora,  M'Coy  ^  The  columns  are  round,  and  connected  by 
dissepiments.  The  zooecia  are  in  2  to  8  rows  (Ulrich)  on  each  column ; 
M'Coy  observed  3  to  5  rows.  There  is  no  keel  between  the  rows,  but 
sometimes  (Ulrich)  a  line  of  strong  tubercles  occurs  along  the  column. 
Sihtrian  to  Permian. 

3.  Fenestralla,  Prout.  lAke  Polypora,  hvLtvfith  a.  ridig&or  keel  a.  long 
each  column,  on  each  side  of  which  there  are  two  rows  of  zooecia.  Only 
one  species  is  known,  from  the  Lower  Carboniferous  of  the  United  States. 

^  These  were  unfortunately  styled  "  interstices"  by  M'Coy,  Young,  and 

others,  a  name  more  suggestive  in  the  intervening  apertures  in  the  mesh. 

^"Palaeozoic  Bryozoa,"  Geological  Survey  of  Illinois,  vol.  viii.  (1890), 

P-  395- 

'  Synopsis  of  the  Characters  of  the  Carboniferous  Limestone  Fossils  of 
Ireland  (Dublin,  1844),  p.  206, 

io2  *rhe  Irish  Naturalist. 

4.  Fcncstella,  Lonsdale.  The  columns  are  round,  and  are  united  by 
dissepiments,  slighter  than  themselves,  as  in  Polypora.  There  is  a  keel, 
as  in  Fenestralia  ;  but  there  is  only  one  row  of  zooecia  on  each  side  of  it. 
Silurian  to  Permian  ;  most  abundant  in  Carboniferous. 

4a.  Archimedes,  Lesueur.  IaIlq  Fenestella,  but  wound  spirally 
about  a  central  axis,  with  the  zooecia  on  the  internal  or  upper  face. 

4b.  Ptriopora  (Ptylopora),  M'Coy^  (Scouler  MS.).  Like  Fen- 
cstella,  but  columns  diverging  pinnately  on  each  side  of  a  central 
and  thicker  axis.     Carboniferous. 

5.  Semlcoscfnium,  Prout.  (=  Carinopora^  Nicholson).  Two  rows  of 
zooecia,  as  in  Fenesiella,  but  the  dissepiments  are  thicker  and  shorter,  and 
the  keel  on  each  column  is  greatly  developed.  This  striking  feature  is 
often  thickened  near  its  crest  or  in  its  central  portion,  and  its  form  can 
be  well  studied  in  sections.-    Silurian  to  Devonian. 

6.  Unitrypa,  Hall.  Like  semicoscinium,  but  the  crests  of  the  prominent 
keels  send  out  cross-bars  which  connect  them.  Sometimes  there  are 
two  bars  to  each  fenestrule,  and  sometimes  there  is  one  to  each  zocecium. 
Uppermost  Silurian  to  Devonian. 

7.  Isotrypa,  Hall.  Like  Semicosciniiuii,  but  the  keels  are  thin  at  first 
and  then  expand,  the  long  plate-like  summits  that  are  thus  produced 
being  connected  by  bars  at  regular  intervals  ;  these  bars  correspond  to  the 
dissepiments  beneath  them,  and  form  a  sort  of  outer  mesh  work.  Silurian 
to  DeiJ0)iia7i. 

8.  Hem  itry  pa,  Phillips.^  In  this  genus  the  correspondence  of  structure 
between  the  outer  mesh  and  the  inner  fenestrated  zoarium  is  carried 
farther  than  in  Isotrypa^  and  a  delicate  network,  which  may  be  styled  the 
legmen,^  covers  the  face  of  the  zoarium,  and  is  supported  by  pillars  rising 
from  keels  like  those  of  an  ordinary  Fenesiella.  Each  row  of  pillars,  in 
fact,  bears  a  rod  running  parallel  to  the  column  of  the  zoarium  which 
lies  beneath  it,  and  these  rods  give  off  bars,  producing  a  network  between 
each  pair  of  rods.  The  circular  apertures  of  this  network  correspond  to 
the  zooecia  underlying  them.     Silurian  to  Carbonifei-ous. 

In  the  above  synopsis  the  genera  are  arranged  with  an  eye 
to  their  culmination  in  the  exquisite  details  of  Hemitrypa, 
which  was  at  one  time  nearly  consigned  to  oblivion  by 
European  palaeontologists,  its  tegmen  being  somewhat  negli- 
gently regarded  as  a  parasite/  The  range  of  this  genus  makes 

1  Op.  cit.  p.  200. 

-See,  for  instance,  Nicholson  and  Lydekker,  "Manual  of  Palaeontology," 
vol.  i.,  p.  625,  fig.  469  G. 

3  "  Palaeozoic  Fossils  of  Cornwall,  Devon,  and  West  Somerset." 
(Ordnance  Geological  Survey,  1841),  p.  27. 

^  G.  A.  J.  Cole,  "  On  Hemitrypa  hibernica,"  Proc.  Royal  Dublin  80c.,  vol. 
viii.  (1893),  p.  137. 

^Ibid.^i^.  133-5.  ....... 

0)1  the  Feyiestellidce — Irish  Carboniferous  Strata.         103 

one  hope  that  further  research  may  show  that  some  of  its 
relatives  also  reached  the  Carboniferous  period ;  and  the 
number  of  Fenestellids  recorded  by  Sir  R.  Griffith'  from  the 
base  of  the  Irish  Carboniferous  strata  points  to  the  shaly  beds 
of  the  south  as  a  possible  field  of  observation.  But  Hemitrypa 
seems  the  natural  survivor  of  the  series  that  leads  on  up  to  it 
from  Semico scinium,  and  this  genus  is  fortunately  already  well 
known  in  Ireland.  The  great  variet}^,  however,  of  Fenestellid 
species  now  established  in  the  United  States  makes  a  more 
thorough  examination  of  our  Carboniferous  forms  desirable. 
Specimens  showing  outer  coats,  even  if  these  resemble  parasitic 
crusts,  are  of  especial  value,  and  may  possibly  furnish  new 
examples  of  the  beautiful  He^nitrypa  series.  Even  in  museums, 
a  large  number  of  Fenestellid  specimens  are  merely  casts  of 
various  parts  of  the  zoarium  ;  and  at  any  time  some  choice 
example  may  be  discovered,  which  may  largely  improve  our 
knowledge  of  a  genus.  The  observation  of  the  "eight  radial 
denticles,"  pointing  inwards  from  the  mouth  of  the  zooecia,  in 
Actinostoma,-  was  a  striking  step  forward  in  this  direction,  and 
similar  structures  may  have  existed  in  many  Fcnestellce  or 
Polyporce.  The  controversy,  again,  as  to  the  nature  of 
Patceocoryfie^  shows  how  even  important  appendages  of  these 
complex  polyzoa  may  be  lost  from  all  .  but  the  most 
exceptional  specimens.  Too  often,  moreover,  workers  have 
been  glad  to  set  aside  such  discoveries  as  "abnormalities" 
and  "parasitic  growths,"  without  going  to  the  length  of  sup- 
porting their  assertions  by  a  section.  A  great  deal  can  be 
learned  of  the  structure  of  a  Fenestellid  zoarium  by  merely 
grinding  down  two  surfaces  perpendicular  to  one  another  and 
to  the  face  of  the  zoarium  (vertical  and  horizontal  sections), 
and  examining  these,  when  moistened,  with  a  dissecting 
microscope  or  even  with  a  hand-lens. 

The  Fenestellidae  have  hardly  yet  revealed  all  their  secrets 
to  us.  Their  zooecia,  as  is  now  known,  depart  widely  from  the 
simple   cyclostomatous  type,  and  Ulrich,^  with  great  reason, 

1  "The  Localities  of  the  Irish  Carboniferous  Fossils," /^w^«-  Geol.  Soc. 
Dublin^  vol.  ix.  (1S60-62),  p.  53. 

-  Prof.  J.  Young  and  J.  Young,  "  New  Carboniferous  Polyzoa,"  QuarL 
Jotirn.  Geol.  Soc.  London,  vol.  xxx  (1874),  p.  681. 

^  Ibidf  p.  684.     Nicholson  and  Lydekker,  op.  cit.,  p.  624. 

*  Oj>.  cit.y  p.  344. 

lo4  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

has  adopted  and  extended  Vine's  suborder  Cryptostomata  for 
their  reception.  The  cryptostomatous  zooecium  is  typically 
ovoid,  as  in  the  Cheilostomata,  with  an  aperture  towards  one 
end  ;  but,  as  growth  proceeds,  the  rim  of  this  aperture  is  pro- 
longed out  into  a  calcareous  tubular  vestibule,  the  axis  of 
which  is  oblique  to  that  of  the  zooecium.  I  cannot  help  think- 
ing that,  in  the  highlj^  keeled  Fenestellids,  the  polypides  per- 
manently protruded  themselves  even  beyond  their  vestibules, 
and  ultimatel}^  became  surrounded  by  a  membranous  tube 
which  extended  as  far  as  the  tegnien.  Enough  has  been  said, 
however,  to  indicate  the  lines  on  which  observation  may 
profitably  proceed  ;  and  I  need  scarcely  add  that  I  should  be 
grateful  for  the  loan  of  any  well  preserved  specimens  from 
Irish  Carboniferous  strata.  The  surface  cannot  be  too  greatly 
**  encrusted  "  by  what  may  seem  an  outer  sheath  ;  the  zooecia 
and  fenestrules  may  be  entirely  disguised  by  the  meshwork  of 
a  rude  or  a  more  delicate  tegmen.  The  forms,  moreover,  with 
well  marked  keels,  or  merely  with  lines  of  tubercles,  all  have 
an  important  bearing  on  the  evolution  of  the  more  elaborate 




Nev\^  Irish  Spiders  from  Londonderry. — During  the  latter  lialfof 
1894, 1  sent  Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  some  spiders  from  Magilligan,  Wahvorth, 
and  Rathmullan.  Among  them  he  found  specimens  of  eight  species  new 
to  Ireland: — Zora  spiuimana,  Cryphoeca  sylvicola,  Hahnia  clegans,  Ltpiyphantes 
alacris,  Tmeticus  abnori/ns,  Microneta  viaria,  Xysticiis  ei-ratiais,  and  Hdiophaniis 

Jas.  N.  Mii<ne,  Londonderry. 


Co.  Dublin  Hymenoptera,  Captures  in  1894. — Last  summer  at 
Monkstown  I  found  Pscii  pallipes  abundantly  in  burrows  of  Anobiuni  and 
other  wood-boring  beetles.  Crabro  pdtarms  I  took  in  great  quantity  at 
Portmarnock,  also  C.  ccphaJotcs  and  C.  varius.  C.  dimidiahts,  a  new  local 
record,  also  occurred  at  Monkstown.  C.  pdtarius  I  met  with  in  numbers 
at  Laytown,  as  likewise  Oxybeliis  jiitightinis,  on  the  occasion  of  the  joint 
excursion  of  the  Belfast  and  Dublin  P'ield  Clubs  in  June. 

H.  G.  CuTHBERT,  Blackrock,  Dublin. 

Orthezia  cataphracta,  Shaw,  in  Co.  Dublin. — When  collect- 
ing at  Howth  on  the  9th  of  last  Marcli,  I  found  several  beautifully  fresh 
examples  of  the  female  of  the  curious  Coccid  Orthezia  cataphrada,  Shaw,  in 
moss,  near  the  top  of  the  cliffs,  at  the  back  of  Lord  Howth's  demesne. 
This  forms  the  first  note  of  the  insect  from  Co.  Dublin.  I  have  also 
taken  specimens  on  Bray  Head  and  near  Dingle.    As  it  has  now  been 

Notes.  105 

recorded  from  several  localities  ranging  over  the  north,  east,  and  south- 
west, we  may  assume  that  it  is  common  in  suitable  places  throughout 
the  country.  No  examples  of  the  very  rare  winged  male  have  as  yet 
been  observed.  The  peculiarly  northern  distribution  of  this  insect  is 
interesting,  as  it  has  been  found  in  Greenland,  Lapland,  Scotland,  and 
the  north  of  England. 

J.  N    HAI.BERT,  Dublin. 


Wanted  live  Newts. — Some  doubts  have  been  expressed  whether 
one  or  more  species  of  newt  inhabit  Ireland.  Readers  of  the  Irish 
Naturalist  who  are  interested  in  the  question  are  herewith  requested  to 
kindly  forward  to  me  any  newts  which  they  may  be  able  to  secure. 

Three  species  of  newts  live  in  England,  but  only  one  species  has 
hitherto  been  definitely  authenticated  in  Ireland.  It  is  chiefly  from  the 
south  of  Ireland  and  the  County  Galway  that  newts  are  wanted,  as  it  is 
from  there  that  others  than  the  common  form  have  been  reported  to 
occur.     Specimens  should  be  packed  in  moss  and  enclosed  in  a  tin  box. 

R.  F.  SCHARFF,  Museum,  Dublin. 


Osprey  In  Co.  Kerry.— Mr.  T.  W.  M'Cormick  writes  us  that  a  week 
or  two  ago  an  adult  specimen  of  Pandion  halicBtiis  was  shot  near  the 
Railway  Hotel,  Killorglin,  Co.  Y^^xry.— land  and  Water,  March  2. 

Smew  in  Co.  Cork.— On  the  ist  of  March,  1895,  a  Smew  {Mergus 
albelhes),  was  shot  on  the  Bandon  river,  a  few  miles  west  of  Bandon.  The 
Smew  is  a  rare  bird  in  the  south  of  Ireland,  and  this  appears  to  be  the  first 
record  of  it  occurring  in  the  Co.  Cork. 

C.  LONGFiEivD,  Enniskeane,  Co.  Cork. 

Little  Bustard  In  Co.  Longford. — Mr.  L.  Powell  records  in  the 
Irish  Times  of  March  2nd,  that  a  Little  Bustard  (Otistctrax)-^2L^  shot  in  Co, 
Longford  during  February. 

Carnivorous  habit  of  Rooks  in  Frost. — Mr.  W.  J,  Thomas 
records  in  the  Field  of  February  i6th  that,  during  the  severe  frost  that 
prevailed  in  the  early  part  of  this  year.  Rooks  were  observed  to  attack 
and  devour  Starlings  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mullingar. 


The  Naturalist  In  the  IVIourne  IVIountains. — An  unusually 
practical  wall-sheet,  which  is  shortly  to  be  issued  in  pamphlet  form, 
has  been  recently  published  by  the  Belfast  and  County  Down  Railway 
Company.  It  is  headed  "  Mountain-climbing  in  the  Mournes,"  and  gives 
details  of  six  typical  routes,  by  following  which  the  finest  scenery  of  this 
grand  district  may  be  explored.  The  tourist  should  be  in  possession  of 
the  hill-shaded  i-inch  ordnance  map,  to  which  a  reference  might  well  have 
been  given  ;  but  it  would  probably  be  worth  while  for  the  same  competent 
climber  who  has  prepared  these  concise  notes  to  induce  the  Railway 
Company  also  to  put  on  sale  a  lithographed  map,  say  on  the  scale  of  two 
inches  to  one  mile,  on  which  the  details  acquired  by  his  obviously  wide 
local  knowledge  might  be  noted  down.  The  typical  visitor  to  sunny 
Rostrevor  has  very  little  knowledge  of  the  Mournes.  It  is  from  the  north, 
and  west,  from  Newcastle,  Bryansford,  and  Hilltown  that  their  wilder 
features  have  been  studied  ;  and  we  may  now  hope  that  some  active 
walker  will  do  for  Slieve  Gullion  and  the  ridges  around  Carlingford 
I.ough  what  the  County  Down  Railway  has  done  for  its  especial  district. 

G.  A.  J.  Coi,E,  Dublin. 

io6  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


RoYAi.  Z001.0GICA1,  Society. 

The  Sixty-third  Annual  Report  of  this  Society,  which  is  just  issued, 
is  one  of  considerable  interest.  From  the  Report  of  the  Council  we 
learn  that  the  total  number  of  visitors  to  the  gardens  during  the  past 
year  (1894),  was  115,031,  being  nearly  10,000  greater  than  the  total  of 
1893.  The  number  of  visitors  (and,  as  a  consequence,  the  receipts  at 
gate)  have  been  steadily  increasing  for  the  last  six  years.  There  is 
also  a  slight  increase  in  Entrance  Fees  and  Subscriptions.  During  the 
year  nine  Lion  cubs  have  been  born,  five  of  these  being  males  in  one 
litter,  an  unusual  occurrence.  They  have  been  exchanged  for  a  fine 
pair  of  Ostriches,  a  monster  Baboon,  and  other  animals.  Among  the 
other  items  we  note  that  three  Pumas  were  born  in  the  gardens,  and  that 
a  pair  of  the  curious  South  African  Hunting  Dogs  were  acquired  by  pur- 
chase. The  Chimpanzee  "  Bella  "  unfortunately  died  on  15th  November, 
but  the  purchase  of  an  Orang-utan  has  secured  to  the  gardens  another 
representative  of  the  Anthropoid  apes.  The  Bovine  animals  include  a 
Brahmin  Bull,  Pigmy  Indian  Cattle,  Brahmin  Dexter  Crossbred  Heifer, 
Ga3^al  Cow,  Chillingham  Heifer,  and  Yak  Cattle.  The  Aquarium 
has  been  greatl}'  improved,  and  is  now  very  attractive.  The 
Report  concludes  with  a  catalogue  of  the  animals  now  in  the  gardens, 
and  the  usual  list  of  members,  etc.  We  congratulate  the  Society  on 
their  flourishing  condition. 

Recent  donations  comprise  a  Fallow-deer  Fawn,  from  A.  E.  Goodbody, 
Esq.  ;  a  Mongoose  from  C.  A.  James,  Esq.,  and  a  pair  of  Foxes  from  S. 
Barkley,  Esq.  A  young  male  Lion,  sent  by  the  governor  of  Harar  to 
the  Queen,  has  been  graciously  presented  by  Her  Majesty  to  the  Society. 
The  animal  has  safely  arrived  at  the  Dublin  gardens,  and^has  received 
the  name  of  "  Victor."  A  Barbary  Sheep  has  been  born  in  the  gardens, 
and  a  pair  of  Mandarin  Ducks  purchased. 

4,350  persons  visited  the  gardens  in  February. 

Dubinin  Microscopicai.  Ci^ub. 

February  14TH. — The  Club  met  at  Mr.  A.  Andrews'. 

Prof.  G.  Coi,E  showed  a  section  of  Perlitic  Obsidian,  from  Sandy 
Brae,  north  of  Tardree  Mountain,  Co.  Antrim.  This  rock  is  probably  the 
most  beautiful  example  of  an  unaltered  perlitic  glass  in  the  British  Isles. 
Mr.  W.  W.  Watts  has  recently  [Quart.  Jotirti.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  L.,  p.  367), 
given  a  detailed,  description  of  its  microscopic  characters.  It  forms  the 
glassy  part  of  a  rliyolite,  which  probably  flowed  from  the  great  neck  of 
Tardree  Mountain. 

Mr.  M'ArdIvE  exhibited  the  perianth  and  capsule,  with  spores  and 
elaters  oi  Radtila  vohiia,  Tayl.,  from  specimens  which  he  collected  on  the 
shores  of  Lough  Cultra,  Co.  Cavan,  in  1893.  This  is  a  new  locality  for 
the  species.  The  Irish  plant  is  held  by  good  authorities  to  be  the  same 
as  A".  Xalapensis,  N.M.,  from  New  Granada  collected  by  Linding,  and  on 
Tullulah  Falls,  Georgia,  U.  States. 

Mr.  H.  J.  Seymour  showed  sections  of  Silicified  Oolite  found  as  a 
pebble  in  the  Glacial  gravels  of  Glencullen,  Co.  Dublin.  P'oraminifera 
form  the  centres  of  the  Oolitic  grains,  which  are  purple-brown  in  the 
mass,  cemented  by  white  chalcedony.  In  section  the  grains  appear 
pale  brown.  It  would  be  interesting  to  trace  the  origin  of  this  rock. 
Probably  it  is  from  some  Oolitic  zone  in  the  Carboniferous  system  ;  but 
it  is  just  possible  that  it  is  from  a  Jurassic  stratum,  which  has  been 
entirely  removed  from  Co.  Dublin, 

Pfoceedings  of  Irish  Societies,  107 


FEBRUARY  19.— The  President  (F.  W.  Lockwood)  in  the  chair.  Rev. 
Denis  Murphy,  S.J.,  lectured  on  Irish  Art  as  shown  on  Ancient 

March  9. — A  party  of  twenty-five,  niostl}^  members  of  the  geological 
class,  visited  the  various  deposits  to  be  found  at  I.arne.  The  party  left 
Belfast  at  12.30,  arriving  in  Larne  Harbour  at  1.40,  where  they  were  met 
by  Professor  Cole,  who  straightway  led  them  down  to  the  exposure  of 
the  New  Red  Sandstone :  making  this  his  text,  he  gave  a  ver}^  clear 
outline  of  the  conditions  of  this  country  in  these  times.  No  find  was 
made  except  a  few  pieces  of  gypsum.  A  little  way  further  on  was  seen 
a  large  section  of  the  Rhaetic  Beds,  towards  the  top  layers  of  which  Mr. 
William  Swanston  was  lucky  enough  to  hit  on  Putoi  valoniensis,  the  type 
fossil  of  the  stratum  in  which  it  occurs. 

Professor  Tate  has  recorded  no  fossils  from  this  part.  A  so-called 
oolitic  structure  was  next  discussed,  but  no  decision  was  arrived  at : 
Professor  Cole,  however,  secured  several  of  the  knots  and  grains,  of 
which  we  may  hope  to  hear  more.  The  Lias  beds  were  now  arrived  at,  and 
the  zones  of  Psiloceras  planorbis,  yEgocerasJohnstoni  a.ndi  podacrinus  were  suc- 
cessfully crossed,  each  forming  a  halting-place  for  the  collectors  to  whom 
the  Professor  explained  the  various  features.  Specimens  of  the  above 
were  obtained,  and  also  of  Lima  giganfea,  Gryphcea  inciu-va,  various  Cardinias 
and  others.  Perhaps  the  best  find  was  a  Nautilus  in  which  the  septa 
were  replacedby  sulphate  of  iron,  and  of  which  about  one  third  of  the  outer 
whorl  was  practically  removed,  showing  the  chambers,  divided  off  by  the 
gold-coloured  layers  of  the  sulphate.  Another  shift  was  then  made  to  the 
Greensand,  of  which  there  is  a  large  but  sand-covered  exposure,  a  great 
part  of  it  being  the  reddened  deposit,  in  which  there  were  a  vast  number 
of  fragments  of  Inoceranius,  so  much  so  that  Professor  Cole  believes 
this  bed  represents  the  English  Turonian,  which  is  usually 
thought  to  be  missing  in  our  Irish  strata.  Close  to  this  is  the 
base  of  the  Chalk,  with  Ananchytes  ovattis,  and  Belemnitella  mucrouata,  of 
which  specimens  were  secured,  as  also  some  impressions  of  spongy  or 
polyzoan  forms.  Professor  Cole  believes  our  Chalk  to  correspond  to  the 
very  topmost  layer  ot  the  English  Ghalk,  and  this  belief  was 
strengthened  by  Mr  Swanston  drawing  attention  to  the  great  develop- 
ment of  marine  gasteropods  in  the  Limavady  district.  On  the  road 
back  to  Lame,  another  outcrop  of  Greensand  was  examined,  yielding 
only  a  Rhynchonella  robusla,  and  the  party  then  headed  for  the  Post- 
Pliocene  gravel  beds  of  the  Curran,  which  have  already  been  very  fully 
described  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Club.  One  or  two  members  of  the 
party  were  fortunate  in  discovering  marine  shells  and  worked  flints 
side  by  side  in  the  middle  of  the  section  Littorina  litorea,  L.  litoralis, 
and  Patella  vulgaris  were  found.  The  estuarine  clay  was  noticed  only 
in  passing,  as  time  was  short,  and  the  party  travelled  back  to  Belfast 
by  the  5.45  train.  Tea  in  the  Museum  was  followed  by  Professor  Cole's 
lecture  on  the  Eocene,  Oligocene,  and  Miocene  periods,  in  which  by  far 
the  most  important  point  raised  was  the  discovery  of  worked  flints  in 
undoubted  Miocene  deposits  in  India.  Fuller  particulars  are  being 
anxiously  watched  for,  but  there  seems  no  reason  to  doubt  the 
authenticity  of  the  find.  If  true,  it  will  be  a  final  blow  to  the  theory 
that  man  sprang  into  existence  in  the  last  geological  formation,  and 
with  all  his  modern  powers  of  intellect. 

March  19. — The  President  in  the  Chair.  The  following  papers  were 
read  :  LT.-Coi.onei.  Partridge—"  Additional  Lepidoptera  from 
Enniskillen."  J.  R.  P.  ManfieTvD.— "  Wild  Bird  Protection  and  Nesting 
Boxes."  Subsequently  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Microscopicjd 
Section  was  held,  and  there  was  a  display  of  microscopical  apparatus 
and  objects. 

io8  The  Ifish  Naturalist. 


March  5. — The  President  (R.  L/I.OYD  Patterson;  in  the  chair.  Mr, 
REDFern  Kei^IvY  lectured  on  "  The  Great  Mystery  of  Stellar  and 
Planetary  Evolution." 

Dubinin  Natur.\i,ists'  FiEiyD  Ci.ub. 

March  12.— The  President  (G.  H.  Carpenter,  B.Sc.)  in  the  chair. 
Prof.  J.  P.  0'Reii.i,y,  C.E.,  read  a  paper  entitled  "  The  Possible  Palaeonto- 
logical  Reading  of  an  Eastern  Tradition."  The  reader  drew  attention  to 
a  statement  taken  from  Bailly's  "  Lettres  sur  1' Atlantic  de  Platon  et  sur 
I'ancienne  Histoire  de  I'Asie  "  (Paris,  1779),  ^^  which  the  statement  was 
made  that  Huschenk,  grandson  of  Caiumarath,  first  King  of  the  Persians, 
conducted  his  expeditions  on  a  horse  having  twelve  feet,  which,  the 
reader  endeavoured  to  show,  might  possibly  have  been  one  of  the  three- 
toed  ancestors  of  the  horse.  Another  tradition  told  how  Tahamuruth, 
third  King  of  Persia,  had  for  a  steed  a  great  bird  called  Simorg-auka,  which 
the  reader  suggested  may  possibly  have  actually  been  a  bird  allied  to  the 
Ostrich.  Prof.  Cole,  criticizing  the  paper,  pointed  out  that  the  suggestions 
made  by  Prof  O'Reilly  could  not  be  met  on  the  grounds  of  impossibility, 
as  man  was  known  to  have  been  contemporaneous,  for  instance,  with 
Hipparion,  but  he  considered  that  the  twelve-toed  horse  of  the  legend  was 
more  probably  a  retrogressive  sport.  Rev.  Maxwell  Close  and  the 
President  also  spoke.  A  letter  was  read  from  Dr.  E.  J.  M'Weeney 
regretting  his  inability  to  attend  and  read  a  paper  which  stood  in  his 

Mr.  D.  McArdi^e  read  a  paper  on  "Adventitious  Branching  in 
Liverworts,''  which  appears  in  our  present  issue. 

Mr.  R.  lyi,.  Praeger  exhibited  some  rare  British  plants  from  the 
Boswell  Herbarium.  The  species  shown  included  Ranunculus  reptans^ 
Elatine  Hydropiper  (from  Belfast),  Peucedanum  officinale,  Erythraa  latifolia, 
Orobanche  Picridis,  0.  caryophyllacea,  Primula  scolica,  Statice  Caspia,  Atriplex 
pedunculata,  Carex  frigida,  Lastrea  uliginosa.  Professor  JOHNSON  exhibited 
a  sea-weed,  Epicladia  Fhisine,  Rke.,  new  to  Ireland,  found  on  Flustra 
collected  at  Rush  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Duerden. 

Messrs.  J.  Iv.  Huddleston,  and  G.  E.  T.  Greene,  J.P.,  P\L.S  ,  were 
elected  members  of  the  Club. 

Cork  Naturai<ists'  Fiei.d  Ci,ub. 

November  21. — An  Inaugural  Address  was  delivered  by  the  President 
(Prof.  M.  M.  Hartog,  D.Sc).  Mr.  J.  N.  Hai^bert's  paper,  "  Insects 
collected  on  the  joint  Clubs'  Excursion  ofFermoy  and  Lismore,"  as  read 
by  him  at  the  Dublin  N.F.C.,  was  read  by  the  Secretary,  after  which  an 
hour  was  pleasantly  spent  looking  through  the  specimens  and  micro- 
scopes brought  by  members. 

January  23. — The  first  lecture  was  given  in  connection  with  the  Irish 
Field  Club  Union  by  Joseph  Wright,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  of  Belfast,  on 
*'  Foraminifera  recent  and  fossil,  with  special  reference  to  those  found  in 
Ireland."  The  lecture  was  beautifully  illustrated  with  photographic 
lantern  slides  and  diagrams.  "^  -. 

Miss  H.  A.  Martin,  V.P.,  having  kindly  consented  to  give  four 
lectures  on  structural  botany,  a  special  class  was  formed,  and  two 
lectures  up  to  the  present  have  been  given  on  the  Morphology  and 
Physiology  of  the  Root  and  of  the  Stem. 



l-.K.S.l-:.,   K.L.S..   M.U.I. A. 

^\j^  gtrt^lj  Jlaturalt^t* 

Vol.  IV.  MAY,  1895.  No.  5. 


F.R.S.E.,    F.I,.S.,    M.R.I.A. 

Irish  Natural  History  has  sustained  the  severest  blow  it  could 
well  receive  in  the  death  of  Alexander  Goodman  More,  for  it 
may  be  truly  said  that  no  naturalist  ever  had  the  same  reliable 
grasp  of  the  flora  as  well  as  the  fauna  of  this  country  as  he 

A.  G.  More  was  born  in  London  on  Septembers,  1830.  He 
was  the  son  of  Alexander  More  of  Malvern,  and  grandson 
of  Alexander  More,  Collector  of  Customs,  Aberdeen,  great- 
grandson  of  Gilbert  More  of  Readen,  Aberdeen,  and  on  the 
grandmother's  side  of  Alexander  Innes  of  Breda  and  Cowie. 

From  1836  to  1841  he  resided  at  Renens  near  Lausanne  with 
his  parents  and  also  with  M.  Germond,  who  was  his  tutor  at 
Yvonnand  and  Echallens.  At  Renens  he  became  acquainted 
with  the  Shawe-Taylors  of  Castle  Taylor,  Co.  Galway.  This 
intimacy,  which  was  continued  through  life,  was  probably  the 
primary  cause  of  his  coming  to  live  in  Ireland. 

While  in  Switzerland  his  taste  for  Natural  History  early 
showed  itself  in  the  collection  of  butterflies.  In  1841  he  went 
to  Mr.  Bailey's  school  at  Clifton,  and  there  prepared  for  Rugby, 
to  which  he  went  in  1844,  his  parents  residing  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight.  Five  years  were  spent  at  Rugby.  More  became  head 
of  his  house  (Rev.  Charles  Mayor's)  and  first  Grecian 

In  1846  he  tells  us  in  a  brief  private  diary — which  will, 
hereafter,  be  frequently  quoted — ''Taste  for  birds  first  began 
from  being  anxious  to  know  all  about  a  Nuthatch  I  had  shot, 
which  I  compared  with,  and  found  out  in  Bewick."  In  1848 
Eyton's  supplement  to  "Bewick,"  Selby's  ''British  Orni- 
thology," and  St.  John's  "Highland  Sports,"  were  purchased, 
and  More  "  began  to  study  birds  more  carefully." 

no  The  hish  Naturalist. 

He  was  now  eighteen,  and  Westwood's  *'  Butterflies," 
Jenyns'  "  British  Vertebrates,"  Temminck's  **  Manual,"  and 
Turton's  "  British  Land  Shells  "  formed  the  nucleus  of  a  well- 
read  library  which  was  rapidly  enlarged  by  presents  from 
friends  who  admired  his  ability  and  genius. 

In  1850  he  says  "  Walter  (Mr.  Walter  Shawe-Tajdor)  carried 
me  off  to  Ireland  where  I  spent  the  summer  and  botanized  for 
the  first  time."  In  the  same  year  More  entered  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge.  The  following  summer,  185 1,  was  spent  at  Castle 
Taylor,  and  Viola  stag7iina  discovered  in  Ireland.  He  was 
introduced  to  Prof.  Babington  at  Cambridge  and  elected 
Associate  of  the  Ray  Club.  In  1852  he  "  began  really  to  study 
botany,"  and  purchased  a  number  of  valuable  books  dealing 
with  the  English  and  Continental  floras. 

At  Cambridge  he  took,  a  certificate  in  geology,  but  ill-health 
prevented  his  completing  his  college  course  and  trying  for 
the  Natural  Science  Tripos — a  circumstance  always  spoken  of 
with  keen  regret  in  after  life.  Fond  of  shooting  and  fishing, 
he  also  steered  the  head  boat  at  Cambridge  in  May,  1853. 
At  this  time  he  joined  the  Botanical  Society  of  Edinburgh, 
and  progress  in  botany  consisted  chiefly  "in  the  more  careful 
comparison  of  plants  with  their  descriptions,"  a  study  in  which 
his  critical  eye  subsequently  excelled  and  in  which  he  had  few 
equals.  Portions  of  1854  and  1855  were  spent  in  the  West  of 
Ireland,  and  his  first  botanical  essay  appeared,  i.e.  "  Notes 
on  the  Flora  of  Castle  Taylor."  The  following  year  he  was 
elected  F.L.S.  In  1857,  he  was  introduced  to  Mr.  H.  C. 
Watson,  author  of  the  "  Cybele  Britannica,"  and  visited  him 
subsequently  at  Thames  Ditton. 

In  1858,  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  T.  Boyd,  a  paper  "  On  the 
Geographical  Distribution  of  Butterflies  in  Great  Britain " 
was  published,  on  the  plan  of  Watson's  "  Cybele  Britannica." 
At  the  same  time  he  made  an  analysis  of  De  Candolle's 
''  Naturalized  Plants,"  and  catalogued  Dr.  Bromfield's 

In  1859  some  suggestive  remarks  on  the  migration  of  birds 
appeared  in  the  Zoologist,  and  More,  with  the  natural  pride  of 
a  young  botanist,  says,  "Gained  the  confidence  of  CC.B." 
(Prof.  Babington).  This  was  his  first  year  of  critical  work  at 

Alexander  Goodman  More. 


In  i860  the  appendix  to  Venable's  "  Isle  of  Wight  Guide  " 
appeared,  and  the  following  summer  he  visited  Waterton ; 
his  stay  at  Walton  Hall  with  all  its  curiosities  was  always 
remembered  with  pleasure. 

Watson's  plan  of  the  **  Cybele  Britannica",  already  applied 
to  the  butterflies  by  More,  was  now  made  use  of  for  illustrating 
the  distribution  of  birds  in  Great  Britain  during  the  nesting 
season,  and  materials  were  diligently  collected.  So  highly 
was  his  paper  on  the  subject  thought  of  that  Prof.  Newton 
alludes  to  it  thus  in  his  article  on  Ornithology  in  the  **  Kncyc. 
Brit,"  9th  Kd.,  "Though  contravening  our  plan  we  must  for 
its  great  merits  notice  here  Mr.  More's  series  of  papers  in  the 
Ibis  for  1865." 

Not  content  with  the  Butterflies  and  Birds  of  Great  Britain, 
More  in  1864  again  visited  Ireland,  and  to  quote  the  diary, 
''proposed  an  Irish  Flora  to  D.  M."  (Dr.  David  Moore  of 
Glasnevin).  Watson's  "Cybele  Britannica"  did  not  include 
Ireland,  and  we  have  here  the  first  germ  of  the  '•'  Cybele 
Hibernica,"  a  work  which  will  always  form  a  conspicuous 
landmark  in  Irish  Botany.  Dr.  Moore  had  much  of  the 
material  already  collected  ;  the  application  of  Watson's  system 
to  its  arrangement  was  assisted  by  More,  who,  in  order 
to  be  near  his  friend,  came  to  reside  at  Glasnevin.  The 
authors  worked  with  diligence  for  two  years,  mutual  esteem 
^nd  harmony  prevailed,  and  the  "Cybele  Hibernica"  was 
completed  in  August,  1866. 

In  1867  he  was  appointed  Assistant  in  the  Dublin  Natural 
History  Museum,  and  for  twenty  years  from  that  date  his 
room  there  was  the  rendezvous  of  all  naturalists  who  came  to 
Dublin.  Here  introductions  were  made,  jealousies  dispelled, 
and  friendships  initiated  and  cemented.  Every  nerve  was 
strained  to  encourage,  stimulate,  and  assist  the  younger 
naturalists.  More  was  their  counsellor  and  guide,  and  the 
Natural  History  of  Ireland  had  in  him  a  most  earnest  advocate. 

In  1877,  he  was  made  an  Honorary  Member  of  the  Zoological 
and  Botanical  Society  of  Vienna. 

By  a  gentle  and  gracious  manner,  unfailing  courtesy,  and 
wonderful  tact,  rare  specimens  were,  over  and  over  again, 
coaxed  from  the  owners  for  the  Museum,  and  difficulties 
overcome  in  their  transfer  by  a  sort  of  insidious  persuasion 
which  few  could  withstand. 

A  2 

112  The  hish  Na  tu ;  a  list. 

In  the  old  days,  before  the  present  National  lyibrary  was 
built,  most  of  the  works  on  Natural  History  were  collected 
in  a  lofty  square  well-lighted  room,  and  here  More  often  spent 
hours  working  at  some  moot  point  for  the  benefit  of  a  friend 
down  in  the  country.  The  trouble  he  took  was  amazing.  For 
a  quarter  of  a  century,  scarcely  a  pamphlet,  paper,  or  book 
was  published  on  the  flora  or  fauna  of  Ireland  in  which  the 
author  did  not  acknowledge  his  assistance  or  advice.  It 
always  gave  him  greater  pleasure  to  help  others  to  write  than 
to  undertake  the  task  himself.  There  was  no  lack  of  mental 
energy,  but  ill-health  frustrated  many  a  plan  which  would 
have  been  carried  out  had  he  been  more  vigorous. 

In  1 88 1,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Carte,  he  was  appointed  Curator 
of  the  Museum,  and  occupied  this  post  till  a  protracted  illness 
caused  him  to  retire  on  pension  in  1887.  His  residence  at 
Rathmines  now  became  the  frequented  resort  of  botanists  and 
zoologists,  with  whom  he  kept  up  a  constant  correspondence, 
making  systematic  entries  of  their  notes  in  the  "  Cybele 
Hibernica",  and  in  other  books  and  papers  which  he  had  in- 
terleaved and  annotated. 

He  was  not  a  scientist  of  the  modern  type ;  the  correct 
identification  of  a  species,  its  habits,  and  geographical  distribu- 
tion were  studied  by  him  rather  than  its  morphology  and 
histology.  He  revelled  in  minute  distinctions  between  well- 
marked  varieties,  and  his  critical  opinion  was  respected  in 
England  and  abroad.  Familiar  with  every  pamphlet  and  book- 
on  his  favourite  studies,  he  held  a  unique  position  as  a  referee 
in  the  bibliography  of  Irish  and  English  Natural  History,  for 
he  knew  both  zoological  and  botanical  literature. 

The  short  notes  and  papers  which  he  has  written  are 
numerous,  but,  unlike  many,  he  wrote  less  than  he  knew, 
rather  than  err  by  making  unfounded  statements.  His  "  Out- 
lines of  the  Natural  History  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,"  the 
valuable  papers  in  the  Ibis  for  1865,  the  Supplement  to  the 
'*  Flora  Vectensis",  the  *' Cybele  Hibernica  "  and  its  Supple- 
ment, and  last  but  not  least  his  "  List  of  Irish  Birds  "  are  the 
best  known  of  his  writings.  From  the  Royal  Irish  Academy 
he  received,  from  time  to  time,  several  grants  for  scientific 

The  errors  which  he  corrected  and  saved  others  from  mak- 
ing are  scarcely  less  numerous  than  those  many  additions  to 

Alexander  Good7na7i  More.  113 

the  Irish  Flora  and  Fauna  which  are  solely  due  to  his  activity. 
After  the  scientific  exploration  of  any  district,  More  was  the 
traveller's  first  confidant,  and  the  delight  with  which  he  hailed 
a  discovery  gave  a  zest  and  enjoyment  to  field  work  which 
will   be     sadly   missed   in    Ireland.       What   areas   deserved 
attention — who  had  been  there  previously,  and  what  had  been 
done  and  left  undone— were  at  his  fingers'  ends.  He  suggested 
many  expeditions,   checked  others,  and  was  consulted  in  the 
arrangement  of  all.   Nobody  can  hope  to  fill  his  place  ;  no  one 
is  equally  familiar  with  birds,  mammals,  fishes,  reptiles,  flower- 
ing plants  and  ferns,  a  versatility  which  was  happily  combined 
with  a  sound  judgment,  great  tact,  and  a  suavity  and  gentleness 
of  manner  peculiarly  attractive.     His  ability  was  perhaps  best 
testified   by   the   regard   which  was  entertained  for  him   by 
every  one.     He  has  left  a  blank  which  can  never  be  filled, 
and  which  will  be  more  vividly  realized  every  day  by  those 
who  had  the  privilege  of  his  friendship. 

Richard  M.  Barrington. 



1855.  On  some  uncommon  Plants  observed  at  or  near  Tunbridge  Wells 
in  Kent.     Phytologist,  (n.s.)  vol.  i.,  pp.  292-5,  345-8. 

1855.  On  the  Flora  of  the  neighbourhood  of  Castle  Taylor,  Co.  Gal  way. 
Proc.  Edin.  Bot.  Soc,  pp.  26-30. 

1857.  Anemone  Pulsatilla.     Phyt.  (n.s.)  vol.  ii.,  pp.  215-216. 

1858.  Analysis  of  De  Candolle's  "  Naturalized  Plants."     /.c,  pp.  449-462. 

[Not  signed  by  A.  G.  M.,  but  mentioned  in  his  diary.] 

i860.  Remarks  on  the  Violce  of  the  coast  sand-hills.     Phyt.  (n.s.),  vol.  iv. 
pp.  301-3. 

i860.  Additional  localities  for  some  rare  Hampshire  plants,      t.c,   pp. 

i860.  Remarks  on  Annual  Addresses,     t^c.  pp.  103-4.     [Not  signed.] 
i860.  VJh.a.t  is  Rammadus  heterophylltts  ?    Ac,  pp.  138-142.     [Not  signed.] 
i860.  Remarks  on  Harrow  Plants,     t.c,  pp.  170-2.     [Signed,  "A."] 
i860.  Chickweeds.     /.c,  pp.  172-4.     [Not  signed.] 
i860.  Sonchtis palustris.     t.c,  pp.  310  312.     [Signed,  "A."] 
i860.  Outlines  of  the  Natural  History  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  being  a 
supplement  to  Venables'  "  Guide."    (Also  issued  separately  with 
fresh  pagination.     London,  Spottiswoode  &  Co. ) 

i860.  Localities  for  some  rare  Plants  observed  in  Ireland.      Nat.  Hist. 

Review,  vol.  vii.,  pp.  434-443. 
1861.  "QxiW-S^  Lepigona.    /%jA  (n.s.)  vol.  v.,  pp.  81-3.     Also  Thirsk Botanical 

Reports,  186 1,  pp.  7-9. 

1861.  On  the  occurrence  of  Festiua  ambigua  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.     Trans. 
Linn.  Soc  (^Bot.),  vol.  vi.,  pp.  189-192. 

114  ^^^  Irish  Naturalist. 

1861-3.  A  Comparative  List  of  British  Plants,  showing  synonymous  species 
in  Babington,  Ivond.  Cat,  Hooker,  Arnott,  and  Bentham.     Phyt. 
(n.s.),  vol.  iv.,  pp.   321-330;  vol.  v.,  pp.   310  317  ;    vol.  vi.,  pp- 

101-9,  370-381- 
1863.  The  above,  reprinted.     London,  Pamplin. 

1862.  On  the  discovery  of  Gladiohis  illyricus  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.    Journ^ 

Linn.  Soc,  {Bot),  vol.  v.,  pp.  177-8. 

1863.  Unusually  mild  winter  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.     Journai  of  Botany^ 

vol.  i.,  pp.  57-8. 

1865.  Note  on  the  discovery  of  Neolinea  intada  in  Ireland.     Trans.  Edin. 

Bot.  Soc,  vol.  viii.,pp.  265-266. 

1866.  [Conjointly  with  David  Moore].     Contributions  towards  a  Cybele 

Hibernica,  being  Outlines  of  the  Geographical  Distribution  of 
Plants  in  Ireland.     Dublin  and  London. 

1866.  [Conjointly  with  David  Moore].  On  the  Climate,  Flora,  and 
Crops  of  Ireland.     Proc.  Bot.  Congress,  pp.  165-176. 

1868.  Discovery  of  6'«>/'^/.f/ar^'w/«^  in  Ireland.  Jonrn.  of  Bot.  vol.  vi.,  pp. 
254,  321-3,  with  plate. 

1868.  Trifoliti77t  subterraneiim  in  Ireland,     i.e.,  pp.  208. 

1868.  Note  on  Equisetum  Moorei.     t.  c,  pp.  253-4. 

1868.  Hippophae  rha?nnoides.     t.  c,  pp.  255-6,  373. 

1869.  Discovery  of  Aira  uliginosa  at  Roundstone,  Co.  Galway.    Journ.   of 

Bot,,  vol.  vii.,  pp.  265-6. 

1870.  Notes  on  Scirpiis parvulus.     Trans.  Edin.  Bot.  Soc-,  vol.  x.,  pp.  160-1. 

1870.  On  Callitriche  obtnsangula  as  a  British  plant.    Journ.  of  Bot.,  vol.  viii., 

pp.  342-3. 

1871.  A  Supplement  to  the  Flora  Vectensis.    Journ.  of  Bot.,  vol.  ix.,  pp. 

72-6,  135-145,  167-172,  202-211. 

1871.  On  Acorus  caia/nus  as  a.  Native,     t.c, -p.  246. 

1871.  Cerastium  pzimilwn  in  Jersey.     Ar. ,  p.  371. 

1 87 1.  On  Spiranthes  Romanzoviana,     Brit.  Ass.  Rep.,  xli.,  p.  129. 

1871.  On  Eriophorum  alpinuin  as  a  British  Plant.     A  c,  p.  133. 

1873.  Recent  additions  to  Flora  of  Ireland.  Proc.  Roy.  Ir.  Acad.  {Sc.)  (2) 
vol.  ii.,  pp.  256-293. 

1873.  Abridgment  of  above  with  additions.  Journ.  of  Bot.,  vol.  xi.,  pp. 
115-T19,  142-148. 

1873.  Panicum  capillarexn^sseyi.     t.c,  p.  141. 

1874.  New  station  for  Erica  Mackayana.    Journ.  of  Bot.,  vol.  xii.,  p.  306. 
1876.  Lycopodiwn  inundatum  in  Kerry.    Journ.  of  Bot ,  vol.  xiv.,  p.  373. 
1876.  Report  on  the  Flora  of  Inishbofin,  Galway.     Proc.  R.  I.  A.,  vol.  ii., 

PP-  553-578. 

1876.  On  the  occurrence  in  Ireland  of  Nuphar  intermeditini.     \Brit.   Ass. 

Rep.,  xlvi.,  p.  144. 

1877.  Naias  flexilis  in  Kerry.    Journ.  of  Bot.,  vol.  xv.,  p.  350. 

1878.  [Conjointly  withD.  Moore.]  Catalogue  of  the  Flowering-plants  and 

Ferns  of  Dublin  and  Wicklow,  for  Brit.  Assoc.  Guide.     Reprinted 
with  corrections  in  Sci.  Proc.  R.  D.  S.  (n.s),  vol.  i.,  pp.  190-227. 

1880.   Trifoliiwi  maritinmm  in  Ireland.   Journ.  of  Bot.,Yo\.  xviii.,  pp.  233-4. 

1882.  Sisyrinchitnn  Bermudiatiuni  in  Kerry.    Journ.  of  Bot.,  vol.  xx.,  p.  8. 

1882.  Aira  atpina  in  Kerry.     t.c.,-p.  87. 

1884.  Pembroke  and  Glamorganshire   Plants,     fourn.  of  Bot.,  vol.  xxii., 

pp.  43-6. 
1889.  Erica  mediterranea  var.  hibernica  in  Achil.     fourn.  of  Bot.,  vol.  xxvii., 

p.  118. 

Alexa7ider  Goodman  More.  115 

1892.    Ciisctita  epithymuni  in  Ireland.    Jotirn.  of  BoL,  vol.  xxx.,  p.  14. 
1892.   Trichomanes  radicans  in  Spain,     t.  c.y  p.  86. 
1892.  Silene  maritima  growing  inland,     t.c.^  p.  87. 
1892.    Vaccinium  vitis-idcea  at  low  level,     t.c.^  p.  88. 

1892.  Rubus  chamxtnorus  as  an  Irish  Plant,     t.  <:.,  p.  217. 

1893.  A  Sketch  of  Irish   Botany,  in  Guy's  "  South  of  Ireland  Pictorial 

Guide"  (pp.  142-6).     Reprinted  with  corrections.    Journ.  of  Bot., 
vol.  xxxi.,  pp.  299-304. 


1849.  Regiclus  ignicapilhis  at  Bembridge.     Zoologist,  vol.  vii.,  p.  2526. 

1850.  Uptipa  epops  at  Bembridge.     ZooL,  vol.  viii.,  p.  2800. 
1853.  Sylvia  tithys  at  Bembridge.     ZooL,  vol.  xi.,  p.  3753. 

1853.  Correction  of  Error  respecting  Regidus  ignicapilhis.     i.e.,  4014. 

1853.  Migratory  Birds  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,    t.c,  p.  4094- 

1854.  Vespertilio  serotinus  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.     ZooL,  vol.  xii.,  p.  4179. 
1854.  Bartramia  longicatida  as  a  British  Bird,     t.c,  p.  4254* 

1854.  Zygoena  jninos. — Note  on,  in  Ireland,  &c.     t.c,  p.  4435* 

1855.  On  three  species  of  Divers.     Zool.,  vol.  xiii.,  p.  4628. 

1858.  [Conjointly  with  T.  Boyd.]    On  the  geographical  distribution  of 
Butterflies  in  Gt.  Britain.     Zool.,  vol.  xvi.,  pp.  6018-6027. 

1858.  Migratory  Birds  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,     t.c,  p.  6270. 

1859.  Remarks  on  the  Migration  of  Birds.     Zool.,  vol.  xvii.,  pp.  6531-4. 
i860.  Outlines  of  the  Natural  History  of  the  Isle  of  Wight.     London. 

(See  also  under  Botany.  ) 
i860.  Rare  birds  observed  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.     Zool..,  vol.  xviii.,  6849- 

i860.  Arctic  Tern  nesting  on  fresh  water  at  Lough  Carra,   Mayo,     /.c, 

i860.  Deilephila  lineata  on  the  Isle  of  Wight,     t.c,  p.  7107. 
i860.   Calosoma  sycophanta  on  the  Isle  of  Wight,     t.c,  p.  7157. 
1865.   On  the  Distribution  of  Birds  in  Great  Britain  during  the  Nesting 

Season.    Ibis.  (2),  vol.  i.,  pp.  1-27,  1 19-142,  425-458. 
1865.  Colias  ediisa  on  Howth,  Dublin.     Zool.  (2),  vol.  i.,  p.  151. 

1869.  Note  on  the  Animal  of  Limncea  involuta.     Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  (4) 

vol.  iv.,  p.  46. 

1870.  Golden  Eagle  on  Snowdon.     Zool.  (2),  vol.  v.,  p.  2381. 

1870.  Report  on  the  Collections   made  in  Kerry.    Journ.  R.  Dub.  Sot\, 

vol.  v.,  pp.  389-394- 
1870.  Report  on  Experiments  made  in  1869  with  the  Japanese  Silkworm, 

Bombyx  Yatna-mai.     t.c.  pp.  486-9." 
1872.  Food  Plant  of  Taneocampa  rubricosa.    Zool.  (2.),  vol.  vii.,  p.  3027.    . 

1874.  Salpa  spinosa  in  the  W.  of  Ireland.     Zool.  (2),  vol.  ix.,  p.  4202- 

1875.  Dinoteuthis  proboscideus,  a  gigantic  Cephalopod  stranded  at  Dingle, 

Kerry,  200  years  ago.     Zool.  (2).  vol.  x.,  pp.  4526-4532. 

1875.  Architeuthis  dux,2.  gigantic  Squid  recently  captured  at  Innishboffin. 
t.c,  pp.  4569-4571. 

1875.  A  gigantic  Squid  on  the  West  Coast  of  Ireland.     Ann.  Mag.  Nat. 

Hist.,  vol.  xvi.,  pp.  123-4. 
1878.  Lists  of  Fishes  and  Birds  in  the  Fauna  of  Co.  Dublin,  for  Brit. 

Assoc.  Guide  (pp.  71-90).     Dublin. 

1878.  Delphinus  albirostris  on  the  Irish  coast      Zool.  (3),  vol.  ii.,  p.  292. 
1878.  Blennius galerita,  in  Dingle  and  Connemara.     t.c,  p.  297. 

ii6  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

1880.  Monticola  cyanus  (Blue  Thrush)  in  Ireland,  an  error.  Zool.  (3).  vol. 
iv.,  p.  67. 

1880.  Does  the  Long-eared  Owl  Hoot  ?     t.c.^  p.  487. 

1881.  On  the  alleged  former  existence  of  the  Ptarmigan  in  Cumberland 

and  Wales.     Zool.  (3),  vol.  v.,  pp.  44-47. 
1881.  Hooting  of  the  Long-eared  Owl.    t.c,  p.  56-57. 
l88r.  Puffirms  griseus  in  Ireland,     t.c,  p.  334. 
1881.  Sabine's  Gull  near  Dublin,     t.c,  p.  472. 

1881.  Falco  islandus  in  Ireland,     t.c,  p.  488. 

1882.  Porzana  Bailloni  in  Waterford,  erroneously  supposed  to  be   "  Crex 

pusilla.'"     Zool.  (3),  vol.  vi.,  p.  113. 
1882.  Uncommon  variety  of  grouse  from  Maj^o.     t.c,  p.  148. 
1882.  Echinorhimcs  spinosus  (Spinous  Shark)  in  Dublin,     i.e.,  p.  434. 

1882.  Daption  capensis  (the  Cape   Pigeon)  in   Ireland.      Ibis.    (4),  vol.  vi., 

p.  346. 

1883.  Snowy  Owl  in  Donegal.     Zool.  (3),  vol.  vii.,  p.  80. 

1884.  Greenland  Falcon  in  Donegal.     Bonito  in  Galway.     Zool.  (3),  vol. 

viii.,  p.  31. 

1885.  A  List  of  Irish  Birds,  showing  the  species  contained  in  the  Science 

and  Art  Museum,  Dublin.     Dublin. 

1885.    Ttirdtis  variiis  in  Mayo.     Zool.  (3),  vol.  ix.,  p.  in. 

1885.  Echinorhimis  spinosus  in  Galway.     t.c,  p.  311. 

1885.  Wood  Sandpiper  in  Wicklow.     t.c,  p.  438. 

1887.  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin.  Guide  to  the  Natural  History 
Department.  Series  i,  Vertebrate  Animals  (Recent),  Mammals 
and  Birds.     Dublin. 

1882-8.  [Conjointly  with  Richard  M.  Barrington.]  Reports  on  the 
Migration  of  Birds,  as  observed  at  Lighthouses  and  Lightships  on 
the  Irish  Coast.  London,  West,  Newman  &  Co.,  18S2  -5.  Edin- 
burgh, McFarlane  &  Brskine,  1886-8.  (Short  Abstracts  in  Brit. 
Ass.  Rep.,  lii.,  p.  283  ;  liii.,  pp.  229-233  ;  liv.,  pp.  266-270;  Iv.,  pp. 
685-9;  Ivi.,  pp.  264-7  ;  Ivii.,  pp.  70-73  ;  Iviii.,  pp.  146-9.) 

1889.   Clupea  finta  at  Killarney.     Zool.  (3),  vol.  xiii.,  p.  no. 

1889.  Motella  maculata  as  an  Irish  fish,     t.c,  p.  154. 

1889.  Livincea  invohita  probably  a  variety  of  Z.  peregra.     t.c,  pp.  154-155. 

1889.  Parrot  Crossbill  in  Ireland,     t.c  p.  i8i. 

1889.  Athamis  nitcscms\Vi\x€i.2>xA.     A<r.,  p.  236. 

1890.  A  List  of  Irish  Birds.     2nd  edition.     Dublin. 

1890.  The  so-called  "  Martinico  gallinule  "  in  Ireland.    ZooL  (3),  vol.  xiv., 

p.  24. 
1890.  Porphyria  smaragnotus  and  P.  cceruleus  in  Ireland,     t.c,  p.  24. 

1890.  Sylvia  nisoria  in  Ireland,     t.c,  p.  310. 

1891.  Falco  cenchris  in  Ireland.     Zool.  (3),  vol.  xv.,  p.  152.     Ibis  (6),  vol.  iii., 

pp.  297-8. 

1891.  Localities  for  Natterer's  Bat  in  Ireland,    t.c,  p.  304 

1892.  Alleged  former  nesting  of  the  Osprey  in  the  E)nglish  lake  district 

Zool.  (3)  vol.  xvi.,  pp.  1-3. 

1892.  Parrot  Crossbill  in  Ireland,     t.c,  p.  76. 

1892    Recent  additions  to  the  List  of  Irish  Birds,      Irish  Nat.,  vol.    i., 

PP-  3-4- 

1893.  Mammals,  and  Freshwater  Fishes,  in   Guy's   "  South  of  Ireland 

Guide"  (pp.  134,  138-40).    [2nd  edition  of  this  is  now  in  press.] 

1894.  Supposed  occurrence  of  Vespertilio  murinus  in  England.— Correction 

of  an  error.     Zool.  (3),  vol.  xviii.,  p.  148. 

[     117     ] 



(A  Report  laid  before  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  28th  May,  1894). 

The  results  of  some  former  visits  to  Though  Conn  have 
enabled  me  to  ascertain  that  Wild  Ducks  and  Teal  breed  on 
some  of  the  islands  and  shores  of  the  lake  ;  and  the  adult 
Shoveller  has  been  seen,  and  a  flapper  shot  in  Errew  bay  on  the 
west  side  of  the  lough  ;  and  in  the  summer  of  1892,  my  friend* 
Mr.  H.  Scroope,  jun.,  had  a  nest  and  twelve  eggs  sent  him 
from  the  same  part.  A  colony  of  Blackheaded  Gulls  breed  on 
the  low  gravelly  island  off  Errew  Bay,  and  also  some  Common 
Terns :  and  this  summer,  Mr.  H.  Scroope  obtained  a  nest  and 
eggs  of  the  Common  Gull  off  the  same  island — the  first  nest 
that  I  have  known  of  this  gull  to  have  been  found  on  I^ough 
Conn,  the  nearest  breeding  station  being  on  I,ough-na-Crum- 
pane,  a  little  bog-lake  some  eight  or  ten  miles  away. 

The  Common  Tern  also  breeds  on  the  stony  shores  of  some 
islands  nearCloghans,  a  favourite  breeding  haunt  of  Redshanks, 
Some  Dunlins  frequent  the  boggy  shore  of  the  southern  end 
of  the  lake  near  the  Pontoon  road ;  while  Ringed  Plovers  are 
seen  in  many  of  the  sandy  bays. 

The  Common  Sandpiper  is  to  be  met  on  every  island,  as 
well  as  on  the  shores  of  the  lake,  and  some  pairs  of  Hooded 
Crows  have  nests  in  the  low  trees  on  some  of  the  islands. 

Formerly  the  Lesser  Blackbacked  Gull  bred  in  large 
numbers  on  islands  in  the  lake,  but  of  late  years,  although 
some  birds  are  seen  during  the  summer  time,  no  nests  have 
been  discovered.  Redbreasted  Mergansers  also  breed  on  the 

Of  the  Warblers,  only  the  common  species  are  met — White- 
throats  and  Willow  Wrens,  on  the  islands,  while  the  Chiff-chaff 
frequents  the  woods  of  Cloghans  and  others  along  the  shore 
of  the  lake. 

Having  been  informed  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Good,  of  Westport, 
that  the  Lesser  Blackbacked  Gull,  Common  Gull,  Common 
and  Arctic  Terns  bred  on  Lough  Mask,  and  the  Yellow  Wagtail 
on  Lough  Carra,  I  was  anxious  to  verify  the  statement,  and 
on  the  1 2th  of  June,  1893,  I  left  Balliua  for  Ballinrobe,  being 


ii8  I  he  Irish  Naturalist. 

joined  at  Claremorris  station  by  my  friend,  Mr.  W.  Williams. 
After  arriving  at  Ballinrobe  in  the  evening,  we  walked  on  to 
Lough  Carra  (about  two  miles  from  the  town),  to  make  some 
preliminary  observations,  and  see  about  engaging  a  boat  and 
men  to  go  up  the  lake  next  morning.  On  reaching  the  bridge 
near  the  foot  of  the  lake,  Mr.  Williams  hearing  the  call  of  a 
Yellow  Wagtail,  and  looking  round,  saw  a  female  bird  with 
something  in  her  bill  sitting  on  the  fence  of  an  oat-field,  and 
shortly  after  we  saw  the  cock  bird  standing  on  a  thistle  in  the 
oats.  They  evidently  had  a  nest  and  young  somewhere  near, 
but  although  we  searched  carefully  all  round,  were  unsuc- 
cessful in  finding  it. 

We  soon  after  saw  another  cock  bird  whose  hen  must  have 
been  hatching,  for  she  did  not  appear  in  sight ;  the  three 
birds  haunted  the  oat-field,  and  a  bit  of  pasture  land  that 
extended  from  the  lake  to  the  road.  Next  morning  when 
walking  to  our  boat,  we  saw  the  three  birds  at  the  same  place, 
and  again  in  the  evening  when  returning.  We  row^ed  up  the 
lake,  visiting  several  islands,  on  which  we  saw  Redshanks  and 
Sandpipers;  and  on  a  wooded  island,  having  a  dense  under- 
growth of  brushwood  and  weeds,  situated  under  Lakeview,  we 
found  two  Wild  Ducks'  nests  containing  six,  and  nine  eggs, 
and  three  nests  of  the  Redbreasted  Merganser  having  twelve, 
eight,  and  two  eggs,  those  w^th  the  larger  number  being 
densel}^  lined  with  down.  The  Merganser's  nest  with  the  twelve 
eggs  was  situated  in  a  dense  thicket  of  Meadowsweet  four 
feet  high,  and  so  thick  and  close,  that  when  the  female  left 
the  nest  we  caught  her  before  she  could  escape  to  the  water. 
The  nests  were  easily  discovered  by  the  beaten  path  through 
the  grass  and  weeds  leading  from  the  water. 

We  next  landed  on  a  long  low  island  under  Brown  Hall, 
about  150  yards  long,  with  a  few  bushes  on  it,  and  on  either 
end  was  a  colony  of  Blackheaded  Gulls,  having  eggs  and 
young,  while  on  a  patch  of  short  grassy  turf  near  the  centre 
were  a  lot  of  Terns  having  eggs  and  some  young  in  their 
nests.  We  sat  down  for  some  time  watching  them,  and 
observing  a  pair  hovering  over  us,  screaming  in  a  shriller  tone 
than  the  others  ;  one  was  shot,  and  it  proved  to  be  an  Arctic 
Tern.  We  found  a  Wild  Duck's  nest,  and  a  Water-Hen's,  on 
the  end  of  the  island,  the  former  with  eight  and  the  latter 
with  ten  eggs.     Visiting  some  others  we  only  saw  Redshanks 

The  Breeding  Birds  of  Lough  Conn,  Carra,  a7id  Mask.     119 

and  Common  Sandpipers ;  and  then  on  coming  to  that  upon 
which  Castle  Carra  stands,  we  were  disappointed  at  finding 
that  the  Great  Cormorants  were  not  breeding  on  the  ruins  this 
season  in  consequence  of  a  great  part  of  the  Ivy  covering  the 
walls  having  been  torn  down  by  the  winter's  storms.  We 
however  saw  some  birds  resting  on  the  highest  part  of  the 

Continuing  our  course  up  the  lake  we  came  to  a  large  island 
at  the  head  of  the  lough,  under  Moore  Hall.  It  was  covered 
with  old  timber  of  a  great  size,  Ash,  Oak,  Elm,  and  Scotch  Fir, 
and  in  open  glades  formed  by  storms  cutting  lanes  through 
the  wood,  were  large  brakes  and  thickets  of  Briars  over- 
growing the  fallen  trees,  and  in  other  parts  of  the  island  were 
dense  copses  of  Black-  and  White-thorn  mixed  with  Hazel, 
which  appeared  to  us  to  be  a  perfect  paradise  for  Warblers, 
but  to  our  great  disappointment  we  only  saw  the  commoner 
ones,  Willow  Wrens,  and  Chiff- Chaffs,  no  trace  of  Wood  Wren, 
Blackcap,  or  Garden  Warbler,  I  may  here  remark  that 
although  one  of  the.  chief  objects  of  our  visit  was  to  ascertain 
if  any  of  the  last-named  Warblers  visited  the  district,  yet, 
although  we  carefully  searched  the  woods  of  Creagh,  the 
magnificent  demesne  of  Colonel  Knox,  situated  on  the  shores 
of  L^ough  Mask  ;  Cranmore,  that  of  his  brother,  near  Ballin- 
robe  ;  and  the  lovely  demesne  of  Lord  Ardilaun  at  Cong  on 
the  shores  of  I^ough  Corrib,  and  the  various  wooded  islands 
on  Carra  and  Mask ;  we  were  unsuccessful  in  either  hearing 
or  seeing  these  birds,  or  obtaining  any  information  about  them. 

Next  morning  when  going  to  IvOUgh  Carra  we  saw  the 
Yellow  Wagtails  in  their  old  haunt,  and  after  going  to  the 
island  and  securing  the  Merganser's  nest  and  eggs,  we  took 
our  boat  under  the  bridge,  and  down  the  canal-like  drain  that 
leads  for  half  a  mile  to  lyough  Mask,  and  entered  it  through 
a  wilderness  of  rocks  and  stones.  We  then  rowed  across  to 
the  Partry  side  of  the  lake  where  the  island  upon  which  the 
Lesser  Black-backed  Gulls  bred  was  situated,  just  opposite  to 
the  monastery ;  but  on  our  way  we  landed  on  a  flat  stony 
island  towards  the  middle  of  the  lake  ;  we  saw  some  Redshanks 
and  Sandpipers,  but  found  only  one  nest  with  eggs  of  the 
Common  Gull. 

The  island  frequented  by  the  Lesser  Black-backed  Gulls  is 
very  rocky,  and  with   long  grass  between  the  rocks  ;  there 

1 20  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

are  also  a  few  bushes.  On  landing,  we  found  that  the  nests 
had  been  lately  robbed,  upwards  of  twenty  being  empty,  and 
a  few  in  which  the  Gulls  had  begun  to  lay  again.  The  nests 
were  large  and  substantially  constructed  of  the  dried  grass 
left  by  the  floods  on  the  shore  of  the  island,  and  were 
generally  placed  between  the  rocks  and  large  stones  or  near 
bushes,  and  when  we  were  leaving  a  Merganser  rose  from  her 
nest,  under  a  bush,  containing  ten  eggs ;  and  standing  on  the 
extreme  end  of  the  stony  point,  we  were  surprised  at  seeing 
a  Turnstone  in  the  dark-coloured  immature  plumage  of 
winter,  a  strange  sight  at  that  time  of  year,  so  far  from  the 
coast,  on  an  inland  lake. 

A  heavy  thunderstorm  with  torrents  of  rain  and  high  wind 
coming  on  drove  us  from  the  island,  and  it  was  with  great 
difficulty  that  we  gained  the  Ballinrobe  side  of  the  lake  under 
Creagh,  taking  shelter  within  the  walls  of  Grace  O'Malley's 
castle  on  the  island.  After  the  storm  passed  off  the  wind 
continued  so  high  as  to  raise  such  a  sea  on  the  lough,  that  it 
put  an  end  to  any  further  explorations  that  day,  and  we  had 
to  content  ourselves  with  searching  the  woods  of  Creagh  for 
Warblers,  but  as  usual  only  the  common  ones  appeared. 

Next  day  we  returned  to  the  lake,  and  although  still  blowing 
hard  we  ventured  on  a  visit  to  the  Terns'  island,  taking  advan- 
tage of  the  shelter  of  Cushlough  Island  until  opposite  that  of 
the  Terns,  to  which  we  had  a  hard  pull  aerainst  a  head  wind  and 
sea.  On  landing  we  found  a  large  colony  of  Terns  hovering 
overhead,  for  like  the  gulls,  their  nests  had  been  nearly  all 
robbed  previous  to  our  visit ;  we  saw  a  large  number  of 
empty  nests,  but  in  a  few  they  had  begun  to  lay  again, 
several  having  one  and  two  eggs,  and  but  very  few  having  the 
full  number  of  three,  and  only  three  or  four  nests  with  newly 
hatched  young  birds.  We  remained  for  a  long  time  on  the 
island  watching  the  birds  on  the  wing,  and  trying  to  distinguish 
between  the  Arctic  and  Common  Tern,  but  failing  to  do  so  a 
few  were  shot  and  found  to  belong  to  both  species.  I  took 
the  eggs  from  two  nests,  which  from  their  being  similar  in 
size  and  colour  to  some  brought  from  the  Sovereign  Islands 
off  Cork  Harbour,  and  being  a  size  smaller  than  those  of 
undoubted  eggs  of  the  Common  Tern  taken  off  the  Inch  at 
Killaloe,  and  from  an  island  in  Lough  Conn,  I  have  no  doubt 
of  their  being  the  eggs  of  the  Arctic  Tern. 

The  Breeding  Birds  of  Lough  Conn,  Carra,  and  Mask.     121 

We  took  the  newly-hatclied  young  from  one  nest,  which  are 
certainly  Arctic  Terns,  for  on  comparing  them  with  young 
Common  Terns  of  about  the  same  age,  we  found  their  tarsi  so 
much  shorter,  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  them  being  the  Arctic 
species.  I  found  a  nest  containing  an  ^g<g  of  the  Lesser 
Black-backed  Gull,  placed  under  a  thick  bush,  and  several 
empty  ones  on  other  parts  of  the  island,  while  as  usual  the 
Common  Sandpipers  were  on  the  islands  ;  indeed  on  every 
island  visited  these  birds  were  seen.  The  wind  still  blowing 
too  hard  for  any  further  exploration  of  the  lake,  we  returned 
and  again  spent  some  hours  in  Creagh  demesne  on  our  way  to 

Next  morning  being  our  last  day,  and  finding  it  still  too 
stormy  for  the  lake,  we  drove  to  Cong  to  visit  Lord  Ardilaun's 
beautiful  demesne  on  the  shores  of  Lough  Corrib,  and  searched 
the   woods    and    plantations    for    the   Wood  Wren,    Garden 
Warbler,    and   Blackcap,   but  after   walking   for  hours,    saw 
nothing  of  these  birds,  and  returned  thoroughly  disappointed 
to  Ballinrobe,  where  after  dinner  we  set  out  for  a  walk  to 
Lough  Carra,  to  have  a  last  look  at  the  Yellow  Wagtails,  and 
have  another  search  for  their  nests.     We  met  them  in  their 
old  haunt  near  the  bridge,  but  although  we  remained  about 
the    place    until    dusk,    failed,    as    before,     in    our    search. 
Returning  to  Ballinrobe,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  lough, 
we  came  to  a  fir-wood  that  extended  from  Creagh  demesne  to 
a  bog  on  the  side  of  the  road,  and  just  when  passing  the  wood, 
Mr.  Williams  hearing  the  churring  of  the  Nightjar,  we  stopped 
to  listen  to  its  curious  notes  ;  here  we  remained  for  a  time, 
but  a  noisy  cart  passing  along  the  road  scared  the  bird,  which 
went  deeper  into  the  wood  where  we  could  scarcely  hear  him. 
It  was  unfortunate  the  weather  turning  out  so  storni}^  on 
our  last  three  days,  for  it  prevented  a  thorough  exploration 
of  Lough  Mask,  especially  the  Galwa}^  side  and  the  lower  end, 
where  there  are  a  number  of  islands.     However  I  was  glad  to 
have  ascertained  that  the  range  of  the  Yellow  Wagtail  and 
Nightjar  extended  so  far  west,   and  that  neither  the  Wood 
Wren,   Garden  Warbler,   nor  Blackcap  frequented  the  woods 
of  the  lake  district,  at  least  so   far  as  our  observations  went, 
though  of  course  it  is  not  improbable  that  all  these  birds,  or 
perhaps  some  of  them,  may  yet  be  discovered  in  some  part  of 

that  district. 

•  A4 

122  The  Irish  Naturalist, 




[Pirate  4-] 
Thk  following  short  account  of  Irish  Fresh-water  Sponges  is 
based  chiefly  upon  a  small  collection  which  I  received  last 
autumn  from  Dr.  R.  F.  Scharff,  Science  and  Art  Museum, 
Dublin.  The  examination  of  the  material  gave  such  unex- 
pected results,  that  I  gladly  accepted  Dr.  Scharff's  invitation 
to  publish  the  same  in  the  Irish  Natur^alist. 

According  to  Weltner  (13  &  14),  the  Fauna  of  Europe  com- 
prises seven  species  of  Spongillidse,  viz  : — 

Euspongilla  lacusiris,  Autt. 
Spo}igilla  fragilis,  IvCidy. 
Trochospongilla  horrida^  WeUner. 
Ephydatia  Mi'dleri,  L/ieberktihn. 
Ephydatia  JJuviatilis,  Autt. 
Ephydatia  bohe??iica,  Petr. 
Carterius  Stepanowi,  Dybowsky. 

To  these  we  have  to  add  Heteromeye^iia  repens,  Potts,  of  which 
Wierzejski  (15,  p.  143)  discovered  some  free  floating  gemmules 
in  a  pond  in  Galizia.  The  same  species  is  enumerated  by 
Petr  (6,  p.  18)  in  his  recent  paper  on  European  Spongillidae. 
The  article,  however,  being  written  in  Bohemian,  I  am  unable 
to  say  whether  he  gives  additional  data  regarding  the 
occurrence  of  that  species.  Out  of  Weltner's  list  the  first  five 
— and  no  others — occur  in  Germany  (Weltner,  18,  pp.  210-220) 
and  France  (Topsent,  8,  p.  176).  But  Ephydatia  bohemica  has 
been  found  in  Bohemia  only,  and  Carterius  Stepa^iozvi,  near 
Charkow  in  Russia,  in  Bohemia,  Hungary,  and  Galizia 
(Wierzejski,  15,  p.  143).  Russia  possesses  six  species  (viz., 
Weltner's  seven  species  with  the  exception  of  E.  bohemica), 
although  Traxler  (10),  in  quite  a  recent  paper,  enumerates 
only  four  species  from  Northern  Russia  : — 

Euspongilla  lacustHs. 
Spongilla  fragilis. 
Meyenia  {—Ephydatia)  Mdlleri, 
Trochospongilla  horrida. 

Irish  Naturalist,  Vol.  IV.] 

[Plate  4. 

Fig.  4. 


Th  e  Fresh  -  iva  ter  Sponges  of  Ire  la  nd^  123 

A  few  months  ago,  Dr.  Adriano  Garbini,  of  Verona,  published 
a  paper  on  Italian  Spongillidse.  He  has  found,  so  far,  only 
two  species,  namely  Eiispongilla  lacustris  and  Ephydatia 
fluviatilis,  and  he  gives  a  table  showing  the  distribution  of 
those  two  species  in  Europe  (4,  p.  20).  They  occur  according 
to  Garbini  in  all  European  countries,  except  the  Iberian  and 
Balkan  peninsulas,  and  he  explains  this  by  saying  that  the 
long  mountain-range  of  the  Pyrenees,  Alps  and  the  Balkans 
hindered  the  dispersal  of  those  Sponges  from  Northern  Europe 
(where  according  to  Merejkowsky,  (5),  at  least  Euspongilla 
lacustris  has  its  home)  into  Southern  Europe.  Those  two 
species,  found  in  Italy,  were  conveyed  and  dispersed  by 
migratory  birds  along  their  lines  of  flight  from  the  White  Sea 
and  the  Baltic,  to  the  lakes  of  the  Alps  and  Northern  Italy. 
But  before  we  accept  this  explanation,  we  must  ask  w^hether 
it  is  settled  beyond  dispute  that  only  two  species  of  Spongil- 
lidse exist  in  Italy.  In  regard  to  their  supposed  non- 
occurrence in  the  Iberian  and  Balkan  peninsulas,  I  ma)^ 
state  that  quite  recently,  amongst  a  collection  of  marine 
Sponges,  sent  to  me  by  Dr.  Paulino  d'Oliveira  in  Coimbra, 
Portugal,  I  discovered  an  Euspongilla  lacustris,  coming  from 
a  small  river  near  Caldas  de  Nixella,  North  Portugal. 
Whether  this  is  really  the  first  instance  that  the  occurrence 
of  a  fresh-water  Sponge  in  Portugal  has  been  stated,  I 
cannot  say. 

Coming  now  to  Great  Britain,  we  find  that  Bowerbank  (1) 
mentions  four  species,  which,  according  to  his  nomenclature, 
are  : — 

Spongilla  Jlicviatilis,  Johnst. 
Spongilla  lacustris,  Johnst. 
Spongilla  Parfitti,  Carter. 
Spongilla  sceptrijei'a,  B. 

One  of  these,  Spo7igilla  Parfitti,  is  synonymous  with 
Ephydatia  Millleri,  I^iebk.  (SeeTopsent,  9,  p.  12).  Spongilla 
sceptrifera,  B.,  is,  according  to  Carter  (2,  p.  93),  probably  nothing 
but  Spongilla  {^Ephydatia)  fluviatilis  ;  "for  S.  fluviatilis  grows 
abundantly  in  the  same  locality  [reservoir,  Exeter],  and  the 
characteristic  spicule  represented  by  Dr.  Bowerbank  (/.  c.  fig. 
17)  is  nothing  more  than  a  detached  frustule  of  the  diatom 
Asterionella,  like  A.  foniiosa''      Bowerbank's  type  specimen 

124  •  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

was  without  genimules,  so  that  a  final  decision  is  impossible. 
Adding  to  the  three  species  which  are  thus  left,  Sp07igilla 
fi'agilis,  mentioned  b}^  Carter  (3,  p.  i8),  as  occurring  in  the 
River  Wye,  near  Hereford,  we  find  the  British  Fauna  of 
fresh-water  Sponges  to  consist  of 

Ejispongilla  lacitsiris,  Autt. 
Spongilla  fragilis,  Ivcidy, 
Ephydatia  MiiUeri,  Lieb, 
Ephydatia  Jliiviatilis^  Aiitt. 

We  scarcel}^  need  to  believe  that  this  is  all.  It  is  very 
likely  that  the  fifth  .species  which  is  common  to  France  and 
German)^  viz.,  Trochospo?igilla  horrida,  will  some  da}^  be  found 
in  Great  Britain,  and  perhaps  others  in  addition. 

We  now  come  to  Irish  Spongillidae.  I  will  state  right 
at  the  beginning  that  Dr.  Scharff's  material  comprises, 
besides  E2cspo7ioilla  lacustris  and  Ephydatia  Jiuviatilis,  two 
species  which  are  of  undoubted  American  origin,  viz., 
Hetc7'oineye7iia  Ryderi,  Potts,  and  7uJ?ella  pe?insylva7iica,  Potts. 
Only  the  former  of  the  two  species  contained  gemmules,  but 
the  skeleton  spicules  of  Tzibella  perinsylvaiiica^cs:^  so  character- 
istic, that  I  consider  an}^  mistake  impossible.  The  case  was 
more  difficult  with  a  fifth  species,  also  without  gemmules, 
from  Park  I^ough,  Hungr}^  Hill.  It  has  no  resemblance  to 
any  known  European  species,  and  of  American  species  I  can 
identify  it  onl}"  with  Ephydatia  craterifo7i7tis,  Potts.  With 
this  form  it  agrees  both  in  the  general  character  of  its  vSkeleton- 
spicules,  and  especially  in  certain  small  spicules  scattered 
through  the  tissues,  which  may  be  immature  amphidiscs  (for 
details  see  p.  128).  A  quite  satisfactory  identification  will  be 
possible  only  when  material  w^ith  gemmules  is  found.  But  as 
I  hear  from  Dr.  vScharff  that  no  scientific  person  lives  within 
50  miles  of  Park  Lough,  some  time  may  elapse,  before  such 
can  be  obtained.  A  sixth  and  last  species,  Ephydatia  Miilleri, 
I  received  through  the  kindness  of  my  friend,  Mr.  S.  R. 
Christophers,  who  collected  it  last  summer  during  a  walking 
tour  in  Ireland  at  McHugo  Island,  Lough  Rea,  Galway. 
The  specimens  are  again  without  gemmules,  but  the  skeleton- 
vSpicules  of  this  species  are  so  characteristic,  that  an  error  in 
identification  is  not  likely. 

The  Fresh-water  Sp07iges  of  Irela?id.  125 

The  following  therefore  are  the  Fresh-water  Sponges  so  far 
found  in  Ireland  : — 

1.  Euspongrilla    acustris,  Autt.      Camlough  River,  Co.  Armagh; 

Dry    drain,    Killakeen.       Probably    common    throughout    the 

2.  Ephydatia  fluviatilis,  Autt.  River  Barrow  ;  Raheny  ponds,  Co. 

Dublin.     Probably  common  throughout  the  country. 

3.  Ephydatia  lYIuIIeri,  Lieberktihn.      McHugo  Island,  Lough  Rea, 

Galway.     150  feet  above  sea  level. 

4.  }  Ephydatia  crater  if  orm  is,  Potts.     Park  Lough,  Hungry  Hill. 

300  feet  above  sea  level. 

5.  Hetcrotneycnia    Ryder i,   Potts.      Lough   Doon,  near   Dingle. 

1,000  feet  above  sea  level. 

6.  Tubella   pennsylvanica,    Potts.      Columbkille  Lough,   Bally- 

shannon.     100  feet  above  sea  level. 

In  this  list  we  notice  the  important  fact  that  the  eastern 
part  of  Ireland  possesses  only  common  European  forms  (Nos. 
I  and  2),  but  that  the  American  species  (Nos.  4,  5  and  6)  are 
found  only  along  the  west  coast,  and  there,  so  far,  only  one 
European  species  (No.  3)  has  been  obtained. 

How  can  we  account  for  the  occurrence  of  those  American 
Spongillidae  in  Ireland  ?  Wallace  (12,  pp.  364  and  365)  men- 
tions several  flowering  plants,  viz. : — Spiranthes  Romanzoviana, 
Sisyrinchium  a7igustifolium  and  EriocatUon  septangular c,  which 
are  American,  and  yet  have  been  found  in  the  west  of  Ireland, 
and  he  thinks  that  these  American  plants,  together  with  a  few 
arctic  and  alpine  plants,  ma}^  be  the  remnants  of  a  vegetation 
once  spread  over  the  whole  north  temperate  zone.  Similarly, 
we  might  explain  the  occurrence  of  American  Spongillidae  in 
Ireland.  But,  at  least  in  the  case  of  the  Spongillidse,  it  seems 
to  me  quite  as  likely  that  such  forms  migrated  from  North 
America  to  Ireland.  The  formation  of  gemmules  gives  to  the 
Spongillidae  such  chances  of  dispersal,  as  only  few  animals 
enjoy,  comparable  in  fact  to  the  dispersal  of  plants  by  means 
of  seeds.  In  the  February  number  of  this  journal  Mr.  G. 
H.  Carpenter  recorded  from  the  Mitchelstown  Caves,  Co. 
Tipperary,  a  collembolan,  Sinella  cavernicola,  almost,  and  a 
spider,  Porrhommamyops,  quite  indistinguishable  from  species 
inhabiting  the  Kentucky  and  other  North  American  caves. 
But  insects  too  are  very  easily  dispersed.  Only  in  case  of  the 
discovery  in  Ireland  of  American  animals  whose  presence 
could  not  be  explained  by  dispersal  in  recent  times,  should 

126  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

we  be  obliged  to  accept  Wallace's  theory  as  to  a  more  or  less 
uniform  fauna  and  flora  once  spreading  over  the  whole  north 
temperate  zone.  In  any  case,  it  is  significant  that  of  American 
forms,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  plants,  only  such  animals 
have  been  found  in  Ireland  as  might  easily  have  migrated 
there.  Three  agents  may  have  served  in  carrying  sponge- 
gemmules  from  North  America  across  to  Ireland — winds, 
ocean  currents,  and  birds.  Strong  winds  might  carry  dried 
gemmules  almost  any  distance,  like  plant-seeds,  and  the 
position  of  Ireland,  together  with  its  western  winds  favours 
such  a  possibilit}^  The  Gulf  Stream  might  have  carried 
gemmules  or  even  entire  Sponges  containing  gemmules,  loose 
or  attached  to  floating  timber,  from  North  American  rivers 
to  Ireland.  When  once  arrived  on  the  Irish  shore  their 
further  dispersal  to  higher  levels  must  have  been  a  com- 
paratively simple  matter.  Similar  cases  must  have  happened 
often  enough.  Fresh- water  Sponges,  if  they  had,  as  we 
suppose,  their  ancestors  in  marine  forms,  must  in  any  case 
have  travelled  inland  and  to  higher  levels.  However,  I  do 
not  know  for  how  long  a  period  gemmules  can  stand  entire, 
or  partial  immersion  in  sea-water.  Finally,  we  may  look  to 
birds  as  agents  in  the  dispersal  of  gemmules  from  N. 
America  to  Ireland.  Wallace  (11,  vol.  I.,  p.  i6)  says  that 
*  small  and  weak  birds  are  often  carried  accidentally  across 
great  wadths  of  ocean  by  violent  gales.' — *  No  less  than  sixty- 
nine  species  of  American  birds  have  occurred  in  Europe, 
most  of  them  in  Britain  and  Heligoland.'  Such  birds  would 
naturally  first  alight  at  the  west  coast  ot  Ireland,  and  would 
be  more  liable  to  leave  any  gemmules  there  than  at  sub- 
sequent resting-places.  Again,  a  number  of  migratory  birds, 
common  to  Europe  and  America,  regularly  visit  Greenland 
(Wallace,  11,  vol.  II.,  p.  138).  It  is  possible  that,  even  by  such 
roundabout  methods,  gemmules  could  be  carried  from  America 
to  Greenland  and  thence  to  Ireland.  A  similar  communica- 
tion via  Iceland  seems  less  probable,  as,  although  there  are  no 
less  than  forty  species  of  annual  visitants  from  Europe  to 
Iceland,  there  seems  to  be  no  regular  inter-communication 
between  N.  America  and  Iceland  (Wallace,  11,  vol.  I.,  p.  198). 
The  explanation  of  the  fact  that  these  Sponges,  once  arrived 
in  the  west  of  Ireland,  did  not  spread  out  further  east,  is 
perhaps  that  competition  was  too  severe. 

The  Ff'esh-water  Sp07tges  of  Ireland.  127 

I  now  propose  to  give  a  short  description  of  the  Spongillidae 
so  far  found  in  Ireland,  with  the  addition  of  Sp07igillafragilis. 
By  doing  so  the  following  list  will  at  the  same  time  include 
all  British  Spongillidse  and  thus  be  useful  to  British  collectors 
too.  Besides,  S.  fragilis  is  sure  to  be  found  some  day  in 
Ireland,  being,  next  to  Eusp07igilla  lac2istris,  the  most  common 
fresh-water  Sponge  of  Europe  and  N.  America. 

Euspongrilla,  Vejdovsky. 

Skeleton-spicules  oxeote,  generally  smooth,  accompanied  by  short, 
either  straight  or  curved,  smooth  or  rough  flesh-spicules.  Gemmules 
always  single,  and  covered  with  oxeote  and  almost  always  spined 

Euspongrilla  lacustris,  Autt.  [PI.  4,  fig.  1.]  Forming  finger-like 
branches  arising  from  an  encrusting  base.  Colour  grass-green,  yellowish, 
brown.  Skeleton-spicules,  smooth  oxea,  straight  or  slightly  curved, 
gradually  pointed.  Flesh-spicules  slightly  curved,  minutely  spined. 
Gemmules  globular,  the  covering  spicules  strongly  spined,  and  more  or 
less  curved,  tangentially  or  radially  arranged. 

Habitat :  Camlough  River,  Co.  Armagh  (R.  LI.  Praeger) ;  dry  drain, 
Killakeen,  Co.  Cavan  (R.I. A.  Flora  and  Fauna  Committee) ;  probably  in 
numerous  other  localities  in  Ireland.  Common  throughout  Great 
Britain,  Europe  generally,  Siberia,  and,  according  to  Potts  (7,  p.  200), 
the  most  widely  distributed  fresh-water  sponge  of  the  United  States. 

[Spong-illa,  Wierzejski. 

With  the  characters  of  Euspongilla,  but  gemmules  in  groups  of  two  to 
thirty  enclosed  by  a  common  covering.  (Often  considered  as  subgenus 
of  Euspongilla). 

Spong-illa  fragrilis,  Leidy.  (Plate  4,  fig.  2).  Encrusting,  never 
branching,  surface  smooth.  Colour  from  light  grey  to  brown,  rarely 
green.  Skeleton-spicules  straight  or  very  slightly  bent,  rather  abruptly 
pointed,  smooth.  With  little  spongin,  therefore  easily  broken.  Covering 
spicules  of  gemmules  generally  larger  than  those  of  Euspongilla  laciisiris, 
straight  or  curved,  with  numerous  minute  spines.     No  flesh-spicules. 

Habitat :  Not  yet  found  in  Ireland.  Occurs  in  England  (River  Wye, 
near  Hereford),  France,  Germany,  Bohemia,  Galicia,  Russia,  and  next 
to  Euspongilla  laaistris,  the  most  widely  distributed  fresh-water  sponge 
of  North  America:     (Potts,  7,  p.  200).] 

Ephydatia,  Lamouroux. 

With  either  smooth  or  rough  skeleton-spicules,  or  with  both.  The 
gemmules  surrounded  by  radially-arranged  amphidiscs  of  a  single  type 
only.     The  rotules  with  star-shaped  margins. 

Ephydatia  f  luviatllis,  Autt.  (Plate  4,  fig.  3).  Encrusting,  massive. 
Emerald  green  to  light  yellow-brown.  Skeleton-spicules  smooth, 
fusiform,  slightly  bent,  gradually  pointed.  The  shafts  of  the  amphidiscs 
smooth  or  spined,  twice  as  long  as  the  diameter  of  the  rotules ;  rays  of 
the  rotules  deeply  cut. 

I2S  The  hish  Nahiralist. 

Habitat :  River  Barrow  (Mr.  T.  Greene) ;  Raheny  ponds,  Co.  Dublin 
(Dr.  R.  F.  Scharff);  probably  common  throughout  the  country —Great 
Britain,  France,  Germany,  Bohemia,  Galicia,  Russia,  Italy,  and  throughout 
the  Eastern  and  Middle  United  States  generally. 

Ephydatia  Miillerl,  Lieberklihn.  (Plate  4,  fig.  4).  Encrusting, 
with  smooth  surface,  sometimes  with  short  branches.  Green,  yellow, 
yellowish  brown,  white.  Skeleton-spicules  straight  or  slightly  bent, 
suddenly  pointed,  smooth  or  rough,  or  smooth  and  rough  spicules  mixed. 
Shaft  of  the  amphidiscs  short,  rays  of  the  rotules  smooth  or  indented. 

Habitat :  McHugo  Island,  Lough  Rea,  Loughrea,  Galway  (Mr.  S.  R. 
Christophers),  about  150  feet  above  sea  level.  —England  (River  Exe, 
Devonshire),  France,  Germany,  Bohemia,  Russia.  Probably  also  in  the 
United  States,  but  Potts  gives  no  locality,  as  he  fuses  this  species  with 
E.  fliiviafilis. 

Our  Irish  material  consists  of  a  few  small  circular  patches,  each  about 
10  mm.  in  diameter  and  i  or  2  mm.  in  thickness,  of  yellowish  grey  colour, 
when  alive.  Its  skeleton-spicules  appear  shoit  and  stout,  suddenly 
pointed,  both  the  smooth  and  rough  variety  of  spicules  are  present, 
measuring  about  0*25  by  0*02  mm. 

Ephydatia  crateriformis,  Potts.  (Plate  4,  fig.  5).  Thin,  encrust- 
ing. Colour  of  gemmules  white  or  yellowish.  Skeleton-spicules  slender, 
gradually  pointed,  slightly  spined.  Tubule  of  the  gemmule  standing  at 
the  centre  of  a  crater- like  depression. 

Habitat :  (doubtful) :  Park  Lough,  Hungry  Hill,  300  feet  above  sea- 
level  (R.  I.  A.  Flora  and  Fauna  Committee), — Occurs  in  various  localities 
in  North  America  (for  details  see  Potts,  7,  p.  229). 

We  have  only  two  specimens  from  the  Irish  locality.  They  are  small, 
uneven,  somewhat  lobular  masses,  about  10  mm.  in  diameter  and  4  mm. 
in  height.  The  skeleton-spicules  are  slender,  o"2i  to  0'33  mm.  by  0007 
mm.,  straight  or  only  very  little  bent,  slightly  spined,  often  irregularly 
inflated,  and  such  inflated  portions  of  the  spicules  are  always  free  from 
spines.  The  corresponding  spicules  as  described  and  figured  by  Potts 
measure  0*27  by  o-oi  mm.,  and  show  no  such  inflations.  The  Irish 
specimens  contained  no  gemmules,  but  scattered  throughout  the  tissue 
of  the  sponge  there  are  exceedingly  slender  spicules  with  swollen  ends, 
with  most  minute  spines  which  may  be  immature  amphidiscs,  measuring 
0-036  to  0'045  mm.  by  0*0025  i^m.  Potts  (7,  p.  229)  describes  similar 
spicules  in  his  American  material,  measuring  about  0*062  by  o'oo3  mm. 

Hetcromeyenfa,  Potts. 

Skeleton-spicules  as  in  Ephydatia.  The  gemmules  surrounded  by 
intermingled  amphidiscs  of  two  tj'pes,  whose  shafts  are  of  unequal  length* 
The  proximal  rotules  of  all  rest  upon  the  chitinous  coat ;  the  outer 
extremities  of  the  less  numerous  rotules  project  beyond  the  others. 

Hetcromeycnia  Rydcrl,  Potts.  Light  green,  massive.  Skeleton 
spicules  fusitorm,  gradually  pointed,  entirely  spined,  except  at  their 
ends.  Rotules  of  long  amphidiscs  with  three  to  six  short  recurved 
hooks.     Rotules  of  short  amphidiscs  with  straight  rays. 

The  Fresh-water  Spo?iges  of  Ireland.  129 

Habitat:  Lough  Doon,  near  Dingle,  1,000  feet  above  sea-level  (R.  I.  A 
Flora  and  Fauna  Committee). — United  States  :    from  Florida  to  Nova 
Scotia,  and  from  the  Atlantic  coast  to  Iowa.     (Potts,  7,  p.  243). 

The  Irish  specimens  are  in  shape  of  small  thin  patches,  i  or  2  mm.  in 
thickness,  one  of  them  with  a  conical  elevation  4  mm.  in  height,  bearing 
an  osculum  on  its  side.  In  giving  the  dimensions  of  the  spicules  we  add 
Potts's  measurements  in  brackets:  skeleton-spicules  0*22  by  o-oo8  to 
0-0I2  mm.  (Potts  0*317  by  o"oi5  mm.);  long  amphidiscs  0*052  by  0-005 
mm.  (Potts  0*0507  by  0*006  mm.) ;  short  amphidiscs  0*024  mm.  (Potts 
0*03  mm.). 

Tubella,  Carter. 

Skeleton-spicules  smooth  or  spined,  pointed  or  rounded  off  at  the 
extremities.  Gemmules  with  unequal  trumpet-shaped  amphidiscs  of 
which  the  larger  rotule  rests  upon  the  chitinous  coat.  The  margins  of 
these  larger  rotules  generally  entire. 

Tubella  pennsylvanica,  Potts.  Gray  or  green.  Minute,  encrust- 
ing. Skeleton-spicules  extremely  variable  as  to  length  and  curvature ; 
rounded  or  pointed  at  the  ends ;  entirely  spined.  Margin  of  the  large 
rotule  of  the  amphidiscs  entire,  that  of  the  small  rotule  occasionally 

Habitat :  Columbkille  Lough,  Ballyshanuon,  100  feet  above  sea  level 
(Dr.  R.  H.  Creighton^y  United  States  ;  Lehigh  River  and  tributaries ; 
also  generally  throughout  the  Eastern  United  States  (Potts,  7,  p.  251). 

The  largest  of  the  Irish  specimens  is  an  encrusting  mass,  25  by  20  mm. 
and  7  mm.  in  height,  with  a  corrugated  but  smooth  surface,  bearing  8 
or  9  oscula  with  a  diameter  of  i  mm.  or  less.  Three  varieties  of  skeleton- 
spicules  can  be  distinguished :  (i)  strongly  spined,  curved  spicules,  with 
blunt  ends,  which  are  as  a  rule  the  thicker,  the  shorter,  from  0*07  by 
0*018  mm.  to  0*116  by  0*013  mm.  (2)  Slightly  spined,  curved  or 
straight  spicules  with  pointed  ends,  of  pretty  uniform  dimensions, 
0*16  by  0*005  mm.  to  0*19  by  o'ooS  mm.  (3)  Slightly  spined,  shylote 
spicules,  few  in  number,  0*15  by  0*005  mm,  Potts  gives  the  average  of 
the  skeleton  spicules  as  0*165  by  0*0075  mm. 

The  specimens  upon  which  this  account  is  based,  are  not 
the  outcome  of  systematic  investigation.  What  results  such 
an  investigation  would  bring  is  difficult  to  foresee.  But  I  am 
sure  that  even  the  highest  expectations  would  not  be 
disappointed,  and  I  would  not  be  surprised  if  the  majority  of 
American  Spongillidse  were  discovered  some  day  in  the  West 
of  Ireland.  A  fresh-water  station  after  the  model  of  those  in 
Germany  and  Bohemia  would  be  the  best  means  towards  the 
study  of  the  remarkable  Fauna  and  Flora  of  Western  Ireland. 

I  will  not  conclude  this  paper  without  expressing  my  great 
indebtedness  to  the   following   gentlemen : — Dr.  Scharflf,  for 

^  Erroneously    recorded    as    Euspongilla   lacusiris,    Irish  Nat.,    vol.   ii., 
p.  322. 

130  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

most  of  the  material  and  valuable  information  regarding 
the  Irish  Flora  and  Fauna ;  Dr.  Weltner,  Berlin,  for  having 
kindl}^  identified  Hete?v??teye7iia  Ryderi  ;  Dr.  Gunther,  F.R.S., 
and  Mr.  Kirkpatrick  for  having  sent  me  fragments  of  type- 
specimens  from  the  British  Museum  ;  and  finally,  Mr.  S.  R. 
Christophers  for  specimens  of  Ephydatia  Millleri. 


1.  BowERBANK,  J.  S.      "A  Monograph  of  the    British  Spongiadse." 

4  vols. 

2.  Carter,  H.  J.     **  History  and  Classification  of  the  known  species 

oi  Spongillay   A.M.N.H.  (5)  vol.  vii.,  1881,  pp.  77-107. 

3.  Carter,    H.  J.      "  Note  on    Spongilla  fragilis,   Leidy.,   and   a   new 

species  of  Spongilla  from  Nova  Scotia."  A.M.N.H.  (5)  vol.  xv., 
pp.  18-20. 

4.  Garbini,  a.      "  Contributo  alia  studio   delle   Spongille  Italiane." 

Accad.  Agriadt.  Verona  {3),  vol.  Ixx.,  1894,  23  pp.,  3  figs. 

5.  MEREJKOWSKY,  C.     "  Etudes  sur  les  Eponges  de   la  Mer  Blanche." 

Mem.  Acad.  St.  Petersbonrg,  vol.  xxvi.,  1879. 

6.  Petr,  F.   "Evropsk^HoubySladkovodnl."  [European  Spongillidae]. 

Chrudimi,  1894. 

7.  Potts,    E.     "Contributions  towards  a   synopsis  of  the  American 

forms  of  Fresh-water  Sponges,  with  descriptions  of  those  named 
by  other  authors  and  from  all  parts  of  the  world."  Proc,  Acad. 
Science,  Philadelphia,  1887,  pp.  158-279,  8  pis. 

8.  ToPSENT,  E.     *'  Note  sur   la  faune  des    Spongillides  de   France." 

Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  France,  vol.   xviii  (1893),  p.  176. 

9.  ToPSENT,    E.      "Etude  sur  la  faune   des  Spongiaires   du   Pas-de- 

Calais  suivie  d'une  application  de  la  nomenclature  actuelle  k 
la  Monographic  de  Bowerbank."  Rev.  Biol.  Nord  France,  vol. 
vii.  (i894-95),  pp.  6-28. 

10.  TRAXiyER  L.     "  Spongilliden  der  Umgebung  von  Jaransk."     Zool. 

Anzeiger,  vol.  xvii.  (1894),  pp.  363  and  364. 

11.  Wai.i,ace,  a.  R.     "The  Geographical  Distribution  of  Animals." 

2  vols.,  1876. 

12.  Wahace,  A.  R.     "  Island  lyife."     2nd  ed.,  1892. 

13.  Wei^Tner,  W.      "Die  Susswasserschwamme."     In  "  Die  Tier-und 

Pflanzenwelt  des  Siisswassers,"  by  O.  Zacharias.  Vol.  I.,  pp. 
186-236.     1891. 

14.  WeI/Tner,  W.      "  Ueber  die    Autorenbezeichnung  von   Spongilla 

erinaceus.''^  Sitz.  Ber.  Ges.  naturf.  Freimde,  Berlin,  1893,  No.  i,  pp. 

15.  WiERZEJSKi,  A.      "  Ueber  das  Vorkommen  von  Carterius  stepanovii, 

Petr,  and  IJeteronieyenia  repens.  Potts,  in  Galizien."  Biol.  Centralbi, 
vol.  xii.,  1892,  pp.  142-145. 

EXPI^ANATION    OF    Pl.ATE   \. 

All  figures  are  magnified  200  diameters. 

Fig.  I.  Euspongilla  lacustris,  Autt.  From  Killakeen,  Co.  Cavan. — a. 
skeleton-spicule ;  b.  gemmule-spicule ;  c.  flesh-spicule. 

Fig.  2.  Spongilla  fragilis,  Leidy.  From  Bohemia.  (From  type  specimen 
in  British  Museum,  sent  to  Dr.  H.  J.  Carter  by  Prof.  Vejdovsky).— a. 
skeleton-spicules ;    b.    gemmule-spicules. 

The  Fresh-water  Sponges  of  Ireland.  131 

Figc  3.  Ephydatia  flziviatilis,  Autt,  From  Raheny  ponds,  Co.  Dublin. — a. 
skeleton-spicules  ;  b.  amphidiscs  (gemmule-spicules). 

Fig.  4.  Ephydatia  Mulleri,  I^ieberklihn.  From  McHugoIsland,  Lough 
Rea,  Galway. — a.  smooth  skeleton-spicule  ;  b.  spined  skeleton-spicule  ; 
c.,d.  amphidiscs ;  e.  rotule  of  amphidiscs.  (Figs,  c,  d.,  e.,  copied  from 
Bowerbank,  I.  vol.  III.,  pi.  LXXXVL,  figs.  14,  11,  12). 

Fig.  5.  ?  Ephydatia  crateriforniis.  Potts.  From  Park  Lough,  Hungry 
Hills. — a.  skeleton-spicules;  b.  immature  (?)  amphidiscs;  c.  mature 
amphidiscs.     (Fig.  c,  copied  from  Potts  7,  pi.  v,  fig.  5/^) 

Fig.  6.  Heterojiuyenia  Ryderi,  Potts.  From  Lough  Doon,  near  Dingle. — 
a.  skeleton-spicules ;  b.  short  amphidiscs ;  c.  long  amphidiscs ;  d. 
immature  (.?)  forms. 

Fig.  7.  Tubella  pennsylvanica.  Potts.  From  Columbkille  Lough,  Bally- 
shannon. — a.  skeleton-spicules,  one  of  them  with  pointed,  the  others 
with  rounded  ends ;  b.  amphidiscs.  (Fig.  b,  copied  from  Potts,  7, 
pi.  xn.,  fig.  i^). 



Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  W.  Williams  of  Dublin  I  have 
lately  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  a  sample  of  the  marl 
from  which  he  has  obtained  skeletons  of  Cervus  giganteus 
{inegaceros?)  The  exact  locality  is  not  mentioned,  but  Mr. 
Williams  informs  me  that  he  "  does  not  think  that  there  is  any- 
thing exceptional  in  the  place  which  the  clay  came  from,  as 
the  bogs  are  spread  over  a  good  many  miles  of  country,  and 
are  all  of  the  same  character  on  the  central  limestone  plain 
of  Ireland,  about  120  miles  from  Dublin."  As  a  minute 
examination  of  this  marl  has  suggested  a  new  explanation  of 
the  mode  by  which  the  deer  were  trapped  in  such  quantities, 
I  think  that  it  may  be  interesting  to  give  the  results,  not 
committing  ourselves,  however,  to  any  opinion  as  to  the 
partial  or  general  application  of  this  explanation.  Until  an 
examination  of  a  larger  series  of  specimens  can  be  undertaken 
it  will  be  impossible  to  say  whether  the  peculiar  conditions 
may  not  be  confined  to  a  single  locality,  and  that  elsewhere 
the  deer  were  merely  bogged  in  the  way  suggested  by  Mr. 
Williams  in  his  paper  published  in  188 1'. 

■"  W.  Williams. — "  On  the  Occurrence  of  Megaceros  Hiberniciis,  Owen,  in 
the  Ancient  Lacustrine  Deposits  of  Ireland ;  with  Remarks  on  the 
Probable  Age  of  these  Beds."     Geol.  Mag.  (new  sen),  Dec.  XL,  Vol.  VIIL, 

PP-  354-363- 

132  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

The  deposit  is  evidently  a  Chara-m2x\,  for  though  the 
calcareous  stems  are  so  much  decayed  as  to  be  scarcely 
recognisable,  yet  decalcified  nucules  of  Chara  are  abundant. 
The  only  other  determinable  remains  consist  of  seeds  of  a  few 
aquatic  and  marsh  plants,  Pondweeds  being  especially 
common.  All  of  the  species  are  of  wide  range,  and  throw  no 
light  on  the  climatic  conditions  that  held  during  the 
Megaceros  period.     The  plants  found  are  as  follows  : — 

Ranunculus  aquatilis.  Eleocharis  pahistris. 

Myi'iophylhim  spicatu?ii.  Carex  ? 

Littorella  laaistris  Scirpus  ? 

Potaviogeton  crispus.  Chara  (several  species). 

F.  prczlongus. 

This  examination  of  the  matrix  suggests  a  curious,  and  I 
believe  till  now  unrecognised,  explanation  of  the  occurrence 
of  whole  skeletons,  or  of  complete  heads,  of  Cerviis  megaceros 
in  such  deposits.  Those  familiar  with  pools  containing 
Chara  will  be  well  aware  of  the  appearance  of  shallowness, 
and  of  a  solid  floor,  which  is  so  deceptive.  The  Chara  and 
Potainogeto7i  ma)^  grow  from  a  depth  of  several  feet,  but  they 
often  appear  to  form  a  carpet  of  bright  green  turf  a  few  inches 
under  the  surface  of  the  clear  water.  Any  animal  treading  on 
this  turf  would  immediately  plunge  head- foremost  into  the 
water,  and  the  wide-branching  antlers  of  Cervus  megaceros 
would  become  entangled  amid  the  Chara  stems,  and  still 
tougher  Pondweeds,  so  that  the  animal  would  have  scarcely  a 
chance  of  escape. 

If  this  be  the  method  b}"  which  the  deer  were  caught,  one 
would  expect  to  find  the  remains  of  stags  far  more  abundant 
than  those  of  hinds,  and  old  animals  more  abundant  than 
young,  though  the  reverse  was  probably  the  case  among 
the  living  deer.  This  disproportionate  number  of  skeletons 
of  stags  has  already  been  recorded  by  Mr.  Williams  and  other 
writers.  It  would  also  account  for  the  abundance  of  heads 
without  other  parts  of  the  skeleton  at  certain  localities  ;  for 
the  animal  being  caught  by  the  antlers,  the  body  might  drift 
away  within  the  reach  of  carnivorous  animals,  while  the 
entangled  head  and  heavy  antlers  would  sink  at  the  spot 
where  the  deer  died. 

[     133     ]    "" 

RoYAi,  ZooLOGiCAi,  Society. 

Recent  donations  comprise  a  Hawk  from  Rev.  E.  Denny,  and  a  number 
of  fish  from  F.  Godden,  Esq.  Twelve  Monkeys  have  been  acquired  by 
purchase,  and  a  Pigmy  Calf  has  been  born  in  the  Gardens. 

7,660  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  March. 

Dubinin  Microscopicai,  Ci^ub. 

March,  28th.- -The  Club  met  at  Prof.  G.  Coi^E'S,  who  exhibited  a 
section  of  the  basalt  of  Carnmoney,  near  Belfast,  containing  the  translu- 
cent yellow-brown  substance  that  has  been  called  "  huUite."  He  urged 
that  this  substance  was  really  the  altered  basic  glass  between  the  crystals 
of  the  basalt,  and  exhibited  sections  from  Eskdale  in  Dumfries  and  from 
Forfarshire  in  support  of  this  contention,  the  former  containing  unaltered 
and  the  latter  palagonitic  glass. 

Mr.  F.  W.  Moore  showed  Nectria  sinopica,  Fries,  growing  on  a  decaying 
orchid  pseudo-bulb,  part  of  a  plant  which  had  been  imported  from  South 
America.  This  Nectria  is  rare  in  Britain,  and  is  reported  as  only  growing 
on  the  Ivy,  both  in  Britain  and  on  the  Continent.  It  is,  therefore, 
interesting  to  find  it  now  growing  on  an  Orchid. 

Mr.  McArdi^E  exhibited  Lejeunea  patens  var.  cochleata  in  fruiting  condi- 
tion, which  he  collected  last  year  at  Anniscaul,  Co.  Kerry.  This  form  is 
remarkable  amongst  liverworts  in  having  the  margin  and  apex  of  the 
leaves  recurved  over  the  lobule,  not  unlike  the  orifice  of  a  broad-lipped 
shell  of  a  Helix.  The  plant  was  first  collected  at  Killarney  by 
the  late  Dr.  D.  Moore,  who  identified  it  with  specimens  gathered  by  Dr. 
Spruce  on  Mount  Tunguragua  in  Ecuador,  and  named  by  him  Z,  cochleata, 
but  now  Dr.  Spruce  writes  that  having  compared  it  rigorously  with 
L.  patens,  he  thinks  it  must  stand  as  a  variety.  It  is  an  additional  link 
between  Tunguragua  and  Killarney. 

Dr.  McWeeney  showed  a  specimen  of  Eiirotium  repens  with  the  two 
forms  of  fructification,  the  imperfect  or  conidial,  and  the  perfect  or 
ascigerous,  growing  from  the  same  mycelium.  This  common  mould  of 
which  the  conidial  form  under  the  generic  name  Aspergillus  is  so  familiar, 
produces  its  small  yellow  peritheria  comparatively  seldom,  and  only 
under  circumstances  which  are  for  the  most  part  imperfectly  known, 
but  of  which  imperfect  air-supply  is  one  of  the  most  important.  In  this 
instance  however  the  peritheria  were  abundantly  produced  on  a  surface 
of  nutrient  gelatine,  freely  exposed  to  the  air.  The  most  mature  con- 
ceptacles  were  in  the  centre  of  the  patch  which  was  an  accidental 
contamination  of  a  gelatine  plate -culture  made  for  another  purpose. 
Every  stage  of  their  development  from  the  corkscrew-shaped  mycelia 
branch  with  its  enveloping  hyphse  could  be  distinctly  traced.  The 
peculiar  shape  of  the  ascopores  (biconvex  with  a  depressed  margin)  was 
then  demonstrated. 

Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  showed  a  chernetid  or  "  flilse  scorpion  ''  Chthonius 
Rayi,  from  Howth,  and  remarked  that  only  four  of  the  twenty  British 
species  of  this  interesting  order  of  arachnids  had  yet  been  found  in 

Mr.  J.  N.  HaIvBERT  exhibited  Microvelia  pygnioea,  Duf,  a  minute 
hemipteron  of  aquatic  habit,  which  he  had  taken  in  a  marsh  near 
Ventry,  Co.  Kerry.  The  specimen  shown  was  immature,  and  the 
consequent  non-development  of  the  elytrae  allowed  the  upper  side  to  be 
seen  ;  the  silvery  patches  of  pulusana  with  which  it  was  covered,  gave  the 
insect  a  very  brilliant  appearance.  The  developed  form  is  very  rare. 
Haliday  was  the  first  to  record  this  insect  as  British,  from  specimens 
taken  near  Belfast,  but  it  has  since  been  found  in  many  widely  distributed 
localities  throughout  Britain. 

134  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

Mr.  H.  J.  Seymour  showed  Foraminifera  from  the  raised  beach  at 
rortmarnock.  These  were  got  from  a  shelly  sand  w'hich  occurs  in  the 
field  adjoining  the  Portmarnock  brickworks,  and  close  to  the  railway 
line.  The  sand  lies  beneath  a  deposit  of  alluvium  and  appears  to  overlie 
Glacial  gravels.  Only  a  small  amount  of  the  sand  was  examined,  and 
from  it  specimens  of  Polystoviella,  Planorlndina,  Discorbina,  Lagena,  and 
Btiliniina  were  obtained.  Of  these  Lagena  was  the  most  common  after 
Polystomella,  and  one  specimen  oi  Nodosaria  was  found. 

Irish  Fiei,d  CIvUB  Union. 

Galway  Conference  and  Excursion. — The  first  conference  of  the 
Field  Clubs  of  Ireland,  under  the  auspices  of  the  lately-formed  Irish  Field 
Club  Union,  will  be  held  at  Galway,  on  July  ii  to  17.  The  proceedings 
will  include  a  conference  on  Field  Club  work,  and  a  number  of  excursions 
to  the  most  interesting  localities  in  that  famous  and  beautiful  region,  such 
as  the  Arran  Islands  and  the  mountains  and  lakes  of  Connemara — districts 
of  surpassing  interest  to  the  naturalist  and  antiquarian,  and  of  great 

Arrangements  have  been  made  for  special  trains  and  steamers  for  the 
conveyance  of  the  party,  which  it  is  expected  will  be  a  very  large  one. 
In  addition  to  the  members  of  the  four  Irish  Field  Clubs,  representatives 
of  several  English  scientific  societies  have  signified  their  intention  of 
being  present,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  gathering  will  mark 
an  important  epoch  in  natural  history  work  in  Ireland.  Tickets  will  be 
issued  to  members  of  Irish  Field  Clubs  at  surprisingly  low  rates,  and 
early  application  for  tickets  is  recommended,  as  the  accommodation  avail- 
able places  a  limit  on  the  number  of  the  party.  Applications  will  be 
received  by  the  Secretaries  of  the  various  Clubs  from  this  date  forward. 


March  28. — In  connection  with  the  Celtic  Class,  an  entertainment  of 
Irish  music  and  readings  was  held.  The  report  of  the  Celtic  Section  was 
read  by  the  Secretary  (J.  St.  Clair  Boyd,  M.D.).  Readings  in  Irish  were 
subsequently  given  by  Messrs.  George  Gibson  and  P.  J,  O'Shea.  Miss 
Cathleen  Milligan,  Mrs.  Wheeler,  and  Mr.  Savile  Hardy  contributed  Irish 
songSj  Miss  Stelfox,  Irish  airs  on  the  violin,  and  Mr.  Owen  Lloyd,  Irish 
airs  on  the  harp.     There  was  a  large  attendance. 

In  our  report  of  the  meeting  on  March  19,  mention  was  omitted  of  a 
paper  by  Prof.  G. A.J.Cole,  F.  G.  S.,  on  the  so-called  "Hullite"  from  Cam- 
money,  in  which  the  author  expressed  the  view  that  Hullite  is  not  a 
distinct  mineral  form  but  only  altered  basic  glass.  The  paper  will  be 
published  shortly  in  the  Geological  Magazine. 

Dubinin  Naturausts'  Fiei.d  Ci.ub. 

April,  9. — The  President  (Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter,  B.  Sc.I  in  the  chair. 
Prof.  E.  J.  McWeeney,  M.D.,  gave  a  communication  on  a  fungoid  disease 
of  Mangel-Wurzel  which  has  lately  appeared  in  Ireland.  The  fungus 
attacks  the  leaves  and  especially  the  succulent  root  of  the  plant,  produc- 
ing dark  brown  discoloration.  It  was  first  found  by  Dr.  Franks  of  the 
Agricultural  College,  Berlin,  in  Germany  in  the  autumn  of  1892,  and 
named  by  him  Phoma  beta.  Prof  T.  Johnson,  D.Sc,  and  Mr.  D.  M'Ardle 
took  part  in  the  discussion  that  followed.  Dr.  McWeeney  then  exhibited 
in  the  lantern  micro-photographs  of  yeast,  by  Mr.  Allan  Swan  of  Bush- 
mills, showing  the  spores  of  this  plant. 

The  Secretary  subsequently  read  a  paper  on  "  Wild  Bird  Protection  and 
Nesting  Boxes,"  by  Mr.  J.  R.  P.  MASEFIEI.D,  M.A.,  of  the  North  vStafFord- 
shire  Naturalists'  Field  Club.  The  writer  describes  various  forms  of  nest- 
ing boxes  and  other  devices,  by  means  of  which  he  had  induced  upwards 
of  thirty  species  of  wild  birds  to  breed  in  the  vicinity  of  his  house.  He 
made  a  strong  appeal  for  the  protection  of  the  rarer  species  of  British 

Proceedi?tgs  of  Irish  Societies.  135 

birds  Mrs.  Lawrenson  exhibited  some  very  beautifuj  new  hybrid 
daffodils,  and  Mr.  R.  Wei^ch  (Belfast),  photographs  showing  the  effects 
of  the  great  December  gale  in  the  North  of  Ireland 


Portraits  of  Irish  IVIcn  of  Science  and  of  others  who  have 
worked   for  the  Advancement  of  Science  in    Ireland. — For 

some  time  I  have  had  it  in  contemplation  to  exhibit  in  a  suitable  part  of 
the  Museum  a  collection  of  portraits  of  persons  identified  with  the 
progress  of  science  in  Ireland. 

Quite  recently  a  number  of  portraits  having  become  available  for  this 
purpose,  and  others,  as  the  result  of  special  correspondence,  having  been 
presented  or  promised,  the  time  is  now  close  at  hand  when  the  collection 
can  be  placed  on  view. 

I  therefore  desire  to  make  known  through  the  pages  of  the  Irish 
Naturalist,  that  contributions  and  loans  to  this  collection  of  portraits  of 
eminent  and  acknowledged  men  of  science  belonging  to  the  above 
denomination  will  be  gratefully  accepted. 

Circumstances  have  rendered  it  desirable  that  no  restriction  whatever 
should  be  put  upon  the  style  or  nature  of  the  portraits  so  contributed, 
no  funds  being  available  for  securing  uniformity.  Hence  we  have 
decided  to  accept  oil  paintings,  lithographs,  etchings,  or  photographs, 
and  to  exhibit  them  as  received,  save  that  suitable  frames  will  be 
supplied  when  needed. 

Portraits  of  Mathematicians,  Astronomers,  Physicists,  Meteorologists, 
Geologists,  Botanists,  Zoologists,  Antiquarians,  and  Numismatists  will 
be  arranged  in  separate  groups.  In  the  cases  of  those  vvho  are  deceased, 
short  biographical  notices  will  be  attached  to  the  portraits. 

V.  Bai,!,,  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin. 


Th3  Lesser  Burnst  (Poterium  Sansuisorba,  Linn.),  in  the 
North  of  Ireland. — In  Vol.  i  of  the  Irish  Naturalist,  1892  (p.  81),  is 
recorded  for  the  first  time,  the  occurrence  of  the  Lesser  Burnet  in  the 
North  of  Ireland.  In  a  large  field  at  Glenmore,  near  Lisburn,  County 
Antrim,  some  patches  of  the  plant  growing  close  together  were  then 
found,  with  every  appearance  of  being  native  there.  It  has  continued  to 
flourish  in  this  spot,  and  this  year,  early  as  the  season  is  (March),  it  has 
unexpectedly  been  found  in  another  part  of  the  same  large  field.  In 
this  latter  spot,  which  is  distant  about  three  hundred  yards  from  that 
mentioned  in  my  former  note,  there  are  numerous  plants,  covering 
nearly  a  square  yard.  This,  I  should  thinly,  tends  to  confirm  the  view 
that  the  species  is  indigenous  in  the  north.  It  may  be  added  that  the 
meadow  has  been  known  to  me  for  close  on  forty  j^ears,  and  that  at  no 
time  during  that  period  has  it  been  under  cultivation. 

John  H.  Davies,  Lisburn. 



Irish  Newts.— All  the  newts  I  have  hitherto  received  from  various 
parts  of  Ireland,  belong  to  the  one  species  {Molge  vulgaris,  L. ).^  Further 
search  for  the  other  species  is  therefore  necessary,  chiefly  in  the  Co. 
Galway,  where  the  late  distinguished  naturalist,  Mr.  M'Calla  discovered 
a  larger  kind  readily  distinguishable,  as  he  remarked,  from  both  male 
and  female  of  the  Common  Newt  During  the  forthcoming  visit  of  the 
Irish  Field  Clubs  to  Galway,   t  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  question  will  be 

136  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

determined  whefher  the  large  species  of  newt  has  since  become  extinct, 
or  whether  the  faculty  of  taking  interest  in  Natural  History  matters 
has  become  lost  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  county. 

Mr.  Thompson  records  the  Common  Newt  from  Belfast  and  Sligo,  and 
mentions  that  Mr.  M'Calla  had  found  it  at  Tuam,  and  Dr.  R.  Ball  at 
Youghal.  It  has  been  known  from  the  Co.  Dublin  for  a  great  many 
years.  We  have  received  specimens  at  the  Museum  of  this  species  from 
the  following  localities  : — Cashel,  Co.  Tipperary  (Miss  Kelsall)  ;  Cappagh, 
Co.  Waterford  (R.  J.  Ussher) ;  Armagh  (Rev.  W.  F.  Johnson) ;  Bushy 
Park,  Co.  Roscommon  (A.  R.  Nichols) ;  Waterford  (A.  Neale)  ;  Lake 
Mentrim,  Co.  Meath ;  Mullingar,  Co.  Westmeath  ;  Giant's  Causeway, 
Co.  Antrim  ;  Raheny  and  Howth,  Co.  Dublin  (R.  F.  Scharff) ;  Ivucan,  Co. 
Dublin  (J.  N.  H albert);  Borris,  Co.  Carlow  (R.  I.  Acad.  Fauna  and 
Flora  Committee)  ;  and  Cork  (R.  A,  Phillips). 

R.  F.  Scharff,  Dublin. 


Hedg-ehogrs  in  Captivity. — In  Mr.  Barrett-Hamilton's  paper  on 
"  Irish  Mammals  "  in  the  Irish  Naturalist  for  this  month  (March)  the 
following  sentence  appears  : — 

"  It  is  a  pit}^  that  Mr.  Lj^dekker  has  not  given  us  any  notes  on  the 
habits  of  the  Hedgehog  in  captivity." 

Having  kept  Hedgehogs  at  different  times  perhaps  a  few  remarks  about 
them  may  be  interesting. 

When  first  caught  they  are  very  shy,  but  after  a  time  they  learn  to 
know  who  feeds  them.  Hedgehogs  will  eat  almost  anything,  but  as  they 
belong  to  the  carnivora  they  must  have  meat  frequently  when  in  captivity 
to  keep  them  health}-,  besides  bread  and  milk,  boiled  potatoes,  etc. 

We  had  one  Hedgehog  that  would  lay  his  bristles  down  smooth  and 
allow  himself  to  be  stroked  without  rolling  up.  He  got  so  accustomed 
to  be  handled  and  fed  by  children  that  he  would  draw  a  little  cart  made 
out  of  a  paste-board  box.  He  was  attached  to  this  by  a  tape  passed  over 
his  head  with  two  traces,  after  the  style  of  the  American  trotting 
harness.  He  was  usually  kept  in  a  box  with  wire  on  the  front  of  it,  but 
sometimes  made  his  escape.  The  garden  he  dwelt  in  was  large  and 
walled  in,  and  after  two  or  three  days'  absence  he  was  generally  found 
rolled  up  in  a  nest  of  grass  and  leaves  under  a  bush.  We  had  him  about 
a  year  when  during  one  of  his  outings  he  was  found  as  usual,  but  alas  ! 
poor  Peter  was  no  more,  ^\'■hat  was  the  cause  of  his  demise  we  cannot 

Hedgehogs  are  not  cleanly  in  their  habits,  and  are  generally  infested 
with  fleas.  Knowing  this,  we  once  spread  a  white  cloth  on  the  ground, 
placed  a  Hedgehog  on  it  and  sprinkled  it  plentifully  with  Keating's 
Insect  Powder,  when  the  fleas  left  it  in  great  numbers,  the  white  cloth 
enabling  tis  to  see  them.  In  some  houses  Hedgehogs  are  kept  for  killing 
black  beetles,  and  it  is  said  answer  the  purpose  well. 

M.  Jose  Simpson,  Ballymena. 

The  Irish  Stoat. — Naturalists  will  be  startled  to  read  in  the  y^««. 
Mag.  Nat.  Hist,  and  more  fully  in  the  Zoologist,  for  April,  that  in  the 
opinion  of  Messrs.  Oldfield  Thomas,  and  G.  E.  H.  Barrett-Hamilton, 
our  Irish  Stoat  must  be  regarded  as  a  new  species,  intermediate  between 
the  Stoat  of  Great  Britain  and  the  Weasel.  These  gentlemen  describe 
the  animal  under  the  name  of  Futorins  hibcrnicus,  and  point  out  that  it 
differs  from  the  British  Stoat  and  approaches  the  Weasel  in  its  small 
size,  and  the  less  extent  of  whitish  colour  beneath  the  body.  As  a 
colloquial  name  the}'  suggest  "  Assogue,"  an  anglicised  transliteration  of 
the  Irish  name  of  the  animal — Easog  There  will  be,  no  doubt,  much 
comparison  of  Irish  with  English  Piitorii  by  naturalists,  and,  if  the 
distinctions  indicated,  be  found  constant,  one  of  the  most  important 
additions  to  the  Irish  fauna  within  recent  years  will  gladly  be  welcomed. 

=— —       Ka 

^Ije  ^vi^lj  ^ainvaii&t 

Vol.  IV.  JUNE,  1895.  No.  6. 




(Read  before  the  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  nth  December,  1894.) 

Thk  disintegration  of  shells  was,  until  quite  recently,  looked 
upon  as  due  to  the  friction  of  the  sea,  which  carries  un- 
inhabited shells  backwards  and  forwards,  bringing  them  into 
intimate  relations  with  the  land  and  dashing  them  against  each 
other  and  against  the  rocks  on  the  coast,  and  also  to  the 
gradual  solvent  action  of  the  carbonic  acid  dissolved  in  the 
water.  The  aim  of  my  paper  is  to  draw  attention  to  another 
and  remarkable  cause  of  this  disintegration.  The  presence 
of  tube-like  structures  in  shells,  corals,  fossil  fish-scales,  and 
other  calcareous  bodies  has  been  known  for  some  years,  but 
it  was  not  known  until  quite  recently  to  what  cause  these 
tubes  were  to  be  attribitted.  In  1888  was  published  a  short 
paper  b}^  Bornet  and  Flahault  in  the  Journal  de  Bota7iique 
describing  two  of  these  tube-like  structures  as  perforating 
algse.  A  year  later  a  fuller  paper  entitled  "  Sur  quelques 
Plantes  vivant  dans  le  Test  calcaire  des  Mollusques"  was 
published  by  the  same  authors,  in  which  ten  species  were 
described  and  illustrated. 

We  have  six  species  recorded  in  Ireland.  The  first  to  be 
found  was  Gomontia  on  the  shores  of  Gal  way  Bay,  in  the 
spring  of  1891,  by  Prof.  T.  Johnson.  Owing  to  the  difficulty 
of  freely  examining  these  plants  and  the  little  general  attention 
that  has  been  paid  to  them,  we  may  feel  sure  that  more  will 
be  noticed  on  the  Irish  coasts,  and  even  fresh  forms  dis- 
covered when  greater  research  has  been  made.  So  far  none 
are  recorded  from  the  North  of  Ireland.  The  brown  seaweeds, 
which  are  as  yet  unrepresented,  we  may  expect  to  be  recorded. 


138  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Probably  we  shall  find  that  there  are  more  fresh-water  species. 
It  is  due  to  Bornet  and  Flahault,  that  we  have  had  pointed 
out  the  great  use  of  these  plants  in  the  economy  of  nature — 
namely,  that  of  shell-destruction.  Since  Bornet's  work, 
papers  have  been  published,  giving  illustrated  accounts  of 
two  additional  species,  one  by  Batters^  and  one  by  Bommer. 

The  presence  of  these  organisms  can  be  detected  in  the 
shells  of  various  molluscs,  such  as  razor -shells,  limpets, 
cockles,  periwinkles,  by  the  green,  bluish  green,  or  pink 
stains  which  they  make.  They  have  been  classified  according 
to  their  colour,  into  four  groups  : — 

I.  Rhodophyceae  (red);  2.  Chloropli3^ceae  (pure  green) ;  3- 
Cyanophjxeae  or  Phycochromacese  (blue-green)  ;  4.  Fungi 
(plants  colourless,  appearing  to  belong  to  the  fungi). 

Care  is  needed  in  examining  a  specimen  to  make  sure  that 
the  plant  we  are  looking  at  reall}^  penetrates  into  the  shell,  as 
various  algae,  especially  in  the  young  state  when  the  spores 
are  germinating,  form  patches  of  various  colours  on  the 
surface  of  shells,  but  never  penetrate  into  their  substance. 
This  mistake  fortunatel}^  is  easily  avoided  ;  by  using  one  or 
other  of  the  following  simple  tests  we  can  determine  whether 
the  coating  is  superficial  or  not.  If  we  scrape  the  shell  with 
a  sharp  instrument  (or,  if  this  is  not  at  hand,  one'5  nail  being 
so,  answers  the  purpose  admirably)  the  young  germinating  non- 
perforating  seaweeds  will  be  rubbed  off,  leaving  the  shell  its 
original  colour.  If  the  shell  is  penetrated  by  a  shell- 
borer  this  will  not  be  the  case,  the  colouration  still  being 
apparent.  Another  and  perhaps  better  plan  is  to  break  the 
shell  in  two  ;  if  the  stain  continues  to  any  depth  we  ma}^  feel 
sure  that  we  have  a  perforating  alga.  A  good  deal  of  infor- 
mation can  also  be  obtained  by  powdering  the  shell  with 
pestle  and  mortar,  and  observing  the  powder  under  the  i-inch 
objective,  or  by  taking  a  thin  layer  of  the  shell,  and  looking 
at  it  under  the  same  objective. 

For  fuller  information  as  to  these  plants  it  is  necessary  to 
first  remove  the  calcareous  matter  and  thus  set  free  the  plants 
themselves  for  examination.  The  reagent  used  is  Perenyi's 
Fluid,  which  not  only  dissolves  the  carbonate  of  lime,  but 
fixes  the   protoplasm,    without   destroying  the    colour.      The 

^  Conchocelis  rosea.     E-  Batters.     Phycological  Memoirs,  II.,  1893. 
2  "  Note  sur  Vcrru carta  cotiseqiwis,"  1892,  C.  Bommer, 

Some  Causes  of  the  Disintegration  of  Shells.  139 

action  of  any  acid  upon  carbonate  of  lime  is  well  known. 
Perforating  seaweeds  perform  the  same  office  as  acid,  though 
in  a  less  rapid  manner,  upon  the  shells  which  they  penetrate. 
Bornet  was  the  first  to  point  out  that  they  must  therefore  be 
most  powerful  factors  in  the  work  of  disintegration. 

All  these  algae  attack  the  shell  in  the  same  manner.  First 
they  form  a  horizontal  layer  on  the  outside  of  the  shell,  from 
this  branches  develop,  and  enter  into  the  substance  of  the 
shell  until  it  may  be  quite  honeycombed  by  them.  The 
calcareous  matter  is  thus  by  their  agency  returned  to  the 
water,  where  it  may  again  enter  into  the  composition  of 
marine  plants  or  animals. 

One  of  the  commonest  species  is  Goinontia  polyrhiza,  fre- 
quently found,  especially  in  razor-shells.  It  is  readily  distin- 
guished by  the  naked  eye,  owing  to  its  patches  of  green,  mark- 
ing the  shell,  sometimes  on  one  side,  sometimes  on  both, 
the  depth  depending  on  the  age  of  the  plant.  At  certain 
times  we  notice  dark  green  specks  scattered  over  the  sur- 
face of  the  shell  ;  these  are  the  reproductive  organs  or 

Under  the  microscope  Gomoiitia  is  recognised  by  its  long 
branched  green  septate  filaments,  and  by  the  sporangia, 
which  take  definite  forms  when  j'oung.  •  As  they  reach 
maturity  their  walls  become  thick  and  stratified,  root-like 
filaments  are  developed,  and  the  sporangia  being  detached, 
look  like  independent  plants.  They  were  at  one  time  de- 
scribed as  such  under  the  name  of  Codiohi7ii  polyrhizimi.  The 
filaments  of  Gomontia  vary  greatly  in  size ;  so  much  so,  that 
one  is  extremely  liable  to  mistake  the  different  preparations 
for  distinct  and  separate  species. 

With  Gonio7itia  we  often  find  Mastigocoleits  and  Hyella,  both 
of  which  stain  blue-green  or  grey.  The  former  can  be  dis- 
tinguished microscopically  from  the  latter  by  the  presence  of 
heterocysts,  and  by  its  tortuous  filament,  which  is  of  equal 
thickness  throughout.  Looked  at  with  the  naked  eye,  Hyella 
shows  more  numerous  patches,  the  filaments  of  which  are 
closer  together  than  Mastigocoleus.  On  microscopic  ex- 
amination Hyella  usually  shows  two  kinds  of  filaments, 
some  long  and  branched,  others  composed  of  a  number  of 

A    2 

140  The  Irish  NaU^raUst. 

Plcdonema  terebrans^  an  extremely  delicate  form,  can  onlj^ 
be  observed  after  decalcification  and  subsequent  examination, 
as  it  gives  no  external  indication  of  its  presence.  Threads  of 
it  are  frequently  found  in  preparations  of  other  algae,  from 
which  it  is  at  once  distinguished  by  its  long  slender  segmented 
filaments,  much  interwoven  with  each  other. 

The  red  alga,  Conchocelis  rosea,  first  observed  by  Batters  in 
1892,  stains  pink,  so  its  presence  can  be  at  once  determined : 
tests  being  employed  to  make  sure  we  are  looking  at  a  shell- 
borer.  The  filaments  swell  out  into  irregularly-shaped  in- 
flations, more  or  less  constricted  at  the  joints.  In  the  centre 
of  each  cell  of  the  inflations  there  is  a  star-shaped  chroma- 

The  shell-destroyers,  which  are  looked  upon  by  Bornet  as 
belonging  to  the  colourless  group  of  Fungi,  are  Ostraeoblabe 
and  Lithopythiufn.  The  latter  has  not  3'et  been  recorded  from 
this  country. 

A  marine  lichen  named  Verriicaria  consequens  was,  in  1894, 
obtained  in  shells  collected  at  Bundoran  b}^  Professor  Johnson. 
It  will  perhaps  not  be  out  of  place  here  to  explain  what  we 
understand  by  the  term  lichen.  Lichens  are  compound  bodies 
consisting  of  two  organisms — a  fungus  and  an  alga,  variously 
associated.  The  fungus  absorbs  the  required  water  and 
mineral  substances ;  the  algal  portion  of  the  lichen,  possessing 
chlorophjdl,  absorbs  carbonic  dioxide,  evolves  ox3'gen,  and 
forms  starch,  &c.,  thus  supplying  the  organic  food  necessary 
for  the  nourishment  of  the  whole  plant.  We  have  in  this 
wa3^  a  case  of  division  of  labour  among  organically  distinct 
plants,  to  form  a  S3anbiotic  organism,  with  marked  peculiarities 
of  its  own.  The  fruit  of  a  lichen,  which  is  ahvays  formed 
entirely  of  the  fungal  element,  ma3'  be  open  and  cup-like 
(apothecium),  or  enclosed  in  a  cellular  covering  (peri- 
thecium).  Verrucai'ia  consequens  has  long  been  known  from 
the  west  of  Ireland,  but  M.  C  Bommer  was  the  first  to  show, 
in  1892,  its  perforating  powers  in  Belgian  specimens.  It  was 
first  noticed  in  limpet-shells  ;  later  on  it  was  observed  in 
Purpura  and  acorn  barnacles. 

On  looking  at  an3^  shells  attacked  b3^  this  lichen,  we  notice 
dark  spots  as  indentations  scattered  over  the  surface,  the 
perithecial   fruits   of     the    lichen,    formed   from   the   fungal 

Some  Causes  of  the  Disintegration  of  Shells.  14I 

constituent  {Ostracoblabe).  On  removing  one  of  these  fruits 
we  see  that  the  fungoidal  filaments  are  really  attached  to  it. 
A  young  fruit  in  course  of  development  shows  this  still  more 
clearly.  The  algal  element  of  Vej^rucaria  shows  filaments 
having  a  great  resemblance  to  Hyella  ccespitosa,  though  their 
form  is  somewhat  altered  owing  to  its  living  in  conjunction 
with  a  fungus  and  not  as  an  independent  organism. 

The  law  of  sympathetic  selection  of  colour  in  nature  is  well 
known.  Animals,  plants,  and  insects  all  display  this  quality 
in  a  marked  degree.  Molluscs  are  apparently  not  devoid  of 
this  power  of  selection. 

Batters  has  noticed  this  fact  with  regard  to  the  yellow 
periwinkle,  which  lives  among  Fuci.  We  may  expect  shortly 
an  interesting  paper  showing  the  protective  colouring  adopted 
by  these  molluscs. 

I  conclude  my  remarks  on  the  perforating  seaweeds  with  a 

list  of  the  Irish  species.     This  is  the  first  time  a  complete  list 

of  the  Irish  species  has  been  published.     For  it  and  for  help 

and  every  facility  for  examination  of  the  group,  I  am  indebted 

to  Professor  Johnson. 

Hyella  caespitosa,  Boriiet  et  Flahault— Cloutarf,  1S92,  Prof.  John- 
son,    B.  and  W.  coasts  of  Ireland. 

PIcctoneiYia  terebrans,  Thuret — Clontarf,  1892,  Prof.  Johnson 
and  R.  Hensman.     E.  and  W.  coasts  of  Ireland 

MastliTOCoIeus  testarum,  Lagerlieim — Roundstone,  1S93,  Prof. 
Johnson  and  R.  Hensman.     E.  and  W.  coasts  of  Ireland. 

Comontla  polyrhiza,  Bornet  et  Flahault— Shores  of  Galway  Bay, 
1891,  Prof.  Johnson.     E.  and  W.  coasts  of  Ireland. 

Conchocelis  rosea,  Batters— Clontarf,  1893.,  Prof.  Johnson  and  R. 

Verrucaria  consequens,  Nyl. — Bundoran,  1894,  Prof.  Johnson 
and  R.  Hensman.     It  has  since  been  found  on  the  east  coast. 

It  is  probable  that  all    the   species  mentioned,   except    C. 

rosea,  are  generally  distributed  round  the  coast  of  Ireland. 

142  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


(A  Report  laid  before  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  25th  May,  1894). 

On  3otli  May,  1S91,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Robert  Patterson, 
of  Belfast,  I  drove  from  Donegal  to  Killybegs.  Near  Donegal 
is  Loiigli  Easke,  on  which  a  colony  of  Black-headed  Gulls 
breed.  It  is  in  a  wooded  demesne,  the  haunt  of  the  Goldcrest. 
Chiff-Chaff,  Long-tailed  Tit,  Tree  Creeper,  Bullfinch  and 
Nightjar,  birds  almost  entirely  absent  from  the  bare  regions 
of  Western  Donegal  we  were  about  to  traverse.  Near  Killy- 
begs we  observed  Starlings  breeding  at  Bruckliss,  where  we 
were  informed  they  had  bred  for  the  first  time  in  1890. 
This  spread  of  the  Starling  as  a  breeding  species  is  similar 
to  the  spread  of  the  Missel  Thrush  earl}^  in  this  century, 
whose  advent  into  Western  Donegal  is  remembered  by  Mr. 
William  Sinclair.  He  states  that  it  had  reached  Tyrone  at 
least  ten  j^ears  previously.  Missel  Thrushes  breed  near 
Killybegs  in  sites  easil}^  reached,  probably  from  the  scarcity  of 
trees.  One  nested  among  the  rocks  on  a  hill  witli  Hazel 
scrub  about  it.    ... 

At  Killybegs  we  derived  much  information  and  assistance 
from  the  kindness  of  our  host,  Mr.  Arthur  Brooke,  whose  local 
collection  of  eggs  give  evidences  of  the  breeding  of  many 
interesting  birds  in  County  Donegal.  Among  these  I  may 
mention  Golden  Eagle,  Merlin,  Peregrine,  Ring  Ouzel  and 
Chough,  all  from  this  western  peninsula ;  Merganser  and 
Woodcock  from  Lough  Easke ;  Dunlin  from  near  Ardara ; 
Common  and  Arctic  Tern,  Great  Black-backed  Gull  and 
Storm  Petrel  from  islets  round  this  coast ;  Black  Guillemot 
from  Horn  Head;  Manx  Shearwater  from  Arranmore  ;  and 
Red-throated  Diver  from  near  Dungloe.  We  subsequently 
found  many  of  these  species  in  their  breeding-haunts.  We 
found  a  Lesser  Redpoll  nesting  in  a  willow  beside  a  road,  and 
Mr.  Brooke  says  it  breeds  commonly  here.  Mr.  Brooke  has 
observed  the  Whinchat  near  Killybegs,  and  Archdeacon  Cox 
has  seen  it  near  Glenties.  This  is  not  so  surprising  when  we 
bear  in  mind  that  it  is  also  a  summer  visitor  to  the  neigh- 
bouring counties  of  Tyrone,  Mayo,  and  Sligo,  though  an 
exceedingly  local  bird. 

An  Ornithological  Exploration.  i43 

On  June  ivSt,  acconipanied  by  Mr.  Brooke,  we  drove  into 
an  elevated  mountain  tract  on  the  north  side  of  the  pen- 
insula, where  we  met  the  Golden  Plover  whistling  in  its 
breeding-haunts.  We  were  led  to  a  range  of  mountain-cliffs 
whence  Mr.  Brooke  had  obtained  eggs  of  Choughs  this  year. 
It  was  the  first  inland  breeding-place  of  this  species  I  had 
seen,  a  fissure  in  the  face  of  a  high  rough  cliff,  overlooking 
a  valley  that  led  down  to  a  gorge  in  another  range  about  a 
mile  off,  through  an  opening  in  which  we  could  see  the  still 
more  distant  sea.  Choughs  were  heard  by  us  in  another  glen, 
in  the  cliffs  of  which  we  were  told  they  breed,  about  a  mile 
from  the  sea. 

Beside  a  lonely  lake  in  these  mountain  wilds  was  a  solitary 
cottage  with  a  few  Elders  beside  it,  the  only  attempt  at  bushes. 
There  we  were  surprised  to  see  the  Spotted  Fly-catcher,  a  bird 
associated  with  more  luxuriant  scenes,  but  we  found  it  here 
and  there  through  Western  Donegal  during  our  tour.  We 
then  ascended  and  crossed  one  of  the  highest  mountains  in 
the  district,  and  while  doing  so  we  beheld  a  Golden  Eagle 
come  flying  along,  almost  over  us,  pertinaciously  pursued 
by  a  pair  of  croaking  Ravens,  one  of  which  continued  to 
make  stoops  at  it  from  above,  apparently  striking  it  at  times. 
Besides  the  Ravens  we  saw  a  small  falcon,  probably  a  Merlin, 
making  repeated  stoops  at  the  Eagle.  The  latter  continued 
to  fly  steadily  along  with  an  occasional  flap  of  its  enormous 
wings,  whose  upcurved  primaries  were  distinguishable.  It 
passed  away  still  pursued  by  the  Ravens. 

We  then  visited  the  Eagle's  nest  from  which  had  been  taken  a 
single  Qgg  in  April.  On  the  further  slope  of  the  mountain  we 
found  avast  deep  coombe  containing  a  good-sized  and  evidently 
very  deep  lake,  beyond  which,  beneath  another  great  descent, 
lay  the  sea.  The  rugged  slope  below  us  led  down  to  a 
precipice  which  overlooked  the  lake.  Each  of  us  then 
descended  with  the  rope  round  him,  and  having  passed  an 
overhanging  piece  of  rock  that  formed  a  canopy,  came  at  once 
to  the  recess  in  which  was  built  the  huge  nest.  It  was  a 
broad  platform  of  coarse  heather-stems  which  here  grow  to  a 
great  size  and  were  bare,  probably  having  been  built  into  the 
foundation  of  the  nest  for  years.  There  was  no  cavity  in  it, 
but  the  top  or  bed  for  the  eggs  consisted  of  dried  tufts  of 
Wood-rush.     I  found  the  cranium  of  a  Hare  and  a  feather  of 

144  ^^^^'  ^^'^^^^  ISlatujatist. 

the  Kagle.  Previously  to  1S91  it  was  last  occupied  in  1SS7, 
when  two  young  Eagles  were  taken  from  it  in  Ma}^  the  nest 
then  containing  some  hares  and  a  grouse.  Since  1887  the 
Eagles  had  brought  out  their  broods  unmolested  in  the  sea 
cliffs.  In  1891  before  the  breeding  season  two  Eagles  were 
said  to  have  been  shot  b)^  a  farmer.  It  is  the  only  place  in 
Donegal  where  any  continue  to  breed.  A  gentleman  told  us 
that  he  had  formerly  shot  Eagles  off  their  nest  near  Eough 
Easke,  and  further  north  we  were  told  by  Colonel  Crampton 
Lees  that  Eagles  used  to  breed  between  Errigal  and  Muckish. 

On  June  2nd,  we  passed  through  Ardara,  and  walked  through 
a  marshy  tract  separated  from  the  sea  by  sandhills.  In  this  Snipe  and  Lapwings  were  breeding  numerousl}',  and  on 
the  drier  portion  covered  with  tussocks  of  coarse  grass  I 
started  a  Dunlin  from  her  nest  containing  four  eggs.  It  was 
overshadowed  by  the  long  grass  and  comfortably  lined  with 
liner  grass.  We  saw  and  heard  quite  a  number  of  Dunlins, 
whose  twirring  note  is  so  unlike  that  of  other  species.  I  learn 
from  Mr.  J.  Steele-ElHot,  who  visited  this  marsh  on  8th  June, 
1892,  that  he  found  five  Dunlins'  nests  there. 

'""  Driving  towards  Portnoo,  through  a  stony  tract,  in  which 
were  small  lakes,  we  found  a  number  of  Common  Gulls 
assembled  on  a  small  grassy  island  in  one  of  them.  On  ex- 
amining the  spot  we  found  twenty-three  nests,  recently  de- 
spoiled of  all  their  eggs,  and  one  nest  containing  eggs  ready 
to  hatch,  as  the  young  birds  were  squeaking  in  them.  We 
subsequently  found  a  few  nests  of  the  Common  Gull  on  islets 
in  lakes  near  Dungloe.  This  species  breeds  in  the  barer 
parts  of  Donegal  and  Western  Connaught,  and  a  very  few  on 
one  of  the  Kerry  isles,  but  further  south  than  this  it  is  not 
believed  to  breed,  nor  anj^where  on  the  eastern  side  of  Ireland, 
where  it  is  exclusively  a  winter  visitor.  It  is  thus  the  most 
local  of  our  six  breeding  species  of  gulls,  and  Ireland  is  the 
southern  limit  of  its  breeding-range  in  Western  Europe. 

Passing  Portnoo  we  drove  to  Glenties.  It  was  getting  dusk, 
and  in  more  than  one  place  where  there  were  low  trees  or 
bushes  we  remarked  Cuckoos  collecting  to  roost,  as  they  are 
wont  to  do  in  bare  tracts  like  this  district  wherever  there  is  a 
little  covert.  We  often  met  with  Cuckoos,  though  the  Magpie 
seems  to  be   a  scarce  bird  in  Western  Donegal. 

An  OrnUJioIogical  Exploration.  14^  • 

On  June  3rd,  we  drove  from  Glenties  by  Doochery  Bridge 
to  Dungloe,  through  one  of  the  wildest,  most  mountainous 
districts  I  have  ever  seen  (without  ascending  to  any  great 
altitude).  Bird  life  was  exceedingly  scarce,  an  occasional 
Sandpiper  by  a  stream,  or  Ring  Ouzel  perched  on  a  rock,  but 
as  we  approached  Dungloe  we  passed  some  small  lakes  con- 
taining islands,  covered  with  bushes  or  low  trees,  in  which 
Herons  were  nesting  conspicuously,  for  want  of  better  trees. 
We  saw  a  remarkable  instance  of  this  on  an  island  in  Lough 
Aleck  More,  where  an  ancestral  nest  of  Heron  measured  4  feet 
9  inches  across,  having  evidently  been  added  to  from  year  to 
year  until  it  was  as  large  as  the  Golden  Eagle's  nest  we  had 
visited.  It  stood  on  the  bare  skeleton  of  what  had  been  a  low 
tree  not  more  than  six  or  eight  feet  above  the  ground.  On 
other  islands  and  rocks  in  this  lake,  and  Lough  Meela,  on  the 
other  side  of  Dungloe,  Common  Terns,  Black-headed  Gulls, 
and  a  fevr  pairs  of  the  Common  Gull  were  breeding. 

Next  da}^  on  Lough  Meela  we  observed  two  Sheldrakes 
and  a  Lesser  Black-backed  Gull.  Swifts  were  numerous  on 
the  lake  and  about  Dungloe  as  well  as  at  Glenties,  being  found 
in  the  West  of  Ireland,  as  elsewhere,  wherever  there  are  build- 
ings of  sufiicient  size  for  them  to  nest  in. 

We  then  visited  the  small  mountain  lake  which  is  the 
breeding  place  of  the  Red-throated  Diver.  It  was  the  most 
elevated  and  perhaps  the  most  lonely  of  a  number  of  small 
lakes  some  miles  from  Dungloe  and  from  the  sea.  We  saw 
the  pair  of  Divers,  whose  dark  plumage  assimilated  to  the 
leaden  hue  of  the  waves  of  this  lake.  It  partially  overflowed 
on  one  side,  and  its  edges  were  flat  and  so  wet  that  we  sank , 
to  the  ankle  at  almost  every  step.  In  places  these  margins 
were  mats  of  herbage,  chiefly  buck-bean,  which  yielded  under 
one.  On  such  a  margin  we  were  shown  the  nesting-hollow, 
scraped  out  with  a  peaty  bottom  on  the  (t(\%^  of  the  water,  a 
little  vegetation  fringing  and  partly  concealing  it.  We  saw 
the  old  nesting-site  of  last  year,  which  was  similar.  We  were 
told  that  the  male  usually  remained  on  the  lake  while  the 
female  was  hatching,  but  that  they  sometimes  go  to  the  sea 
to  fish,  and  return  flying  to  the  lake  late  in  the  evening  with  a. 
loud  laughing  cry,  especially  before  rain.*'  Both  birds  kept 
Jtogether,  and. always  at  the  side  of  the  lake  furthest  from  us. 
We  were  told  that  the  Diver  was.  about  to  lay,  but  the  fact  i«. 


14^  The  Irish  Naturalisl. 

that,  since  the  discovery  of  this  species  breeding  in  Ireland, 
both  first  and  second  ckitches  are  regularly  taken  for  col- 
lectors, one  gentleman  in  England  having  received  three 
clutches  one  season  from  near  Dungloe,  probably  indicating 
a  second  pair  of  birds.  The  Red-throated  Diver  will  soon  be 
driven  from  its  breeding  haunts  in  Donegal  unless  it  can  be 
protected,  if  it  be  not  too  late  already. 

On  our  way  to  Gweedore  the  driver  remarked  that  Thrushes 
and  Blackbirds,  which  we  rarely  saw,  were  more  numerous  in 
winter,  thus  confirming  the  observation  of  Rev.  A.  H.  Delap 
to  the  same  effect  concerning  the  western  woodless  parts  of 

On  June  5th,  embarking  in  a  boat,  we  sailed  round  Owey 
Island,  the  western  side  of  which  is  full  of  fissures  in  which 
a  number  of  Black  Guillemots  appeared  to  be  breeding,  as  we 
saw  more  of  them  about  the  spot  than  I  have  ever  seen  else- 
where.  A  pair  of  Great  Black-backs  seem  to  have  their  nest 
on  a  lofty  stack  of  rock.  We  saw  Swifts,  too,  off  this  remote 

On  Innishfree  we  found  three  Turnstones,  two  of  which 
were  in  full  breeding-plumage.  It  is  the  third  instance  in 
which  I  have  met  with  Turnstones  off  the  Irish  coast  in  June, 
but  apparently  not  breeding.  We  also  saw  a  Dunlin  in 
breeding-plumage.  We  saw  a  great  number  of  adult  Gannets 
throughout  the  day,  though  they  do  not  breed  nearer  than 
Ailsa  Craig,  also  many  Manjc  Shearwaters.  Choughs  were 
seen  on  the  coast,  which  is  rather  low  and  sand3%  and  after 
landing  we  were  shown  a  most  peculiar  inland  breedrng-^^lace 
of  this  bird. 

We  had  come  up  the  estuary  of  a  little  river  to  a  village. 
Proceeding  inland  over  a  bare  tract,  chiefly  rock,  we  came  to 
a  bridge  over  this  river  about  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  open 
sea ;  above  this  bridge  the  river  flowed  through  a  low  narrow 
gorge  in  the  granite,  with  perpendicular  sides.  On  one  side, 
where  a  deep  part  of  the  river  occurs,  the  rock  overhangs, 
forming  a  canopy  over  a  receding  ledge  or  shelf  on  which  the 
Chough's  nest  is  placed.  We  saw  the  Choughs  issue  from  it, 
and  the  rock  beneath  the  canopy  covered  with  their  dung. 
Their  eggs  had  been  taken  from  this  nest  on  previous  years. 
Colonel  Crampton  Lees  has  seen  a  flock  of  forty-three  Choughs 
about  the  estuary  in  autumn. 

A?i  Ornithological  Bxploratioii,  147 

tn  the  little  village  near  the  sea  we  saw  Goldfiuches  feeding 
their  young  in  an  Apple-tree.  The  owner  said  that  several 
nests  of  Goldfinch  had  been  built  the  same  season  in  this  and 
the  adjoining  tree,  which  are  the  only  apple-trees  in  this  very 
bare  part  of  the  country.  A  Missel  Thrush  had  her  nest  in 
an  ash  in  the  same  small  garden.  I  have  remarked  the  nests 
of  Chaffinch  and  Missel  Thrush  close  together,  the  smaller 
bird  evidently  seeking  the  vicinity  of  her  stronger  neighbour 
to  ward  off  Magpies. 

On  June  6th  and  7th,  we  explored  Horn  Head,  a  mountain- 
peninsula,  which,  the  proprietor  told  us,  measured  thirteen 
miles  round,  rising  to  a  height  of  five  hundred  feet.  It  is  one 
of  the  largest,  if  not  the  largest,  breeding-place  of  sea- fowl  in 
Ireland.  We  went  round  the  cliff-tops,  and  I  also  went  round 
their  base  in  a  boat.  For  miles  and  miles  the  great  colony 
continues,  the  cliffs  being  thickly  populated  up  to  about  two 
hundred  feet  from  the  water,  the  birds  becoming  above  that 
much  fewer.  One  cannot  see  them  readily  at  close  quarters 
as  on  the  Saltees,  but  one  gets  some  magnificent  general 
views  as  at  the  Campbell.  There  is  not  a  great  variety  of 
species :  Kittiwakes,  Razor-bills,  Guillemots,  and  Puffins,  form- 
ing the  great  majority  of  the  bird-life.  There  are  colonies  of 
Herring  Gulls  and  Cormorants.  We  did  not  see  a  Black- 
backed  Gull  of  either  species,  nor  did  we  identify  the  Common 
Gull,  which  is  more  of  a  '*  lyough  Gull,"  as  it  is  called.  We 
were  shown  a  pair  of  Peregrines,  the  female  bird  proving  by 
her  outcries  and  actions  that  she  had  eggs  or  young.  Our 
guide,  who  takes  young  Peregrines,  says  that  three  pairs  breed 
at  different  points  of  the  Head,  and  the  proprietor,  Mr.  Stewart, 
can  remember  when  three  pairs  of  Eagles  bred  round  these 
cliffs  (doubtless  White-tailed  Eagles),  and  that  once  four  pairs 
had  bred  there  the  same  year.  The  last  Eagles  bred  there  as 
late  as  1880,  but  none  have  since  done  so.  We  were  shown  two 
of  their  breeding  sites,  in  oneof  which  were  the  remainsof  a  nest. 
We  saw  Choughs  feeding  near  the  Campbell,  and  flying  out 
of  a  low  cliff  near  the  entrance  of  Dunfanaghy  Harbour,  where 
they  breed.  They  seem  to  avoid  the  great  precipices  tenanted 
by  other  birds,  but  a  pair  breed  annually  in  a  small  creek  close 
below  inhabited  houses.  I  saw  a  Raven  on  the  higher  cliffs, 
and  a  Black  Guillemot  and  Sheldrake  at  the  entrance  of  the 

A  4 

148  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

As  we  were  walking  round  the  tops  of  the  higher  cliffs, 
practically  on  a  mountain-top,  we  met  a  female  Ring  Ouzel  \ 
which  chuckled  and  displayed  herself  close  to  us,  to  lure  us ; 
from  her  young—just  able  to  fly.     We  had  met  with  the  Ring  r. 
Ouzel  from  time  to  time  in  the  mountainous  and  rocky  parts 
of  Western  Donegal,  much  lower  down  than  it  is  usually  found 
in  other  counties.  ; 

On  June  8th,  I  proceeded  alone  to  Knniskillen,  where  I  was 
informed  by  Mr.  Thomas  Plunkett,  the  well-known  antiquarian, 
that  he  has  often  taken  Choughs'  eggs  at  Knockmore,  a 
mountain  in  Co.  Fermanagh,  about  ten  miles  from  the  sea. 
I  had  heard  of  this  nesting-site  of  Choughs  from  another 

On  June  9th,  taking  a  boat,  I  sailed  twelve  miles  down  Lower 
Lough  Erne,  a  splendid  lake  abounding  in  islands  covered  with 
natural  wood,  chiefly  of  oak,  tracts  covered  with  which  are 
preserv^ed  on  the  neighbouring  estates.  I  here  became 
acquainted  with  several  species  of  birds,  new  to  me,  in  their 
breeding  haunts. 

At  Devenish  we  put  up  a  pair  of  Shovellers  from  a  reed* 
bed.  As  we  advanced  we  found  Mergansers  numerous,  nearly 
every  island  seeming  to  be  inhabited  by  a  pair.  At  an  island 
where  is  a  large  ancient  cross  we  met  with  Redshanks  breed- 
ing, one  of  which  sat  on  the  top  of  a  White-thorn  bush  uttering 
his  alarm-cr3^  I  here  saw  six  Mergansers  and  six  Tufted 
Ducks,  and  found  the  nest  of  the  latter  species  in  a  bank  or 
old  fence  among  long  grass,  black- thorn,  scrub,  etc.  It 
contained  seven  fresh  eggs. 

While  passing  an  open  reach  of  the  lake  we  saw  a  pair  of 
Great  Crested  Grebes  swimming,  with  little  more  to  be  seen  ' 
than  the  top  of  the  back  and  the  long  thin  stick-like  neck  and  ' 
quaint  tufts  or  tippet.     Their  note  was  not  unlike  the  croak 
of  a  Rook,  and  when  diving  they  sank  quietly  forwards  with- 
out a  splash. 

We   came   to  a  small   stony   islet   over   which   hovered  a 
vociferous  cloud  of  Black-headed  Gulls.     It  was  strewn  with  ' 
their  numerous  nests,  most  of  which  had  two  or  three  eggs  ; . 
some  contained  young.     Some  Wild  Ducks  and  Mergansers . 
flew  up,  but  several  Tufted  Ducks  swam  off  low  in  the  water, 
of  these  we  found  two  nests  with  eggs  among  tall  grass  or ' 

An  Oniitlwlogical  Exptoratio7i.  'Y49 

flags.     This  species  is  rapidly  iiicreasing  on  Xough  Erne  in 
the  breeding  season.  .       .  .,...i;: 

We  then  rowed  to  a  remote  island,  its  centre  occupied  with 
natural  wood,  with  a  broad  beach  on  which  stones  of  various 
sizes  occurred.  On  this  beach  a  scattered  colony  of  some 
twelve  or  fifteen  pairs  of  Lesser  Black-backed  Gulls  w^ere 
breeding.  It  is  twenty  miles  from  the  open  sea,  and,  except 
on  a  mountain-bog  in  Co.  Antrim,  is  the  only  inland  colony 
of  these  birds  I  have  seen,  though  others  exist  in  other  lakes. 
The  nests  were  here  and  there  among  the  stones  on  the  beach, 
some  having  evidently  been  robbed.  Common  Sandpipers 
were  numerous.  On  this  island  I  heard  the  song  of  the 
Garden  Warbler,  now  so  familiar  from  my  acquaintance  with 
it  in  the  Shannon  Valley.  The  late  Sir  Victor  Brooke  knew 
it  well  at  Castle  Caldwell,  lower  down  the  lake,  and  considered 
that  there  must  be  ten  or  twelve  pairs  in  the  place  in  1869. 

At  Knniskillen  I  was  shown  a  Spotted  Crake  in  the  posses- 
sion of  Mr.   lyUnham,  which  was   shot  with  another  of  the 
.  same  species  late  in  the  summer  or  early  in  the  autumn  of 
1890,  by  George  Husband.s,  on  Upper  I^ough  Krne,  where  he 
saw  two  more. 

On  June  loth,  I  visited  the  mill-dam  at  Castle  Irvine,  a  marsh 
abounding  in  breeding  Mallards,  Teal,  Snipe  and  I^apwings. 
^  Here  a  male  Shoveller  got  up,  and  Captain  D' Arcy  Irvine,  who 
accompanied  me,  as  well  as  the  late  Sir  Victor  Brooke,  told 
me  that  Shovellers  breed  there.  I  also  learned  that  Crossbills 
had  remained  and  presumably  bred  at  Castle  Irvine  the  three 
preceding  3^ears,  though  previously  unknown  there. 

On  the  road  from  CoUooney  to  Hollybrook,  Co.  Sligo,  I 
was  struck  by  the  tameness  of  a  pair  of  Mergansers,  male  and 
female,  which  were  quite  unconcerned  at  my  gazing  at  them 
while  the  car  stopped.  They  were  on  a  small  open  lake  about 
a  hundred  yards  from  me — overlooked  from  the  road. 

Hollybrook,  the  seat  of  the  late  Colonel  Ffolliott  on  lyough 
Arrow,  occupies  a  beautifully  wooded  tract  between  limestone 
heights  at  the  back,  rising  into  cliffs  (the  home  of  the 
.  Peregrine)  and  the  lake  shores  in  front,  which  are  indented 
and  covered  with  a  tangle  of  natural  wood,  several  large 
:  islands  lying  not  far  off.  On  one  of  these  I  saw  a  pair  of 
Dunlins  in  breeding  plumage,  and  Ringed  Plovers  and  Red- 
shanks, which  were  excited  about  their  eggs  or  young.     We 

J50  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

also  saw  Tufted  Ducks,  which  in  1 893  appeared  to  be  much 
more  numerous.  Several  of  their  nests  were  taken  on  I^ough 
Arrow  in  June,  1892,  by  Mr.  H.  L.  Jameson,  who  also  took  three 
eggs  of  Great  Crested  Grebe,  and  discovered  between  I^ough 
Arrow  and  Bally  mote  many  Whinchats,  some  with  young, 
a  species  reported  to  me  by  Colonel  Ffolliott,  but  which  I  did 
not  see  there.  I  saw,  however,  Great  Crested  Grebes,  and  a 
Woodcock  sitting  on  her  eggs.  Reed  Buntings  are  always  to 
be  found  hatching  at  this  season  on  the  islands  in  Irish  lakes. 
It  was  reserved  for  my  second  visit  to  Hollybrook,  in  1893, 
to  discover  there  the  Garden  Warbler  singing  in  two  parts  of 
the  demesne.  I  observed  it  morning  and  afternoon  and  on 
successive  days,  so  that  it  is  evidently  a  regular  visitor  there. 

On  June  12th,  accompanied  by  Colonel  Ffolliott,  I  visited 
lyough  Key,  contiguous  to  the  demesne  of  Rockingham,  Co. 
Roscommon,  an  exceedingly  beautiful,  wooded  lake,  with 
numerous  islands  abounding  in  bird-life,  being  preserved. 
We  passed  a  Lesser  Black-backed  Gull  perched  on  a  stone, 
and  visited  two  small  islets  crowded  as  thickly  as  possible 
with  nests  of  the  Black-headed  Gull,  which  had  hard  set  eggs 
or  young :  among  these  I  found  a  nest  of  Tufted  Duck  contain- 
ing thirteen  eggs  with  some  flags  growing  round  it.  In  every 
part  of  the  lake  we  saw  Tufted  Ducks  and  Mergansers,  usually 
paired,  showing  that  the  females  had  not  begun  to  hatch. 
We  also  put  up  three  male  Shovellers,  and  in  a  reed-bed  saw  a 
Great-crested  Grebe.  On  a  small  islet  within  a  short  distance 
of  Rockingham  House  and  terrace-garden  I  found  five  nests, 
with  two  and  three  eggs  each,  of  Common  Tern  among  large 
stones  at  the  verge  of  the  scanty  soil  of  the  island,  and 
backed  by  the  bushes  growing  thereon. 

On  Hermitage  Island  a  colony  of  Cormorants  were  breeding 
in  Ash-trees,  which  preponderate  there  and  form  a  dense  dark 
grove.  I  reckoned  fourteen  nests  (but  there  were  probably 
more)  placed  from  thirty  to  forty  feet  above  the  ground  ;  most 
contained  fully  fledged  j^oung.  Several  of  the  old  Cormorants 
remained  on  their  nests  while  we  were  beneath.  I  was 
informed  that  Herons  breed  on  this  island  along  with 
Cormorants,  as  they  do  at  Lough  Cutra  in  Co.  Galway, 
where  a  much  larger  colony  of  both  species  build  in  high 


[     151     ] 


In  this  paper  I  propose  more  particularly  to  describe  the 
rock  sections  exposed  by  the  cuttings  for  the  portion  of  the 
new  Galway  and  Clifden  Railway  lying  between  Oughterard 
and  Recess.     The  rocks  cut  through  belong  for  the  most  part 
to  the  schistose  series,  the  origin  and  age  of  which  have  long 
been  involved  in  doubt.     The  officers  of  the  Geological  Sur- 
vey, who  first  examined  and  mapped  this  district,  believed 
these    schists   to   be    metamorphosed   sedimentary  rocks  of 
Cambrian    age,  while  some  geologists  believed  them  to  be 
Pre-cambrian  ;  and  the  overlying  quartzites  were  supposed 
to  be  Cambrian  or  Lower  Silurian.     Within  the  last  few  years 
the  Survey  has  carefully  re-examined  some  parts  of  Conne- 
mara,  and  similar  areas  occurring  in  Mayo  and  Donegal,  with 
the  result  that  the  older  theories  have  been  found  altogether 
untenable.'      Most  of  the  schists  are  proved  to  be  igneous 
rocks,  which  have  been  altered  during  successive  periods  of 
metamorphism.     There  is,  however,  one  notable  exception. 
The  crystalline  and  often  schistose  limestones  of  such  fre- 
quent occurrence  as  bands  in  the  schists  must  be  the  remains 
of  a  sedimentary  deposit,  probably  of  Ordovician  age.     Later 
still    than   the    metamorphic    periods    came  violent    earth- 
movements,  which  crushed  the  rocks  over  large  areas,  but 
especially  along  certain  well-marked  lines  in  the  neighbour- 
hood, of  which  even  the  hard  resisting  quartzites  have  been 
crushed  into   small  fragments  or  even    powdered.      These 
crushed  rocks,  when  recemented  by  infiltered  matter,  form 
interesting  conglomerates  or  breccias,  some  of  which  were 
supposed  to  be  Carboniferous  shore-beds  by  the  surveyors. 
Of  a  later  age  than  some  of  these  earth-movements,  but  older 
than  many,  are  the  great  granite  outbursts  which  have  pene- 
trated the  schists  and  quartzites,  as  veins,  dykes,  and  intrusive 
masses.     In  this  district  are  also  dykes  of  eurite,  which  may 
be  later  offshoots  of  deeper  portions  of  the  granite,  which 

*  See  "  Report  of  the  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Survey,"  40/A 
Rep.  Depart  of  Science  and  Art  ^1893^,  P*  266,  and  ibid.^  41^/  Report^  (x2>(^/\)^ 
p.  270. 

152  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

remained  fluid  after  the  crust  had  solidified.  In  the  country 
to  the  south  of  the  railway  are  several  considerable  intrusive 
masses  of  hornblendic  rocks,  which  may  for  the  most  part  be 
referred  to  the  diorite  series.  This  rock,  in  process  of 
weathering,  splits  readily  into  large  blocks,  and  appears  for 
this  reason  to  have  been  particular!}^  adapted  for  transportation 
by  glacial  agenc3^  It  is  frequently  met  with  in  the  form  of 
boulders  in  the  cuttings,  and  erratic  blocks  of  the  same  rock 
are  distributed  over  a  wide  area,  being  particular!}^  numerous 
on  the  high  ground  west  of  the  lower  end  of  lyough  Corrib. 
Cutting  all  the  other  rocks  and  quite  unaifected  by  earth- 
movements  are  dykes  of  fresh-looking  basalt  and  dolerite. 
These  are  probably  much  newer  than  the  other  rocks  of  the 
countr}^,  and  may  be  contemporaneous  wdth  the  Eocene 
basalts  of  Ulster.  The  above  general  account  of  the  rocks  of 
the  district  will  be  useful  for  a  correct  appreciation  of  the 
following  detailed  descriptions.  The  terms  right  and  left  are 
supposed  to  apply  to  an  observer  proceeding  from  Galway 
towards  Clifden. 

Cutting  at  Oughterard. 

.    This  cutting  is  about  700  yards  long,  with  an  average  depth 

of  25  feet  of  rock ;  the  diagram,  fig.  i,  shows  the  right  face  of 

the  cutting.     At  the  Oughterard  end  is  a  dark  Carboniferous 

Fig.  t. 
Signal  Post. 

Yi.   it.  '.    .  i 

d  Carhoniferous  Limestone,     q  Qnartzite.     q^  Fine  Quartzile. 
G  Granite.     A  Hornblende  Schist. 

limestone,  with  numerous  minute  shining  specks  and  large 
concretionary  masses  of  calcite.  This  limestone  is  fossil- 
iferous,  some  brachiopod  shells  and  crinoid  vStems  being  seen 
in  it.  The  undisturbed  and  well-bedded  appearance  of  this 
exposure  forms  a  marked  contrast  to  the  crushed  condition  of 
the  older  rocks  which  make  up  the  rest  of  the  cutting.  After 
the  limestone  comes  a  space  occupied  b}-  the  debris  of  the 
neighbouring  rocks,  mixed  with  clayey  matter.  Next  in 
order  is  a  great  mass  of  crushed  green  quartzites,  wdiich  show 

Geological  Notes  from  West  Galway.  153 

well  the  effect  of  the  violent  earth-movenaents  previously 
referred  to.  This  quartzite  makes  up  more  than  half  the 
cutting ;  it  contains  much  iron  pyrites,  the  decomposition  of 
which  causes  the  water  flowing"  from  the  cutting  to  be  highly 
impregnated  with  iron,  and  the  face  of  the  cutting  is  for  the 
same  reason  much  stained.  Near  the  centre  of  the  quartzite 
is  a  mass  of  white  granite,  which  seems  to  have  been  brought 
into  its  present  position  by  faults,  the  lines  of  which  may  be 
traced  by  the  highl}-  crushed  appearance  of  the  rock  in  them. 
In  this  granite  are  some  large  picked-up  pieces  of  quartzite. 
Deep  blue  fluor-spar  also  occurs  as  concretions  in  this  granite. 
A  wedge-shaped  piece  of  dark  schistose  rock,  probably  a  much 
altered  and  crushed  hornblende  schist,  has  been  thrust  into 
the  granite  apparently  by  faults.  In  this  schist  are  some 
veins  of  haematite.  There  seems  to  be  some  hornblende 
schist  mixed  with  the  quartzite  in  parts  of  the  cutting. 
•At  its  farther  end  the  quartzite  is  traversed  by  numerous 
small  -granite  veins,  mostly  horizontal  ;  some  of  them  are 
very  felsitic,  and  much  of  the  felspar  is  of  a  greyish  black 
colour  (probably  labradorite),  and  the  granite  often  contains 
calcite  veins  which  may  be  due  to  the  decomposition  of  lime 
felspars.  Opposite  the  signal,  a  well-marked  fault  brings  in 
a  dark  quartzite  with  larger  granite  veins  ;  these,  however, 
have  been  so  much  cut  up  and  displaced  by  minor  faults 
that  the  granite  seems  to  occur  in  patches.  The  green 
quartzite  is  cut  off  suddenly  by  a  well-marked  fault,  and 
about  twelve  feet  farther  on  is  another  fault,  similar  and 
parallel  to  the  last.  Between  these  fault-planes  is  a  mass 
of  greyish-brown  rock  without  granite  veins.  Professor 
Cole,  to  whom  I  submitted  a  specimen,  suggests  that 
it  may  be  a  m3'lonite,  formed  by  the  crushing  together  of 
quartzite  and  granite  ;  but  it  would  do  well  for  a  fine-grained 
quartzite.  The  fault-planes  bounding  this  rock  are  worthy 
of  special  description  ;  they  are  each  about  a  foot  wide,  with 
parallel  walls,  and  are  occupied  by  clayey  matter  and  some 
fragments  of  the  adjacent  rocks.  In  the  clay  are  curious 
little  spherical  masses  of  the  rock  included  between  the  faults. 
These  spherules  are  about  the  vsize  of  ordinary  shot,  and  might 
have  been  formed  by  an  oscillator}^  movement  of  the  adjacent 
rocks.  The  last  of  the  faults  just  described  is  bounded  on  its 
farther  side  by  a  mass  of  red  granite.     This  granite  is  much 

154  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

jointed,  and  is  traversed  by  some  well-marked  fault-planes. 
In  some  places  it  appears  to  be  slightly  foliated,  and  the  joint- 
planes  contain  chloritic  matter.  Near  the  end  of  the  cutting, 
the  granite  approaches  the  character  of  a  breccia.  Through 
a  considerable  part  of  the  cutting,  the  rock  is  covered  with  a 
layer  of  peat  containing  numerous  tree-roots. 

On  emerging  from  this  cutting  the  line  runs  for  over  a  mile 
through  bog.  At  the  farther  end  of  the  bog,  on  the  right- 
hand  side  of  the  railway,  is  a  lead  mine,  from  which  a 
considerable  quantity  of  ore  was  raised.  The  works  have 
long  been  abandoned,  and  are  now  full  of  water ;  but  a  full 
description  of  them  may  be  found  in  the  survey  memoir'  of 
the  district.  In  the  rock  cast  from  the  mine  some  good 
specimens  of  barytes  may  be  found. 

About  a  mile  beyond  the  mine  some  protrusions  of  horn- 
blende schist  have  been  cut  through  on  the  right  of  the  line. 
This  schist  contains  well-developed  crystals  of  hornblende, 
probably  due  to  secondary  crystallization.  At  one  place  a 
lump  of  epidote,  about  three  inches  in  diameter,  may  be  seen 
in  the  schist. 

At  the  bridge  over  the  river,  near  the  village  of  Garabaldi, 
are  white  crystalline  limestones  with  strings  of  chloritic 
matter,  which  give  them  a  schistose  appearance. 

Between  the  river  bridge  at  I^eam  and  the  road-crossing 
are  hornblende  schists  with  some  limestone.  Crossing  the 
railway,  cutting  the  limestone  and  schist,  is  a  narrow  dyke  of 
basalt.  The  surface  of  the  schist  at  this  place  is  often  ice- 
polished,  and  .shows  very  prettily  the  curled  and  contorted 

Cuttings  ai,ong  I^ough  Bofin. 

Opposite  the  south  end  of  the  lake  are  hornblende  schists 
with  quartzitic  bands.  Farther  on  are  schists  with  granite 
veins,  which  contain  large  flakes  of  silvery  white  mica. 
North  of  the  island  are  quartzites,  some  of  which  are  very 
coarse-grained  and  schistose.  The  quartzite  is  often  cut  by 
granite  veins.  In  one  place  the  granite  seems  to  graduate 
into  eurite  ;  but  Professor  Cole,  on  microscopic  examination, 
finds  the  supposed  eurite  to  be  a  fine  quartz-breccia,  with  very 
few  evidences  of  felspar. 

^  Memoir  of  Geol.  Survey  of  Ireland  to  sheet  95,  p.  65. 

Geological  Notes  from  West  Galway,  155 

Between  the  last  cutting  bj^  the  lake  and  the  bridge  are 
coarse  and  fine  hornblende  schists.  On  the  left  side  a  small 
intrusion  of  garnet-rock  may  be  seen  in  the  schist.  This 
garnet-rock  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the  country  south  of 
the  Maam  Bay  arm  of  lyOugh  Corrib  ;  but,  being  a  very  friable 
rock,  it  has  suffered  much  from  denudation  and  does  not  form 
a  prominent  feature.  A  little  farther  on  are  veins  of  coarse 
felspathic  granite,  which  cut  both  the  normal  granite  and  the 
schist.  The  felspar  in  these  veins  is  dark  grey  or  black, 
resembling  labradorite  ;  it  gives  a  lime  reaction  in  the  blow- 
pipe-flame, and  I  have  also  verified  the  presence  of  lime  by 
microchemical  reactions. 

Some  fluor-spar  may  be  seen  in  the  joints  in  the  granite, 
and  there  is  a  small  vein  of  haematite  in  the  schist.  At  the 
same  place  a  wide  dyke  of  fresh-looking  dolerite  crosses  the 
line ;  this  rock  weathers  brown,  with  numerous  whitish  star- 
shaped  markings. 

The  cutting  between  the  bridge  and  the  public  road  consists 
at  the  lake  end  of  a  mass  of  whitish  rock,  which  contains  what 
appear  to  be  fragments  of  altered  hornblende-schist,  and  may 
be  due  to  the  disintegration  and  alteration  of  that  rock. 
Farther  on,  a  wide  dyke  of  dolerite,  similar  to  that  last 
described,  is  cut  through. 

Between  the  public  road  and  I^oughaunierin  are  some  very 
micaceous  quartz  schists,  and  much  crushed  hornblendic 
schist.  Opposite  the  houses  on  the  road-side,  veins  of  fels- 
pathic granite  with  black  felspar  may  be  seen  in  the  schist, 
while  near  the  lake  there  is  a  dyke  of  dolerite.  North  of 
Tawnagh-beg  I^ake  there  is  a  considerable  cutting  in  granite, 
which  is  much  crushed,  and  appears  to  occupy  part  of  the 
Maam  Valley  fault  of  the  Survey.  The  joints  of  the  granite 
are  generally  much  chloritised,  and  the  rock  is  traversed  by 
many  veins  of  pure  quartz,  which  are  also  bounded  by  chloritic 
matter.  The  quartz  was  probably  deposited  from  hot  waters, 
at  the  close  of  the  granite  intrusion.  Some  well-formed  clear 
quartz  crystals  are  to  be  seen  in  hollow  portions  of  the  veins. 
The  chloritic  matter  on  the  edges  of  the  veins  effervesces 
strongly  with  acid,  which  probably  indicates  the  presence  of 
carbonate  of  lime ;  and  in  one  specimen  from  this  cutting  a 
mass  of  garnet  with  barytes  is  seen  on  the  edge  of  the  quartz 

156  ,  The  hHsh  Naturalisf. 

A  little  beyond  this  cutting,  a  dyke  of  compact  basalt  about 
one  foot  wide  was  cut  through  in  making  an  outlet  for  the 
drains.  Northward  from  the  granite  cutting  the  Maam  Valley 
fault  may  be  traced  to  I^ough  Corrib,  its  course  being  marked 
by  great  masses  of  crushed  quartzite.  In  one  place  a  newer 
dyke  of  intrusive  rock  cuts  across  the  fault ;  Professor  Cole 
regards  this  as  a  quartz-aphanite.  A  basalt  dyke  seems  to 
have  come  up  alongside  and  mingled  with  the  aphanite. 

Near  the  basalt  dyke  in  the  outlet  before  described,  a  large 
boss  of  schist  has  been  cleared  of  peat,  and  on  the  fresh 
surface  may  be  seen  a  network  of  granite  veins,  which 
suggests  that  the  granite  was  intruded  in  a  very  liquid 
condition.  The  line  now  enters  the  bog,  through  which  it 
runs  for  nearly  four  miles,  with  the  exception  of  some  cutting 
in  rock,  which  often  rises  in  bosses  above  the  surface.  In 
excavating  the  foundations  for  Maam  Cross  station,  limestone 
was  met  with  under  the  peat,  and  this  rock  may  also  be  seen 
west  of  the  road  at  the  station.  North-east  of  Lough  Shindilla 
some  schists,  much  cut  up  by  granite,  may  be  seen  on  the 
right.  The  schists  contain  much  quartz,  probably  deposited 
from  hot  waters. 

Cutting  North  of  Lough  Shindii,i,a. 
At  the  east  end  are  greenish  and  purplish  quartzitic  mica 
schists.  On  the  purple  foliation  planes  are  often  pale-green 
bands  about  \  inch  wide,  straight  and  fairly  parallel,  and  cut 
by  similar  systems  of  bands.  These  seem  to  be  due  to  de- 
composition, with  production  of  chlorite,  along  very  fine 
joints.  Near  the  centre  of  the  cutting  are  quartzitic  schists 
that  contain  carbonates,  probably  calcite,  in  the  mass,  and 
more  abundantly  on  the  joint-planes.  Farther  on,  the  schist 
approaches  the  character  of  a  granulite.  The  schists  in  this 
cutting  appear  in  great  part  to  occur  in  regular  beds,  and 
might  possibly  be  metamorphosed  sedimentary  rocks.  There 
are  many  granite  veins  in  the  cutting  ;  some  are  narrow,  with 
straight  parallel  walls,  and  they  are  generally  vertical. 
.  These  veins  were  probably  formed  by  the  granite  filling  old 
joints.  The  granite  in  them  is  father  coarse-grained  ;  the 
mica  flakes  are  generally  most  plentiful  in  the  centre,  but  are 
sometimes  arranged  in  two  zones  parallel  to  the  walls.  There 
are  other  larger  and  more  irregular  veins,  often  with  ill- 
defined  edges,  as  if  the  schist  and  granite  had  fused  together. 

Geological  ISfotcs  fropi  West  Gahvay.  157- 

The  mica  appeans  to  occur  in  thin  flakes  rather  than  in  the 
usual  nests,  and  on  this  account  it  frequently  appears  as  small 
rods  on  the  broken  surface  of  the  rock.  The  granite  veins 
are  all  somewhat  displaced  by  small  faults.  Pieces  of  pure- 
looking  quartz  are  common  in  the  schist,  which  sometimes 
appears  to  send  veins  into  them.  These  may  be  due  to  silica 
deposited  in  cavities  left  by  the  solution  of  pieces  of  limestone, 
which  were  picked  up  by  the  schist  when  it  originally  invaded 
the  sedimentary  rocks  as  an  intrusive  mass  (see  below). 

Cutting  b^twkkn  I^oughs  Shindii,i,a  and  Oorid. 

A  diagram  of  this  cutting  is  shown  in  fig.  2.  The  average 
depth  of  rock  is  about  12  feet.  The  eastern  end  is  made  up 
of  crushed  quartzitic  mica-schist,  with  perhaps  some  horn- 
blende-schist and  granulite.  The  joints  usually  contain  much 
chloritic  matter.  Proceeding  westward,  the  schist  becomes  more 
hornblendic.  There  are  several  patches  of  crystalline  lime- 
stone (X),  more  or  less  mingled  with  the  schist.  One  of  these 
patches  is  entirely  enclosed  by  the  schist,  and  near  it  is  a  piece 
of  pure  quartz  with  included  patches  of  limestone.  This  sug- 
gested to  me  the  explanation  of  the  origin  of  pieces  of  quartz 

Fig.  2. 


in  the  last  cutting  described.  Close  to  the  bridge,  which 
carries  the  public  road  over  the  cutting,  is  a  large  vein  of 
normal  granite.  West  of  the  bridge  there  is  a  remarkable 
series  of  hornblende  schists,  which  seem  to  have  almost  en- 
tirely escaped  the  crushing  action  which  affected  the  rest  of 
the  cutting.  The  first  of  these  is  a  fine-grained  actinolitic 
hornblende-schist  (A),  which  Professor  Cole,  on  microscopic 
examination,  finds  to  contain  irregular  patches  of  a  pale 
mineral,  probably  granular  epidote ;  also  a  minute  sap-green, 
isotropic  granular  mineral,  of  high  refractive  index,  which 
crystalised  out  early  in  the  history  of  the  rock.  This  is  pro-, 
bably  a  green  garnet,  but  really  requires  separation  with  dense 

158  The  Irish  Nattiralisi. 

liquids  for  its  determination.  In  the  schist  are  some  wtitish 
lenticular  patches,  which  effervesce  with  acid,  and  appear  to 
be  rolled-out  fragments  of  limestone.  A  handsome  schist  (B), 
with  bronze  mica  and  prismatic  crystals  of  hornblende, 
appears  to  cut  the  last.  The  joints  of  these  schists  contain 
much  chloritic  matter,  so  as  to  form  occasional  lenticles  of 
chlorite-schist.  Some  intrusions  of  a  remarkable  granite 
may  be  seen  here.  In  general  it  is  very  felspathic,  with 
occasional  large  flakes  of  black  mica  (biotite).  In  places  it  is 
compact  in  texture.  Scattered  through  the  mass  are  numerous 
small  dark  inclusions.  Professor  Cole  has  examined  a  speci- 
men of  this  rock  under  the  microscope,  and  finds  the  dark 
blotches  to  be  actually  much  altered  garnets.  Some  residual 
garnets  occur,  in  a  soft  green  product  that  has  formed  all 
along  their  cracks.  A  few  pale  pink  unaltered  garnets  may 
be  found  on  careful  search ;  and  some  small  cavities,  to  be 
seen  near  the  surface  of  the  rock,  appear  to  be  left  by  the 
destruction  of  the  garnets.  The  garnet  in  this  granite  is  pro- 
bably all  that  remains  of  picked-up  pieces  of  the  schist,  through 
which  it  flowed. 

The  rock  marked  c  in  the  diagram  is  a  schist  composed 
mainly  of  bronze  mica  with  hornblende  crj'stals.  It  weathers 
easily  into  a  micaceous  mould,  which  forms  a  considerable 
deposit  around  it.  Professor  Cole  believes  this  rock  to  be  an 
altered  diorite.  Indeed,  I  think  it  not  improbable  that  the 
hornblendic  schists  to  be  seen  here  are  simply  the  metamor- 
phosed representatives  of  the  diorites  and  finer  associated 
hornblendic  rocks,  which  occur  in  the  district  south  of  the 
great  chain  of  lakes. 

Cuttings  ai,ong  Oorid  I^ough. 

In  the  cutting  nearest  the  east  end  of  the  lake,  there  is  an 
interesting  granite  intrusion  in  the  schist.  Fig.  3  is  a  sketch 
of  part  of  the  right  side.  The  portion  marked  B  is  a  normal 
granite  with  dark  flakes  near  the  edges,  which  appear  to  be 
torn-off"  portions  of  the  schist.  In  the  normal  granite  are 
patches  (A)  of  very  coarse  felspathic  granite,  with  large  flakes 
of  greenish  mica,  which  appears  to  be  much  chloritised  biotite. 
The  portion  C  that  flows  over  the  schist  appears  to  be  slightly 

Geological  Notes  from  VVest  Galway. 


^he  veins  D  are  in  part  very  fine-grained,  approaching  the 
character  of  eurite.  West  of  the  mass  just  described,  there  is 
an  outburst  of  granite  similar  to  that  in  the  last  described 
cutting,  but  not  containing  garnets. 

Fig.  3. 

In  the  other  cuttings  along  the  lake,  there  are  coarse  horn- 
blende schists,  composed  of  lenticles  of  hornblende  closely 
packed  in  a  felsitic  matrix.  There  are  are  also  veins  of  coarse 
granite  with  large  hornblende  crystals,  apparently  picked  up 
from  the  schist.  In  the  rock  excavated  from  one  of  these 
cuttings  a  portion  of  a  granite  vein  was  found,  in  which  the 
mica  flakes  were  all  arranged  with  their  planes  perpendicular 
to  the  walls  of  the  vein.  There  are  also  some  soft  green  schists 
almost  entirely  composed  of  mica,  a  species  of  schist  very 
common  in  the  cuttings  west  of  Recess. 

In  the  lower  portion  of  Cloonloppeen  stream,  a  little  above 
the  road,  some  remarkable  pot-holes  may  be  seen.  Of  two 
large  ones  close  together,  one  contained  a  single  large  stone 
over  a  foot  in  diameter,  and  the  other  a  great  number  of 
small  stones  about  one  inch  in  diameter. 

Cuttings  about  Boheshai.. 

West  of  Cloonloppeen  Bridge  is  a  cutting  in  hornblende 
schist.  In  this  may  be  seen  a  granite  vein  with  hornblende 
crystals.  Here  also  a  vein  of  handsome  fresh-looking  garnet- 
rock  was  cut  through  :  it  is,  however,  altered,  with  the  forma- 
tion of  calcite  and  pyrite.  As  it  lay  nearly  in  the  line  of  the 
cutting,  only  a  small  portion  is  now  to  be  seen  in  situ  ;  this  is 
near  the  west  end,  low  down  on  the  left  side.  On  the  right 
side  what  may  be  a  continuation  of  the  vein  is  seen  in  a  boss 
of  hornblende  schist,  if  the  latter  is  indeed  i7i  situ.  The  vein 
appears  to  have  been  hollow  in  places,  with  well-formed  garnet 
crystals  lining  the  cavities.  Professor  Cole,  who  examined 
a  specimen  under  the  microscope,  finds  it  to  be  a  pyroxene- 

i6o,  .  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

epidote-garnet  rock,  which  may  hence  be  regarded  as  a  true 
eclogite.  The  epidote  and  garnet  appear  to  have  crystallised 
siniultaneousl}^  and  are  intergrown  in  a  kind  of  graphic 

The  next  cutting  has  at  its  eastern  end  banded  hornblendic 
schists.  The  rest  of  the  cutting  is  in  great  part  made  up  of 
mica  schist  alternating  in  thin  la3xrs  with  calcareous  matter, 
all  being  much  crumpled.  The  calcareous  matter  maybe  due 
to  the  decomposition  of  lime-felspars,  as  Professor  Cole  has 
suggested  to  me.  There  are  some  veins  of  calcite  deposited 
in  the  joints,  the  mineral  being  in  pyramidal  crystals.  Galena 
occurs  in  these  veins. 

Along  the  lake,  most  of  the  cuttings  are  in  hornblende 
schist  with  quartzitic  bands.  In  one  place  there  are  bands  of 
garnetiferous  granulite ;  sometimes  the  garnets  are  in  well- 
formed  crystals  up  to  one  inch  in  diameter,  and  may  be  found 
weathered  out.  In  other  places  the  garnets  are  in  larger 
crushed  masses,  or  they  may  be  streaked  out  into  lenticles  or 

Cutting  West  of  Dkrrynken  Bridge. 

The  eastern  end  of  this  cutting  is  composed  of  hornblende- 
schists  w^ith  quartzitic  bands  (granulite  ?)  Near  the  west  end 
is  a  large  mass  of  little  disturbed  hornblende  schist.  Professor 
Cole  has  made  a  microscopic  examination  of  this  schist,  and 
finds  it  to  contain  layers  of  calcite,  with  pink  garnets  and  a 
mineral  that  is  probably  a  pale  epidote.  The  schists  are  cut 
by  some  veins  of  coarse  granite,  usually  very  quartzose,  and 
containing  some  calcite.  In  the  granite  are  picked-up  pieces 
of  the  schist,  whicli  appear  to  have  been  partially  fused.  The 
granite  veins  are  often  slightly  displaced  by  faults. 

From  this  neighbourhood  a  capital  example  of  folded  strata 
on  a  large  scale  may  be  seen  on  the  side  of  I^etterbreckaun, 
the  most  northerly  of  the  Maam  Turk  Mountains,  about 
5^  miles  distant. 

The  cuttings  between  Derryneen  and  Recess  are  all  in 
quartzitic  mica-schists,  somewhat  similar  to  those  in  the 
cutting  north  of  Shindilla. 

In  Recess  station-yard,  a  large  vein  of  very  coarse  felspathic 
granite  may  be  seen  in  the   schist ;  it  resembles  the  coarse 

Geological  Notes  from  West  Gahvay.  i6i 

granite  described  as  occurring  in  patches  in  a  cutting  north- 
east of  Oorid  lyough.  A  large  outburst  of  a  similar  granite 
was  observed  on  the  southern  slope  of  I^ecavrea  Mountain, 
where  it  is  cut  by  veins  of  the  normal  granite. 

Between  Recess  and  Clifden  there  are  many  interesting 
cuttings  which  I  have  not  had  an  opportunity  of  examining 

Before  concluding  this  paper  I  must  express  my  indebted- 
ness to  Professor  Cole,  of  the  Royal  College  of  Science,  for 
interesting  notes  on  specimens  from  the  cuttings  which  I 
submitted  to  him.  These  notes,  with  his  kind  permission, 
have  been  embodied  in  the  foregoing  descriptions. 




BY  REV.  W.  F.  JOHNSON,  M.A.,  F.E-S- 

( Concluded  p-oiii  page  99). 



IVIelitdea  aurinia,  Rott. — Coolmore,  a  large  number  were  washed 
up  on  the  beach  on  July  3rd,  and  I  captured  three  flying  in  a  field  near 
the  shore. 

Coenonympha  patnphilus,  Iv. — Coolmore,  Bruckless. 

I  no  staticcs,  L.— Coolmore,  a  single  specimen  washed  up  with  other 
insects  on  beach. 


Heplalus  velleda,  Hb.,  var.  gallica.)  (Coolmore 
H.  humulif  Iv.  f 

Thyatira  derasa,  L.— Coolmore,  at  sugar. 

Acronycta  psi,  L. — Coolmore,  at  sugar. 
A.  rumicis,  L. — Coolmore,  at  rest  on  walls  of  house. 

Leucania  iinpura,  Hb. 

Axylia  putris,  L. 

Xylophasia  sublustris,  Esp. 

IVlamestrabrassicae,  L. 

Apainea  gem  In  a,  Hb.  j- Coolmore,  at  sugar. 

A.  oculea,  Gn. 

IVliana  strlgilis,  Clerck. 

Agrotis  cxclamationis,  L. 

Noctua  plecta,  L. 


162  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Euplexia  luclpara,  L.      \ 
Hadena  adusta,  Esp.        f  ^     , 
H.  dentlna,  Esp.  Coolmore. 

Plusia  pulchrina,  Haw.  1 
RIvula  serlcealis,  Scop. — Templenew. 

Rumia  cratdeg:ata,  L.  1  r     1 

Wlctrocampamargarltarfa,  L.{"  '-ooimore. 

Boarmla  repandata,  U,  var.  sodorenslum,  Weir— Coolmore.  A 
female  which  agrees  with  Hebridean  specimens  in  colour  but  is  of  the 
usual  size  of  the  type  form. 

Pseudoterpna  pruinata,  Hufn.] 

Acfdalla  dimidiata,  Hufu. 

Cabera  pusaria,  L. 

C.  exanthemata,  Scop. 

Strenlaclathrata,  L. 

Larentia  viridaria,  Fb.  ^Coolmore. 

Eupithecia  castigrata,  Hb. 

IVIelanippe  montanata,  Bork. 

lYI.  graliata,  Hb. 

IVIelanthia  ocellata,  L. 

Cidaria  populata,  L/.  J 

IVIimaesoptllus  plaglodactylus.  Haw. — Coolmore 

Crambus  pascuellus,  L.— Coolmore. 

Serlcoris  cespitana,  Hb. — Coolmore.     Also  at  Bundoran. 
S.  lacunana,  Dup. — Bruckless.     Occurs  at  Armagh. 
Sciaphilaconspersana,  Dougl- — Coxtown.     Occurs  at  Armagh. 
S.  virgaureana,  Tr. — Templenew.     Occurs  at  Armagh. 
Crapholitha  nigromaculana,  Haw.— Coolmore.     Taken  also  at 

Ephlppiphora  pflugiana,  Haw.— Coolmore. 

E.  trigreminana,  St.— Coolmore.     Also  at  Bundoran. 

Carpocapsa  splendidana,  Hb.  "^ 

Dicrorampha  herbosana,  Bav.  [ 

Catoptria  scopoliana,  Haw.  ^Coolmore. 

Xanthosetia  hamana,  L.  | 

Argyrolepia  hartmannlana,  Clerck.  J 


Tinea  rusticella,  Hb. — Coolmore. 

Prays  curtisellus,  Don. — Coxtown,  on  Ash. 

Cerostoma  radiatella,  Don. — Coxtown,  on  Oak. 

Phibalocera  quercana,  Fb. — Coxtown,  on  Oak. 

Deprcssaria  heracleana,   De  G.      1 
Bryotropha  terrella,  Hb.  1 

CEcophora  pseudospretella,  Sta.    y  Coolmore. 
Eudrosis  fenestrella,  Scop.  ] 

CoIeophoraaIcyonipenneIla,Kol.  j 

Elachista  luticomella,  ZelL— Coolmore,  Coxtown. 

Llthocolletls  coryli,  Nic— Coxtown. 

r  163  ] 


The  London  CatalogTue  of  British  Plants.  Part  I.  Ninth 
Edition.  London :  George  Bell  and  Sons,  1S95.  6d.  ;  with  cloth 
covers  and  interleaved,  ij-. 
Considering  that  the  last  edition  of  our  standard  list  of  British  plants 
was  issued  in  i8S6,  and  that  since  that  time  "  no  new  Edition  of  either 
of  our  native  Floras  has  appeared"  ;  and  bearing  in  mind  the  great 
advances  made  in  British  botany  during  this  period,  particularly  in  our 
knowledge  of  critical  genera,  and  in  the  comparison  and  correlation  of 
British  forms  with  continental,  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  that  botanists 
have  awaited  with  some  impatience  the  issue  of  the  Ninth  Edition  of 
London  Catalogue,  which  will  now  be  welcomed  as  affording  a  complete 
and  up-to-date  list  of  the  native  flora,  a  census  of  the  distribution  of  that 
flora  in  the  larger  island,  and  an  invaluable  check-list  for  purposes  of 
cataloguing  and  of  exchange. 

The  present  issue  is  edited,  like  the  last,  by  Mr.  F.  J.  Hanbury,  F.L.S., 
but  the  number  of  assistants  in  various  groups  is  so  large,  and  the 
assistance  they  have  given  so  considerable,  that  the  Catalogue  might 
almost  be  considered  as  the  collective  work  of  E  nglish  systematic  botanists. 
Messrs.  Groves  are  responsible  for  the  batrachian  Ranunculi,  and  of 
course  for  the  Characece ;  Mr.  Marshall  for  Epilobium  ;  Mr.  Beeby  for 
Viola,  A7ithy His,  andj'i(ncacece]  Mr.  Townsend  for £upArasia;  Mr.  E-F.  Linton 
for  Thalictrutn  and  Alchemilla;  Mr.  W.  M.  Rogers  for  Rubus  2Md.  Rosa  ;  the 
late  Dr.  F.  B.  White  for  Salix  ;  and  Mr.  Bennett  for  Potamogeton  and  Carex. 
The  last-named,  and  Miss  Bennett,  have  executed  the  laborious  task  of 
bringing  the  census  numbers  up  to  date. 

In  glancing  through  the  Catalogue  (which,  we  note,  has  swelled 
from  40  pages  in  the  last  edition  to  50  in  the  present),  several  con- 
spicuous changes  strike  the  eye.  The  authorities  for  generic  names 
have  been  added,  but  pre-Linnean  authorities  are  not  quoted.  The 
sub-division  of  certain  critical  genera  has  extended  enormously — a 
necessary  if  somewhat  alarming  result  of  the  close  attention  which  they 
have  been  receiving  of  late  years  in  Britain  and  the  Continent.  Thus, 
Rubus  now  runs  to  just  100  "  species,"  and  about  as  many  varieties  : 
while  Hieracium  even  excels  this,  numbering  104  "  species,"  and  varieties 
ad  lib.  ;  those  of  H.  viuroriun,  alphabetically  indexed,  exhausting  all  the 
letters  with  the  exception  of  Z  !  But  whatever  may  be  the  value  of  these 
myriad  forms  in  relation  to  our  accustomed  conception  of  the  term 
species,  and  while  the  advisability  of  burdening  these  unfortunate  genera 
with  such  an  overwhelming  mass  of  names  may  be  open  to  question,  no 
one  can  doubt  the  necessity  of  carefully  studying  their  variation,  their 
distribution,  and  their  habits. 

The  number  of  hybrids  in  the  new  Catalogue  is  also  striking.  In  Viola, 
Carduus,  Primula,  Linaria,  and  Runiex  this  feature  is  apparent,  but  much 
more  so  in  Epilobiui/i.  and  Salix,  where  every  species  apparently  hybridizes 
with  almost  every  other.  In  Euphrasia  a  new  departure  is  made,  a 
suggestion  of  trinomial  nomenclature  being  introduced  ;  the  species  is 
divided  into  four  varieties,  which  are  again  divided  into  a  number  of 

1^4  •  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

"Changes  of  nomenclature;are,  uuf9rtuiiately,  again  numerous"  writes 
the  Editor,  and,  as  he  remarks,  it  could  hardly  have   been  otherwise, 
considering  that  these  changes  represent  the  result  of  nine  years  critical 
study  of  questions  of  priority  and  validity.      Some  of  the  changes  now 
introduced  will  be  no  doubt  startling  to  those  who  have  become  used  to 
the  nomenclature  of  the  eighth  Edition,  and  have  not  followed  the  sub- 
sequent alterations  as  proved  necessary  in  papers  in  Wx^Joicrnal  of  Botany 
and  elsewhere.     Castalia  speciosa,  Schollera  oxy coccus,  and  Borctta  cantabrica, 
for  instance,  will  sound  unfamiliar  to  most  of  our  readers.     Among 
changes    in   generic   names  Neckeria  replaces  Corydalis,   Bursa   replaces 
Capsdla,  Buda   replaces  Lepigonum,  Pncumaria  replaces  Mertensia,  and  the 
formidable  names  of  Homaloccnchrus  and  Wcingccrtneria  replace  Leersia  and 
Corynephorus,     A  number  of  old  specific  names  also  have  disappeared. 

Not  the  least  important  part  of  the  Catalogue  is  the  modest  numbers 
which  follow  the  specific  names  and  in  many  cases  the  varieties,  showing 
the  number  of  vice-counties  of  England,  Wales,  and  Scotland,  in  which 
the   plant  is  known  to  grow,  and  forming  an  index  of  its  frequency. 
Irish  distribution  plays  no  part  in  this  census.     Ireland  is,  in  fact,  placed 
on  the  same  footing  as  the  Channel  Islands  !    Where  a  species  occurs  in 
either  of  these  areas  only— not  in  Great  Britain— this  is  shown  by  the 
letter"  I"  or  "  C."     For  Irish  botanists  this  is,  of  course,  unsatisfactory, 
since    neither   here    nor   elsewhere  have    they   any  key    to   the  county 
distribution  of  the  greater  part  of  their  flora,  and  even  the  publication  of 
the   second  edition  of  Cybcle  Hibernica,    so  grievously   checked  by  the 
lamented  death  of  Mr.  More,  will  supply  this  for  only  the  rarer  Irish 
plants ;  but  a  few  years  of  combined  and  steady  work  should  go  far  to 
supply  materials  for  an  Irish  "  Topographical   Botany,"  and  bring  our 
knowledge  of  plant-distribution  in  Ireland  more  on  a  level  with  that  ol 
the  sister  island.  R.Lly.P- 


Ephemcrum  seri*atuin,  Hatnpe.,  In  County  Antrim.— The 

only  recorded  localities  in  County  Antrim  for  this  minute  annual  moss 
are  in   the  neighbourhood   of  Belfast  and   Lisburn,  where  it  was  first 
noticed  by  Templeton  in  1801,  and  again  in  1805,  one  of  the  localities 
given   under   the   former   date  being  "in  a  field  near  Lambeg  Moss." 
Subsequently  Drummond  gathered  it  also  in    ''fields  now  occupied  by 
the  Botanic  Gardens,"  vide  "  Flora  of  the  North  East  of  Ireland."     Since 
that  time  so  far  as  I  am  aware  there  is  no  record  of  the  plant  having  been 
observed  in  the  district.     Mr.  S.  A.  Stewart  and  other  biologists  have 
made  diligent  search  for  it,  season  after  season,  for  many  years,  but  have 
never  met  with  it.      Its  occurrence  in  a  light  sandy  field  at  Glenmore, 
near  Lisburn,  where   it   has  just  now  been   found,  may,  therefore,  be 
noteworthy,  and  its  re-discovery  so  near  Templeton's  original  localities 
after  the  lapse  of  ninety-four  years  may  be  considered  interesting.     There 
seems  to  be   no   reason   why  this  species   should  not  be   found  in  other 
parts  of  the  county,  but  so  far  it  has  escaped  detection.    In  County  Derry 
it    has   not   been  met  with,   and  for  the  County    Down  Mr.    Stewart 
mentions  only  one  locality. 

John  H.  Davies,  Lisburn. 

Notes.  i6c^ 


Pilularia  in  Conneinara. — The  Y\\\\\or\.{PUHlaria globuUfera)h€\r).^ 
one  of  our  rarest  Irish  plants,  and  recent  notes  of  its  occurrence  being 
apparently  exceedingly  rare,  it  may  be  worth  stating  that  I  dredged 
it  in  abundance  at  the  western  end  of  Glendalough  Lake,  Connemara,  in 
May,  1894.  Usually  this  curious  little  plant  grows  in  water  only  a  few 
inches  deep,  or  out  of  the  water  on  marshy  ground,  but  here  it  flourishes 
in  water  from  about  four  to  six  or  eight  feet  in  depth,  while  the  leaves, 
v\^hich  are  usuall}-  two  to  four  inches  long,  in  my  specimens  attain  a 
length  of  six  to  twelve  inches.  The  Pillwort  has  been  recorded  from  this 
neighbourhood  long  ago  (Wade,  Planta  Rariores,  1804),  but  it  has  not 
apparently  been  found  in  Connemara  in  recent  years. 

R.  L1.OYD  Praeger. 


The  Buckthorn  in  King's  Co.— A  correction.— On  p.   173  of 

the  f.N.  for  1894,  in  my  account  of  the  Seagull  Bog  near  Tullamore,  I  find 
that  by  inadvertence  I  wrote  Alder  Buckthorn  (R/iaffinus  fraugtila)  for 
Common  Buckthorn  (A'.  catJiarticus).  The  latter  is  the  species  that  occurs 
in  that  district. 

R.  L1.0YD  Praeger. 



Bipalium  Kewense,  lYIosel. — A  specimen  of  this  rare  Planarian 
worm  was  captured  last  month  by  Mr.  Moore  in  one  of  the  greenhouses 
of  the  Glasnevin  Botanic  Gardens  near  Dublin.  It  has  only  recently 
been  discovered  that  this  remarkable  worm  is  a  native  of  Madeira. 
There  is  some  possibility  therefore  of  its  being  also  indigenous  to 
Western  Europe,  though  the  fact  of  its  having  hitherto  only  been  found 
in  greenhouses  on  that  continent  appears  to  be  in  favour  of  the  generally 
held  belief  that  it  is  an  introduced  species. 

R.  F.  SCHARFF,  Dublin. 

Some  Notes  on  Irish  Leeches. — In  collecting  Newts  for  me  in 
the  ponds  near  Cashel  (Co.  Tipperary),  Miss  Kelsall  discovered  two 
species  of  leeches.  If  we  look  into  the  nomenclature  of  the  Irish  land 
and  freshwater  leeches  in  Thompson's  "Nat.  Hist,  of  Ireland,"  vol.  iv., 
p.  424,  we  find  that  some  revision  is  needed.  He  records  sixteen  Irish 
leeches,  six  of  which  are  marine  and  need  not  concern  us  at  present. 
His  Erpobdella  tessulata  should  I  think  be  referred  to  Hemidepsis  tcssellata 
(O.  F.  Muller).  Dr.  R.  Blanchard  of  Paris  is  of  opinion  that  to  this 
species  should  also  be  referred  Thompson's  Glossiphonia  Eachana.  Then 
Erpobdella  vtilgaris  should  be  known  by  the  name  of  Herpobdella  ocloculata,  L. 
This  is  one  of  the  species  collected  by  Miss  Kelsall  in  Co.  Tipperary. 
It  is  a  very  active  leech  and  according  to  Thompson  "  as  merry  as  a 
grig."  The  next  species  Glossipora  tuberadata  should  be  called  Glossiphonia 
cotnplanata,  L.,  being  an  older  name,  and  for  the  same  reason  G.  hyalina 
should  be  changed  to  G.  hcleroclisfa,  L.  and  G.  bioailata  to  G.  slagnalis,  L. 
Thompson  next  refers  to  two  species  oi  Piscicola,  viz.  : — P.geomdra,  L.,  and 
P.  perccB,  Tempi.  Lastly  we  come  to  the  true  leeches.  The  Irish  horse 
leech  was  considered  a  distinct  species  from  the  continental  by  R. 
Templeton,  and  described  by  the  name  oi  Aiilosioma  heluo.  Thompson  on 
the  other  hand  identified  it  as  Hamopsis  vorax,  Johnst.  It  is  probable 
that  we  have  two  species,  but  Tcmpleton's  is,  as  was  pointed  out  to  me 
by  Dr.  Blanchard,  nothing  but  the  well-known  continental  Humopsis 
sangiiisuga,  L.  I  hardly  think  that  the  record  of  the  Medicinal  Leech  in 
Ireland  {/limdo  tnedicuialis,  L.)  rests  on  sufficient  evidence,  and  I  have 
not  seen  an  Irish  specimen,  but  it  is  quite  probable  that  it  does  occur  in 
this  country. 

1 66  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Altogether  the  number  of  Irish  land  and  freshwater  leeches  remains 
at  about  the  same  number  as  given  by  Thompson,  viz, — ten  species. 
One  of  the  commonest  seems  to  be  Glossiphonia  complanata,  which  was  the 
second  species  obtained  by  Miss  Kelsall,  whilst  Mr.  Halbert  has  recently 
procured  it  near  Clondalkin,  Co.  Dublin. 

R.    F.    SCHARFF. 

Porcclllo  pictus,  Brandt. — A  specimen  of  this  pretty  Woodlouse 
was  taken  last  month  by  INIiss  Kelsall,  near  Cashel,  Co.  Tipperary.     It  is 
one  of  the  rarest  of  the  Irish  species,  having  only  been  previously  known 
from  three  localities,  viz. — Dublin,  Belfast,  and  Maryborough. 

R.    F.    SCHARFF. 

Irish  Psithyrl. — I  took  two  females  of  Psithynis  vestahs,  Fourc,  at 
Dundrum,  Co.  Dublin,  on  2nd  May.  These  bees  are  of  considerable 
interest  from  their  habits,  being  "cuckoo-parasite"  on  the  true  Humble 
bees  (Bombi),  which  they  closely  resemble  in  appearance.  I  hear  from 
Mr.  Carpenter  that  Mr.  F.  Neale  took  a  specimen  of  Ps.  riipestris,  Fab., 
at  Limerick  last  year. 

Percy  E.  Freke,  Dublin. 

Irish   Newts.— Additional  specimens  of  the  Common  Newt  {Molge 
vulgaris,  L.)  have  been  received  from  the  following  localities  since  the 
publication  of  last  month's  Irish  Naturalist: — Curraglass,  Co.  Cork   (C. 
Longfield)  ;  Bagenalstown,  Co.  Carlow  (D.  R.  P.  Beresford). 

R.  Y.  vScharff. 


Rare  birds  In  County  Cork. — The  following  rare  birds  I  have 
seen  at  Mr.  G.  Rohu's  taxidermist,  Cork  :  a  Bartram's  Sandpiper  {Bar- 
tramia  loiigicauda,  Bechst.),  shot  at  Newcestown,  Co.  Cork,  on  4th 
September,  '94 ;  a  Gadwall  {Anas  stn-pcra,  ly. ),  shot  at  Castle  Bernard, 
Co.  Cork,  on  istli  February,  '95;  and  an  Avocet  (Recurvirostra  avoa-tta,  I^.), 
shot  at  Ringaskiddy,  Co.  Cork,  feeding  in  company  with  another,  on  15th 
February,  '95.     The  above  three  specimens  appeared  to  be  adults. 

W.  Bennett  Barrington,  Cork. 

White  Stork  near  Athy.— ]Mr.  J.  W.  Young  writes  in  the  Field  o^ 
April  27th,  that,  when  driving  from  Athy  to  Stradbally,  he  saw  a  Stork 
(Ciconia  alba)  fly  past  in  a  south-easterly  direction.  Though  he  at  first 
mistook  the  bird  for  a  Gannet,  he  states  that  he  afterwards  saw  it  near 
enough  to  render  the  identification  certain. 

Summer  Visitants  at  Knocknacarry,  Co.  Antrim. — Swal- 
lows appeared  on  April  14th  ;  the  Cuckoo  was  heard  on  the  21st,  and 
the  Corncrake  on  the  20th.  The  Cuckoo  is  said  to  have  been  seen  on 
April  18th. 

S.  Arthur  Brenan,  Knocknacarr}'. 

Spring  lYIIgrants  at  Armagh, — In  spite  of  the  .severity  and 
length  of  the  winter  these  birds  were  not  much  later  than  usual.  The 
ChiffchafF  was,  as  alwaj-s,  first,  appearing  on  March  25th,  Swallows  I 
observed  on  April  9th,  but  they  did  not  appear  in  numbers  till  the  20th. 
The  Willow  Wren  came  on  April  13th,  somewhat  later  than  ordinarily, 
while  the  Corncrake  made  his  sweet  voice  to  be  heard  on  the  19th.  On 
the  27th  April  arrived  the  Cuckoo,  the  Grasshopper  Warbler,  and  the 
Sand  Martin,  and  on  May  2nd  the  House  Martin  and  the  Swift. 

W.  F.  Johnson,  Armagh, 

Azotes.  167 

Arrival   of  Spring   IVIlg^rants   In    Londonderry    District. — 

As  might  be  expected  from  the  lateness  of  the  spring  the  early  visitors 
were  behind  time.  The  Chiff-chaff  came  on  6th  April.  I  did  not  hear 
the  Willow  Warbler  until  17th  April.  The  Swallows  arrived  on  the  14th, 
and  the  Cuckoo  and  Corncrake  were  first  heard  on  24th  April.  The 
Swift  was  seen  by  Mr.  Milne  on  29th  April,  an  unusually  early  date  for 
this  locality.  I  first  heard  the  Sedge  Warbler  on  2nd  May,  and  the 
Whitethroat  on  4th  May. 

D.  C.  Campbei.!.,  Londonderry. 


Irish  Mammals — A  correct! on, —The  statement  which  I  made  on 
page  86  of  the  current  volume  of  the  Irish  Naturalist,  that  "  Probably  the 
Squirrel  moults  twice  in  the  year — roughly  speaking,  in  Spring  and 
Autumn,  and  before  each  moult  the  old  coat  becomes  thin  and  faded," 
should  read  '■'■before  the  Spring  jnoult."  Owing  to  absence  from  England,  I 
was  unable  to  look  over  the  proof  of  the  second  part  of  my  review  of 
Mr.  Lydekker's  book. 


Kilmannock,  New  Ross. 


RoYAi.  Z001.0G1CA1.  Society. 

Recent  donations  comprise  a  monkey  from  Mrs.  Burrowes ;  an  Otter 
from  W.  H.  Harvey,  Esq.  ;  a  Pike  from  F.  Godden,  Esq.  ;  Badgers  from 
J.  H.  Nicholson,  Esq.,  and  Capt.  French  ;  a  number  of  Newts  from  P. 
Mahony,  Esq.  A  St.  Kilda  Lamb  has  been  born  in  the  Gardens,  and  a 
pair  of  Crown  Pigeons,  two  pairs  of  Chukar  Partridges,  a  pair  of  Alpine 
Choughs,  a  pair  of  Leadbeater  Cockatoos,  and  seven  monke^-s  have  been 
purchased.  Two  of  the  most  interesting  animals  in  the  Gardens,  the 
Orang-utan  and  the  Tapir,  have  unfortunately  died. 

16,860  persons  visited  the  Gardens  during  April. 

Dubinin  Microscopicai,  Club. 

April  i8th.— The  Club  met  at  Dr.  M'Weeney's,  who  showed  cultures 
of  a  fungus  {Phoma  Bet(P,  Frank),  which  causes  a  disease  in  Mangel 
Wurzel,  characterized  by  blackening  of  the  root-stock  and  speedy 
decomposition.  The  cultures  in  moist  chambers  illustrated  various 
stages  m  its  development.  The  great  swelling  of  the  spores  previous  to 
germination  was  specially  remarkable. 

Mr.  Moore  showed  Gloeosporium  orchidearuDi  which  had  appeared  on 
the  leaves  of  a  species  of  Masdevallia  received  from  Belgium.  This  is  one 
of  the  fungoid  pests  which  cause  so  much  damage  to  orchids.  When 
attacked  the  leaves  turn  black,  and  the  tissue  in  the  interior  of  the  leaf 
becomes  disorganised,  gradually  breaking  down,  and  changing  into  a 
soft  black  decaying  mass.  The  disease  spreads  rapidlj-  through  the 
plant  and  is  very  difficult  to  check. 

Mr.  McArdlE  exhibited  Lejeuitea  Jlava,  Swartz  (the  yellow  green  form) 
which  he  collected  in  some  quantity  in  Lord  Howth's  demesne  last 
month.  This  is  an  addition  to  the  Howth  and  to  the  Co.  Dublin  lists  of 

Belfast  Natural  History  and  Philosophical  Society. 

April  2.— The    President  in  the  chair.     Mr.  James   Wilson,    M.E., 
read  a  paper  entitled  "  The  Alps,  with  Rope  and  Axe." 

1 6 8  The  hish  Na tu ya list. 

Dubinin  Naturai^ists'  Fiei^d  Ci.ub. 

Aprii,  27th. — The  first  Excursion  of  the  summer  was  made,  when  a 
party  of  33  members  and  visitors  visited  the  neighbourhood  of  Portrane. 
Proceeding  to  Donabate  Station  by  the  1.30  train,  no  halt  was  made  until 
the  shore  was  reached,  where  Prof.  Sollas,  F.R.S.,  who  conducted  during 
the  day,  drew  attention  to  the  interesting  geological  features  there  dis- 
played. At  the  southern  extremity  of  the  broad  sandy  beach  that 
stretches  away  up  towards  Rush  are  seen  dark  red  conglomerates  of  the 
Old  Red  Sandstone  formation.  These  are  succeeded  b}^  a  mass  of  dark 
volcanic  rock,  the  junction  being  unfortunately  not  visible.  Further 
south  Ordovician  slates  appear,  containing  blocks  and  fragments  of  the 
volcanic  rock  before-mentioned,  and  of  limestone.  Bands  of  limestone 
interstratified  with  the  slate  next  make  their  appearance,  and  the 
limestone  increases  in  quantit}-  to  the  southward  until  it  entirely  replaces 
the  slate,  and  forms  a  bold  cliff  of  hard  rock,  teeming  with  corals  and 
other  fossils.  The  leading  features  of  each  of  these  ancient  formations 
were  pointed  out  by  Prof.  Sollas,  and  many  specimens  were  obtained. 
Messrs.  Colgan  and  Praeger  collected  flowering  plants  and  noted,  in 
spite  of  the  late  season,  several  plants  in  bloom  that  are  not  usually  seen 
so  early  in  the  year,  such  as  the  Bugloss  {Lycopsis  at-veiisis),  Storksbill 
[Eroduim  cicutariuiii),  and  Field  Violet  ( Viola  ai~oensis).  The  rare  Sea 
Wormwood  (^Artemisia  inaritima),  previously  known  to  grew  here  sparingly 
in  one  spot,  was  seen  in  abundance  in  several  places  on  the  cliffs ;  on 
the  way  to  the  shore  a  Water  Ranunculus  {R.  b-icophylhts)  was  found 
already  in  bloom  ;  the  abundance  of  the  Great  Bank  Sedge  {Carex  riparia) 
in  this  neighbourhood  was  noted,  and  the  rare  typical  form  of  the  Blood- 
veined  Dock  {Rii/fiex  satiguhteus)  was  gathered.  An  examination  of  the 
pebbles  on  the  beach  proved  very  instructive.  Here,  with  pieces  of  con- 
glomerate, slate,  limestone,  granite,  and  prett}^  pebbles  of  chain-coral 
and  other  fossils,  were  fragments  of  volcanic  rocks  from  the  Carlingford 
and  Dundalk  districts,  flints  from  Co.  Antrim,  and  abundance  of  the 
peculiar  granophyre  which  comes  from  the  far-distant  Ailsa  Craig  in 
the  Clyde.  The  party  returned  to  Donabate  through  the  fields  and 
woods,  and  caught  the  6.55  train  to  town. 

Mrs.  Ross,  Rarc-an-ilan,  Dalkey,  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Club. 

Cork  Naturai^ists'  Fiei^d  Ci.ub.  -^  j/^ 

The  annual  meeting  was  held.  May  ist,  in  the  Librar}',  School  of 
Science  and  Art,  Prof.  Hartog,  President,  in  the  chair.  The  Secretary 
(Mr.  J.  L.  Copeman)  read  the  report,  which  showed  the  Club  had  been 
doing  good  work.  The  following  excursions  had  taken  place  :  Youghal, 
Little  Island,  Quarries  (Victoria  Cross),  Spike  Island,  Iniiishannon,  the 
Ovens—and  a  joint  three  days'  excursion  with  the  Dublin  and  Limerick 
Clubs  to  Fermoy,  Lismore,  and  Mitchelstown,  on  which  some  36  went. 
Full  accounts  of  this  excursion  and  its  valual)le  scientific  results  have 
appeared  in  the  Irish  Naturalist,  the  monthly  organ  of  the  various  Irish 
Field  Clubs.  Several  lectures  were  given  during  the  year,  including  one 
by  Professor  Grenville  A.  Cole,  P\G.S.;  Dublin  College  of  Science,  on 
"  The  Story  of  the  Rocks  of  Munster,"  and  one  by  Joseph  Wright,  Esq., 
F.G.S.,  of  Belfast,  on  "  Foraminifera."  Both  these  were  given  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Irish  Field  Club  Union,  and  which  has  been  formed 
during  the  past  year,  and  which  is  certain  to  prove  in  the  future  a  great 
stimulus  to  Field  Club  work  all  over  Ireland.  A  course  of  four  lectures 
on  Practical  Botany  was  also  given  by  Miss  Martin,  and  it  is  expected  that 
during  the  coming  year  a  course  equally  valuable  will  be  given  on  some 
other  subject.  The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the  coming  year  : 
— President:  (Vacant);  Vice-Presidents:  Professor  M.  Hartog;  W.  H. 
Shaw,  M.E.;  Thomas  Farrington,  M.A. ;  Miss  H.  A.  Martin,  M.IiC.P. 


C.B.,     LT,-D.,    F.R.8. 

^ije  ^vi&l)  ^ainvaii&t 

Vol.  IV.  JULY,  1895.  No.  7. 


C.B.,    I.I..D.,    F.R.S. 

Valentine  Bali,  was  born  in  Dublin  on  the  i4tli  July,  1843, 
and  his  busy  and  varied  life  ended  in  an  everlasting  rest  on 
the  15th  of  June,  1895.  The  second  son  of  Robert  Ball,  LL.D., 
for  many  years  Secretarj^  of  the  Queen's  University  of  Ireland 
and  Director  of  the  Museum  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  he 
seemed  in  a  great  measure  to  have  inherited  his  father's  love 
for  Natural  History.  In  one  respect,  however,  there  was  a 
marked  difference  between  the  father  and  the  son  ;  Robert 
Ball,  though  always  willing  to  assist  the  student  by  a  verbal 
communication  of  the  knowledge  which  he  so  largely  pos- 
sessed, was  only  with  difficulty  persuaded  to  put  this  know- 
ledge into  print,  and  his  published  writings  are  extremely 
few  ;  Valentine  Ball  was  an  indefatigable  note-taker  and  a 
voluminous  writer.  Calling  to  mind  that  from  the  time  that 
he  was  fifteen  years  of  age,  until  his  untimely  death,  he  was 
occupied  with  a  constant  routine  of  official  work,  which 
seldom  gave  much  time  for  any  leisure,  it  is  amazing  to  think 
of  the  numerous  works  and  papers  on  Natural  History,  giving 
the  widest  limits  to  that  term,  which  appeared  from  his  pen. 

Shortly  after  his  father's  death,  in  1857,  he  entered  Trinity 
College,  Dublin  ;  he  passed  his  Degree  examination  in  1S64, 
but  he  did  not  graduate  until  1872,  when  at  the  Winter  Com- 
mencements of  the  University  of  Dublin,  he  took  the  B.A. 
and  M.A.  degrees  by  accumulation.  In  the  summer  of  1864 
he  was  appointed  by  Professor  Oldham  to  the  staff  of  the 
Geological  Survey  of  India,  on  which  he  continued  until  1881. 
This  period  of  his  life  was  full  of  labour,  each  season's  work 
was  accomplished  amid  many  disadvantages.  In  his  "Jungle 
Life  in  India"  published  in  1880,  he  gives  an  account  of  his 
often  very  arduous  occupations  on  the  Survey,  sometimes  in 


170  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

most  trj^ng  climates,  and  always  surrounded  b}'  many  social 
and  domestic  drawbacks.  Amidst  such,  however,  his  love  of 
nature  sustained  him,  and  he  pathetically  alludes  to  this  in 
the  dedication  of  his  "Journeys  and  Journals  of  an  Indian 
Geologist,"  "  To  ni}^  father,  to  whose  early  training  and  guid- 
ance I  owe  a  love  for  Natural  History,  which  has  afforded  me 
solace  in  many  a  lonely  hour." 

While  his  chief  work  in  India  was  among  the  rocks  and 
coal-measures  of  Western  Bengal  and  the  Central  Provinces, 
no  object  of  nature  met  with,  seems  to  have  been  left  un- 
recorded, and  we  find  contributions  from  his  pen  on  the 
stone  implements,  on  the  various  races  of  men,  on  the 
mammals  and  birds,  and  even  on  some  of  the  local  floras 
of  India.  The  Geological  Survey  of  India  had  its  origin  in 
the  desire  of  the  Government  to  have  the  coal-fields  of  the 
country  systematically  investigated,  and  the  work  of  the 
Survey  for  some  time  was  wholly  devoted  to  this  object ;  most 
of  V.  Ball's  Reports  and  Memoirs  published  by  the  Survey 
relate  to  various  coal-fields.  After  the  principal  coal-fields 
had  been  mapped  and  described,  the  general  examination  of 
the  Geolog}^  of  India  w^as  attempted,  and  in  1879  a  general 
geological  sketch-map  of  nearlj^  the  whole  of  India,  with  two 
volumes  of  descriptive  matter,  forming  Parts  i  and  2  of  the 
**  Manual  of  the  Geology  of  India  "  were  published.  Towards 
this  great  work  all  the  staff  contributed,  more  or  less,  but  the 
third  part,  relating  to  the  Economic  Geology,  which  appeared 
in  1 88 1,  was  compiled  by  V.  Ball  ;  to  whom  the  then 
Superintendent  of  the  Survey  wrote  "the  vStudent  as  well 
as  the  man  of  enterprise  will  long  owe  gratitude  for  the  great 
store  of  facts  thus  brought  within  easy  reference." 

In  1881  V.  Ball  resigned  the  position  of  Officiating  Deputy 
Superintendent  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India  on  his  being 
appointed  to  succeed  the  Rev.  Dr.  Haughton  as  Professor  of 
Geology  and  Mineralogy  in  Trinity  College,  Dublin.  Some 
of  his  friends  would  have  had  him  remain  in  his  professorial 
chair,  where,  if  the  teaching  was  somewhat  monotonous, 
the  opportunities  for  original  work  were  great ;  the  long  vaca- 
tion too  afforded  time  for  geological  work  in  Europe,  and 
there  was  the  custod}^  of  a  collection,  which  had  been  once 
partly  under  his  father's  care,  and  which  Dr.  Haughton  had 
left  well  stocked,  for  an  University  Museum,  with  minerals, 

Valentine  Ball,  171 

rocks,  and  fossil  forms.  But  V.  Ball  had  alwaj's  been  ambitious 
to  superintend  some  great  museum,  where  he  could  have  the 
freest  scope  to  carry  out  his  ideas  of  order  and  arrangement ; 
so  the  quiet  of  the  academic  grove  was  left  for  the  responsi- 
bilities and  anxieties  of  prCvSiding  over  the  fortunes  of  the 
Dublin  Museum  of  Science  and  Art,  the  foundation  stone  of 
the  new  building  of  which  had  not  as  yet  been  laid. 

The  spirit  was  willing,  but  the  difficulties  of  reconciling 
many  antagonistic  views  were  great,  and  the  trials  to  a 
sensitive  mind  of  having  to  oppose  the  wishes  of  many  of 
those  who  were  brought  into  semi-ofQcial  connection  with 
him  were  sources  of  trouble,  that  often  ruffled  the  even  tenor 
of  his  life,  and  it  is  painful  to  think  may  have  shortened  it. 

For  over  twelve  3'-ears — even  of  those  parts  of  them,  when 
from  ill  health,  he  was  obliged  to  take  some  rest— the  Science 
and  Art  Museum  was  in  his  every  thought.  One  cannot  but 
admire  the  energy  and  zeal  which  he  brought  to  bear  upon 
this  work  ;  he  could  not  understand  what  it  was  to  go  slowly, 
and  in  very  truth,  he  most  generally,  even  when  he  went 
quickly,  went  well.  If  possible  he  would  have  arranged 
every  article  with  his  ow^n  hands.  It  was  on  the  failure  of 
such  attempts,  that  he  realised  that  no  human  being  could 
have  done  so. 

During  these  years  his  moments  of  recreation  were  vSpent  in 
bringing  out  a  model  and  charming  edition  of  the  travels  of 
Tavernier,  and  in  writing  numerous  articles  on  the  plants  and 
animals  of  India.  His  scientific  writings  have  such  merit  that 
he  needed  not  to  have  left  any  further  record  of  his  life,  but 
yet  above  all  these,  the  Dublin  Museum  of  Science  and  Art 
will  still  stand  as  a  witness  for  ever,  to  be  associated  with  his 

Of  the  high  character  of  the  man,  of  his  trueness  in  friend- 
ship, time  must  soften  sorrow,  ere  we  could  trust  ourselves 
adequately  to  write. 

E.  P.  W. 

A  2 

172  The  Irish  Na twa list. 



COMI^IITTEE,  MAY,   1 895. 
BY  J.  N.  HAI^BERT. 

The  members  of  the  Dublin  Field  Club  spent  a  most  en- 
joyable and  instructive  da^^  on  the  25th  of  last  May,  when, 
not  in  any  woy  deterred  by  the  warnings  given  in  the  pro- 
gramme about  deep  and  treacherous  holes,  etc.,  a  large  and 
adventurous  part}^  turned  out  to  explore  the  Seagull  Bog, 
Tullamore.  The  selection  of  the  time  could  not  have  been 
more  fortunate,  as  the  dr}^  weather  previous  to  our  visit 
rendered  access  easy  to  many  of  the  most  dangerous,  though, 
at  the  same  time,  most  interesting  parts  of  the  bog.  The 
flora  of  that  portion  of  the  Bog  of  Allen  which  the  Black- 
headed  Gull  has  chosen  for  its  breeding  haunt  is  decidedly 
above  the  average,  as  may  be  learned  by  a  perusal  of  Mr. 
Praeger's  interesting  paper  in  the  IHsh  Nahcralist  for  August, 
1894,  and  the  adjacent,  richly  varied  woods  of  Clonad  and 
Derryclure  mark  the  locality  as  about  the  most  likely  to  repay 
the  incursions  of  the  insect-hunter.  To  the  latter  undoubtedly 
the  most  pleasing  feature  is  the  abundance  of  birch,  hazel, 
and  various  willows  scattered  over,  but  most  common  on  the 
outskirts  of  the  bog,  and  which  were  proved  to  harbour  the 
best  species. 

As  the  captures  were  rather  too  numerous  for  inclusion  in 
the  usual  report,  it  has  been  thought  advisable  to  detail  them  in 
a  separate  list.  I  cannot  find  any  previous  Irish  record^  for  the 
following  species  : — Polydrus2ts  tcrdicollis,  De  G.,  P .  ccrvinus, 
L,  and  Hylastcs  palliaiiis,  Gj^lL,  while  a  fourth  species,  E later 
pomoriLin,  Herbst.,  has  only  once  before  been  recorded  from  a 
specimen  taken  by  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Johnson  in  a  somewhat 
similar  locality  near  Armagh.  As  one  would  expect,  the  most 
notable  feature  in  the  bog  collecting  is  the  abundance  of  the 
various  species,  for,  with  the  exception  of  the  insect  mentioned, 
and  with  a  little  more  available  time,  large  numbers  of  the 
others  could  have  been  obtained.  Several  of  the  universally 
common  kinds  have  been  omitted  from  the  list, 

insects  Collected  at  the  SeagtUl  Bog,  Ttdlavwre.         173 


Cicindela  campestr'ls,Iv.— Common  on  the  drier  parts  of  the  heath 
near  Clonad  Wood. 

Hydroporus    Cyllenhali,     Schiod.) 

H.  obscurus,  Sturm.  ^  ^^^zxx\\  Bog,  common  in  the 

\      pools. 
H.  pubescens,  G3II.  ' 

Tachyporus  obtusus,  var.  nitidlcollis,  vSteph.— Clonad  Wood, 

Proteinus  ovalis,  Steph.  \ 

Atomaria-  fuscipes,  Gyll  j  Seagull  Bog,  all  fairly  common. 

Epistetnus  gyrinoides,  Marsh.  ^ 

Rhizophag-us  depressus,  F. — Clonad  Wood,  common  under  bark 
of  decayed  fir. 

Microcara  llvida,  F.  )  o         n  t>       t.  ^i, 

Cyphon  padi,  L.  I  ^^^^-'^^^  ^°-!  ^^^^  common. 

Tclephorus  lituratus,  Fall. — Seagull  Bog,  common.  This  insect 
seems  to  have  been  overlooked  b}^  the  early  collectors.  As  in  the  case  of 
E.  pomoruni^  Mr.  Johnson  has  taken  a  specimen  on  Churchill  Bog,  Co, 

Elater  pomorum,  Herbst. — Three  examples  of  this  very  local 
species  were  swept  off  a  birch  tree.  It  is  usually  taken  under  bark,  and 
in  decayed  branches. 

Coryinbitcs  quercus,  Gyll. — Seagull  Bog;  the  variety  ochropterus, 
Steph.,  occurred,  but  not  so  commonly  as  the  type. 

Donacia  discolor,  Pan/.. — Seagull  Bog,  common. 

Lochmsea  sutu rails,  Thorns. — Perhaps  the  commonest  beetle  in 
the  Bog. 

CaleruceHa  nyinphaeae,  L.— Seagull  Bog,  sweeping  herbage. 

C.   lineola,  V, — vSeagull  Bog,  common  on  willow. 

Aptcropcda  globosa,  Tel.— Seagull  Bog,  several  by  sweeping. 

Crepidodcra  helxines,  L. — Seagull  Bog,  common  on  willow. 

Anaspis  frontalis,  L. — Clonad  Wood,  common. 

Polydrusus  tcrcticollis,  De  G.)       Clonad    Wood,    common      oil 

P.   ptergomalls,  Boh.  j  hazel,  etc. 

P.  cervinus,  L. — Seagull  Bog,  common  on  birch,  ash,  etc. 

Phyllobius  calcaratus,  F.  y      Clonad  Wood,  common  on  various 
P.  pyri,  L.  S  trees. 

Anoplus  plantaris,  Naez. 
Coeliodes  ri 

Ccuthorrhynchus  ericae,  Gyll.— Seagull  Bog,  abundant  on 

Li mnobar is  T-al bum,  L.— Seagull  Bog,  sweeping  herbage  in  dry 

[antaris,  Naez.  \  g^^^  j^^g  common  on  birch. 

ubicundus,  Herbst. j         ^  ^' 

Hylastes  palliatus,  Gyll.— Clonad  Wood,  in  decayed  fir  stump. 


Nabis6rlcctorum,Schoetz.--vSeagUll  Bog,  off  heath.  Not  previously 
recorded  from  Ireland. 

1 74  The  Irish  Naturalist, 


In  lepidoptera  the  best  finds  were  full  fed  larvse  of  Dasychira  fascdina  on 
hazel,  a  species  which  seems  to  occur  only  in  the  Bog  of  Allen,  and  one 
Gcoinctni  papilionaria  on  birch.  Numerous  species  of  EiipitheciiC  were 
flying  on  the  Bog,  but  the  attempt  to  capture  these  in  a  heavy  sweeping 
net  was  not  at  all  satisfactory.  A  specimen  of  Nwiieria  piilveraria  was 
secured  at  rest  in  Clonad  Wood.  Mr.  E.  Williams  found  the  Green  Hair 
Streak  {Thccla  }-ubi)  still  frequenting  a  part  of  the  Seagull  Bog  where  he 
had  taken  it  in  numbers  some  years  ago,  while  the  beautiful  moth 
Anuria  myrtilli  was  also  noticed  regaling  itself  on  the  flowers  of  the  Bog- 
bean  {Menyanthes  trifoliata),  and  on  the  way  back  to  the  station  Torttix 
ministrana  was  captured  flitting  about  the  wooded  margins  of  the  road. 


BY   R.    LLOYD   PRAEGKR,    B.E. 

The  bold  promontor}^  of  Howth,  with  its  heather}^  hills,  its 
steep  sea-slopes,  and  rugged  cliffs,  has  long  been  a  favourite 
haunt  of  the  naturalist,  and  indeed  for  him  Howth  has  varied 
attractions — the  shattered  and  contorted  Cambrian  rocks, 
carved  into  jutting  crags  and  fantastic  pinnacles  by  the  rest- 
less sea;  the  shell-bearing  gravels  and  Boulder-clays  that 
overhang  the  town ;  the  eddying  bird-life  of  the  cliffs ;  the 
busy  insect  world  that  teems  in  summer  among  the  rocks  and 
flowers  and  woods  ;  and  the  marvellous  variety  of  plant-life,  all 
combine  to  render  this  favoured  spot  an  oft- visited  resort  of 
the  lover  of  nature,  whatever  be  his  bent.  It  is  to  the  botanist, 
perhaps,  that  Howth  especially  appeals,  for  here  are  gathered 
together  in  a  small  area  man}^  of  the  rarest  Irish  plants  ;  and 
leaving  rarities  out  of  account,  who  would  not  willingly 
journey  miles  to  view  those  great  slopes  overhanging  the  blue 
water,  decked  with  the  crimson  flowers  of  the  Blood}'  Cranes- 
bill,  and  white  sheets  of  Sea  Campion,  and  masses  of  yellow 
Bedstraw  and  purple  Thyme ;  to  see  the  storm-beaten  sea- 
rocks,  hung  with  grey  Samphire,  and  the  glossy  foliage  and 
yellow  stars  of  the  rare  Golden  Samphire,  and  splashed  with 
purple  patches  of  Sea-lavender ;  or  the  wide  heaths  above, 
blazing  with  Gorse  and  Heather  ?  Nor  less  attractive  is  the 

Motes  071  the  Flora  of  Hoivth.  175 

low  neck  of  land  that  joins  the  headland  to  the  mainland ; 

"  All  the  sands  that  left  and  right 
The  grassy  isthmus-ridge  confine, 
In  yellow  bars  lie  bare  and  bright 
Among  the  sparkling  brine  "  ; 

for  here  the  wastes  and  banks  are  gay  with  yellow  Melilot, 
and  scarlet  Poppies,  and  pink  Convolvulus,  and  many  rarer 
plants  that  twine  amid  the  lavish  profusion  of  summer 

The  wild-flowers  of  Howth   can  boast   the   distinction  of 
having  a  book  devoted  to  themselves.     Mr.   Hart's  excellent 
little    Flora'    is     well-known    to    most    of   my   readers,    and 
ought  to  be  well-known  to  all  of  them.     Many  a  time,  while  I 
was  still  living  in  Belfast,  did  I  pore  enviously  over  its  pages, 
for    the   Flora    of  Howth   contains    well  nigh    four-score  of 
species  which  either  are  unknown  in  the  North-east,  or  are  so 
rare  there  as  to  constitute   the  prize  of  a  day's  collecting  ; 
indeed  man}^  of  them  are  plants  which  to  any  Irish  botanist 
possess   considerable  interest  on  account  of  their  restricted 
range  in  this  country.       Nor  have  the  botanical  resources  of 
Howth  been  yet  quite  exhausted.  During  the  course  of  several 
rambles  over  the  hill  last  summer,  I  was  much  pleased  to  find 
one  or  two  species  that  are  not  recorded  among  the  545  native 
or  naturalized  plants  which  are  enumerated  as  inhabitants  of 
Howth  in  the  work  referred  to ;    also  a  few  others,   which, 
though    recorded    from    Howth    by    previous    writers,    were 
excluded  b}"  Mr.  Hart  on  the  ground  of  their  absence  there  at 
the  present  time.     When  Miss  R.  Mahaffy  communicated  to  me 
several  interesting  additions  which  she  has  made  within  the 
last  few  years,  it  occurred  to  me  that  our  combined  observa- 
tions might   be  worthy  of  publication  in  the  pages  of  the  Irish 
Naturalist ;  and  I  have  endeavoured^to  make  the  present  paper 
as  far  as  possible  complete,  by  including  any  published  additions 
to    the  flora  (so  far  as   I   was  aware    of   them)  which    have 
appeared  since  the  publication  of  Mr.  Hart's  "  Flora."     These 
latter  are  few  in  number,  and  are  soon    enumerated.     In  the 
Journal  of  Botany  for  1891  (p.  377)..  Mr.  Hart  contributes  three 
additional  species— the  Portland  Spurge,  Eiiphorbia  portlan- 
dica,  found  on  the  rocky  islet  of  Ireland's  Eye  by  Sir  Robert 

'The  Flora  of  Howth,  by  H.  C.   Hart,  B.  A.,   F.L.S.    Dublin:  Hodges, 
Figgis,  and  Co.,  1887,  3s.  6d. 

176  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Ball  ;  Urtica  pihilifera,  an  alien  nettle,  noticed  by  the  present 
writer  ;  and  the  rare  grass  Festuca  unigluniis,  found  on  the 
sandy  shore  at  Baldoyle  by  Mr.  H.  C.  Levinge,  where,  last 
season,  not  knowing  at  the  time  of  Mr.  Levinge's  discovery,  I 
was  delighted  to  find  fine  specimens  of  it.  In  the  Irish 
Naturalist  for  1893  (p.  174),  Mr.  David  M'Ardle,  who  has  dis- 
covered so  many  interesting  liverworts  among  the  rocks  cf 
Howth,'  added  the  little  club-moss,  Selaginella  spiiiosa,  to  the 
flora.  In  the  Joztrnal  of  Botany  for  1894  (p.  76),  I  record 
seven  Brambles  not  known  on  Howtli  hitherto,  nor  most  of 
them  in  Co.  Dublin  or  in  District  5  ;  these  were  gathered  on  a 
pleasant  July  day  spent  with  a  number  of  members  of  the 
Belfast  and  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Clubs.  In  the  same 
journal  (p.  359)  I  add  R.  viicans  to  this  list.  So  far  as  I  am 
aware,  this  completes  the  enumeration  of  published  additions 
to  the  Flora  of  Howth. 

Of  unpublished  additions,  it  is  probable  that  interesting 
notes  are  in  possession  of  some  of  the  many  wild-flower  lovers 
who  spend  summer  da3^s  or  weeks  on  the  breezy  slopes  of  Ben 
Edar;  and  if  the  present  sketch  has  the  result  of  bringing  to 
light  information  that  otherwise  might  remain  unrecorded  and 
unknown,  then  it  will  not  have  been  written  in  vain  ;  in  this 
way,  the  very  incompleteness  of  my  notes  may  prove  their 
greatest  merit. 


Crambe  maritima,  L.— Not  yet  quite  extinct  at  Howth.  I  found  it 
last  year  sparingly  on  the  gravelly  strand  of  Ireland's  Eye.  Formerly 
grew  on  the  south  side  of  Howth  {Irish  Flora,  1833),  but  "Mr.  Hart  says 
that  it  has  been  extinct  there  for  many  years. 

Reseda  suffrutlculosa,  L. — Has  grown  for  many  years  near  the 
Forge,  Sutton. — jMiss  R.  Mahaffy.     Apparently  naturalized  here. 

Silene  ang^Iica,  L.,  var.  S.  quinquevulnera,  L. — On  the  railway 
bank  near  Howtli  station. — Miss  R.  Mahaffy.    Perhaps  merely  casual  here. 

Rubus  scaber,  W.  &  X.— Howth  Demesne.— Rev.  C-  H.  Waddell. 
"  A  hirsute  variety." — W.  M.  Rogers. 

R.  silvaticus,  W.  &  N. 

R.   macrophyllus,  W.  &  N. 

R.   mlcans,  Gren.  and  Godr.  Howth.       Praeger, 

R.  tnucronatus,  Blox.  \    Joum.  Bot.,    1894, 

R.  fuscus,  W.  &  N.,  pp.  76,  359. 

R.  corylifolius,  Sm.,  var.  sublustrls  (Lees). 

R.  Balfourlanus,  Blox. 

The  above  were  collected  mostly  in  the  Demesne  ;  a  few  of  them  near 
the  Bailey  ;  the  exact  locality  of  each  was  not  noted.      The  plants  were 

1  See  M'Ardle:  Hepaticse  of  the  Hill  of  Howth.  Proc,  R.LA.,  3rd  S., 
No.  I,  1893. 

Notes  on  the  Flora  of  Howth.  177 

named  by  Rev.  W.  M.  Rogers.  K.  suberedus,  R.  villicanlis,  and  R.  discolor 
are  mentioned  by  Mr.  Hart  as  occurring  on  Howth.  The  last-named  is 
common  there  ;  the  second  might  be  expected  ;  the  first  is  a  very  rare 
plant  in  Ireland. 

Myriophyllum  spicatum,  L. — Abundant  in  the  pool  by  the  sea  at 
the  Quarr}'.  The  larger  pool  there  is  full  of  what  appears  to  be  the  same 
plant,  but  it  was  out  of  flower  when  I  visited  the  place.  M.  alterniflorum 
is  recorded  from  these  pools  by  Mr.  Hart.     I  could  not  find  it  there. 

[Bryonia  dioica,  L.— One  large  plant  on  a  rocky  slope  below  KarlsclifF 
where  it  has  grown  for  some  years.  It  does  not  grow  in  any  garden  in 
the  neighbourhood.— Miss  R.  Mahaffy.] 

[CEnothera  biennis,  L.— Established  by  the  railway  near  Howth 
station,  where  it  has  grown  for  at  least  five  years. — Miss  R.  Mahaffy.] 

Aplum  nodiflorum,  Reichb.,  var.  ochreatunri,  DC— In  a  spring 
on  the  east  side  of  Ireland's  Ej'e. 

Galium  mollug'o,  L.,  var.  insubricum  (Gaud)— Howth. — H.  C. 
Levinge,  Bat,  Ex.  Chib  Repo7't,  1893. 

Arctium  nemorosum ,  Lej. — On  the  Burrow;  and  I  believe  it  occurs 

A,  intermedium )  Lange. — North  corner  of  Ballykill  field  near  the 

Taraxacum  officinale,  Web.,  var.  erythrospermum  (Andrz.).— 
Sandy  places  east  of  the  Cosh. 

[Crepissetosa,Hall.  fil. — InafieldbetweenDrumleckandtheNeedles. 
— Miss  R.  Mahaffy.  An  alien  which  has  not,  I  think,  been  noticed  in 
Ireland  hitherto.] 

Orobanche  minor,  Sm. — On  a  bank  at  Tansy. — Miss  R.  Mahaffy 
Abundant  in  a  clover  field  near  Sutton  station. — R.Ll.P-  A  plant  which 
is  steadily  spreading  in  Ireland. 

Mentha  Puleg'ium,  L. — Old  pasture  fields  near  Bailey  post-office. 
Miss  R.  Mahaff}'.     An  interesting  addition  to  the  flora. 

Stactiys  palustris  x  sylvatica. — In  a  potato  patch  near  Howth 
chapel.      The  more  common  hybrid  form,  nearer  to  S.  palustris  than  to 

S.  sylvaiica. 

Chenopodium  murale,  L.  —  On  rubbish-heaps  south-west  of 
Howth  chapel,  and  on  waste  ground  on  the  Burrow.  Was  recorded 
from  Howth  in  the  Brit.  Assoc.  Guide  (1878),  but  excluded  by  Mr.  Hart  as 
probably  a  mistake. 

Euphorbia    portlandica,  L. — Ireland's   Eye,  Sir  R.   Ball. — Hart, 

Journ.  Bot.,  1891,  p.  377. 

Urtica  pilullfera,  Iv. — B3'  a  ruined  cottage  on  edge  of  the  north 
cliff  near  Bailey  Lighthouse,  R.  LI.  Praeger. — Hart,  Journ.  Bot.,  1891,  p.  377. 
An  alien  plant,  which  I  did  not  refind  there  last  year. 

Ruppia  rostellata,  Koch. — Plentiful  in  the  pool  by  the  sea  at  the 

BIysmus  rufus,  Panz. — Margins  of  the  pool  by  the  sea  at  the 
Quarry.  Previously  recorded  from  the  vicinity — probably  from  this 
identical  vSpot — by  Mackay,  who  says  {Flor.  Hib.,  1836),  "between 
Baldo3de  and  Howth,"  but  disallowed  by  Mr.  Hart. 

Festuca  uniglumis,  Soland. — On  the  western  edge  of  the  Cosh  [not 
coast,  as  printed],  H.  C.  Levinge. — Hart,yc;«/vz.  Bot.,  1891,  p.  377. 

Selag^inella  selag-inoides,  Gray. — Small  bog  on  the  north  side  of 
Howth  Hill.— D,  M'Ardle,  I.N.,  1893,  p.  174. 

A  3 

1 7 8  ihe  Irish  Na tu ra list. 

Among  the  above  plants  there  are  a  few  whose  occurrence  on 
Howth  possesses  more  than  a  local  interest.  Crambe  is  now 
one  of  the  rarest  plants  in  the  district,  and  possibly  the 
station  mentioned  is  its  last  appearance  prior  to  extinction. 
A^'ditim  nemorosum  appears  to  be  very  rare  in  Co.  Dublin. 
Orobanche  minor  has  onl}^  recentl}^  been  observed  in  the 
County  (Colgan,  I.N.,  1893,  p.  285).  Mentha  P^ilegiiwi  is 
a  good  addition  to  the  flora  of  Co.  Dublin,  and  to  District  5. 
For  Chc7iopodiuvi  viurale  Mr.  Colgan  has  only  one  recent 
station  in  County  Dublin,  so  the  addition  of  two  others  is 
welcome,  and  I  may  here  add  a  third — Rathfarnham — where 
I  gathered  it  in  a  gravel  pit  with  Matricaria  Chavioinilla  last 

To  the  above  notes  I  ma}-  add  the  following : — 


Sisymbrium  Irlo,  L. — Roadside  east  of  Sutton  railway  station. 

S.  thalianum,  (raud.— Steep  banks  above  the  sea  at  the  north  side 
of  the  Bailey— D.  M'Ardle. 

Sinapis  nigra,  L. — Rough  ground  above  Carrickbrack  House. 
Viola  hirta,  Iv.— Dry  field  east  of  Glenaveena. 

Trifolium  striatum,  L.— Plentifully  above  the  Martello  tower  at 
Sutton. — ]Miss  R.  Mahaffy.  Mr.  Hart  records  it  from  Ireland's  Eye  alone, 
disallowing  Dr.  oMoore's  "  Howth  "  record  in  Cyhele  Hibernica. 

Rosa  tomcntosa,  Sm.— Near  Waldron's  tavern,  and  below 
Glenaveena. — Miss  R.  Mahaffy, 

Pyrus  Aria,  Sm. — Sparingly  on  a  rock  near  the  summit  of  Ireland's 
Eye.  I  failed  in  spite  of  careful  search  to  find  it  in  its  only  recent 
recorded  station  "  rocks  high  up  on  Dung  Hill,  looking  north  "  {Flora 
of  Howth). 

Valerlanella  Auricula,  DC— Roadside  near  Sutton  station. 

Helminthia  echioidcs,  Gaert, — Steep  banks  at  the  Needles, 

Centiana  Amarella,  L.— On  Shelmartin,  Miss  R,  Mahaffy.  Mr. 
M'Ardle  writes  that  he  formerly  found  it  plentifully  in  a  stony  pasture 
field  at  Sutton,  but  he  thinks  the  place  is  built  over  now. 

C.  campestris,  L.— On  Ireland's  Eye,  near  the  Martello  tower. 

Hyoscyamus  nigcr,  L.— Abundant  on  the  southern  slope  close  to 
the  Bailey  lighthouse,  R.  LI.  Praeger,  I.N.,  1S94,  p.  156.  On  Shelmartin, 
and  at  Corr  Castle— Miss  R.  Mahaff"y.  Miss  Mahaffy  tells  me  that  the 
seeds  are  smoked  by  certain  persons,  which  may  account  for  the  spread 
of  this  plant. 

Stachys  arvensis,  L. — Needles  field,  Miss  R.  Mahaffy. 

Carcx  cxtcnsa,  Good. — Rocks  on  the  shore  near  the  Bailey. 

Phragmitcs  communis,  Trin.— By  the  sea  below  EarLscliff. 

Notes  071  the  Flora  of  Howth.  179 

As  the  above  plants  are  mostly  somewhat  rare  in  the  county, 
and  have  only  one  or  two  stations  attached  to  them  in  the 
"  Flora  of  Howth,"  the  additional  localities  mentioned  have 
been  considered  worth}^  of  record. 

Pyrus  Aria  and  Valcfianella  Auricula  are  not  known  in  Co. 

Dublin  except  on  Howth  ;  while  Sisymbrium  thalianum,  and 

some  of  the  others  are  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  county.     I 

may  add  that  possibly    V.    Auricula  is  establishing  itself  in 

this  neighbourhood,  as  I  gathered  it  in  some  abundance  last 

June  in  sandy  fields  at  Portmarnock,  where  so  many  colonists 

appear  to  find  a  congenial  resting-place. 

That  interesting  and  anomalous  group,  the  Characece,  are 

not  included  by  Mr.  Hart  in  his  Flora.     Being  aquatic  plants, 

they   are   but   poorly   represented   on    Howth,   as   would  be 

expected ;  5^et  several  species  occur,  and  even  the  dry  rocky 

surface  of  Ireland's  Eye  has  one  spot  which  is  perennially 

damp  enough   to  allow  of  the  existence  of  one  species.     The 

following    are,    so   far    as  I   know,  all  the  notes   of    Howth 


Chara  fragrilis,  Desv.— Howth,  1S60,  D.  Moore— Groves,  LN.,  1S95, 
p.  8.  Shallow  pools  on  the  Sutton  side  of  the  hill,  near  the  quarries,  D. 
M'Ardle.  In  Balsaggart  stream,  near  its  source  ("  approaching  var. 
capillacear  H.  and  J.  G.),  1894,  R.  U-  P. 

C.  vulgaris,  L.— Sutton,  187 1,  W.  T.  T.  Dyer— Groves,  I.N.,  1895,  p. 

C,  vulgfaris,  L.,  var.  longribracteata,  Kuetz. — In  a  marshy  spring 
on  the  east  cliff  of  Ireland's  Eye,  1S94,  R.  LI.  P. 

C.  vulgrarls,  Iv.  near  var.  melanopyrena,  A.  Br. — A  curious  little 
plant  which  grows  in  the  brackish  pool  by  the  sea  at  the  Quarry  is  so 
named  by  Messrs.  Groves.     This  variety  is  not  recorded  from  Ireland. 

Nitella  opaca,  Ag,— Hill  of  Howth,  1S60,  D.  Moore— Groves,  I.N., 
1*^95)  P«  41-  Ditch  in  the  marsh  at  source  of  Balsaggart  stream,  1894, 
R.  I/l.  P.  This  species  is  probably  the  N.  syucarpa  recorded  from  Howth 
in  Brit.  Assoc.  Guide. 

In  bringing  these  brief  notes  to.  a  conclusion,  I  have  to 
express  my  indebtedness  to  Miss  R.  Mahaffy  and  Mr.  D. 
M'Ardle  for  notes  and  specimens  of  their  Howth  finds,  and  to 
Messrs.  Groves  and  A.  Bennett  for  assistance  in  the  naming  of 
critical  plants. 

i8o  The  Irish  Naturalist. 



(A  Report  laid  before  the  Royal  Irish  Academj^  28th  May,  1894). 

The  coast  line  of  the  County  Sligo,  and  that  of  the  County 
Ma3'o,  as  far  as  Belderig  Harbour,  is  of  the  Carboniferous 
formation,  and,  wherever  of  sufficient  altitude,  is  eminently 
adapted  for  the  nesting-places  of  cliff-breeding  birds. 

The  sea-face  of  the  cliffs  consists  of  series  of  horizontal 
shelves  and  ledges,  caused  by  the  weathering  and  decay  of 
the  softer  strata,  the  harder  only  remaining,  and  thus  forming 
the  ledges  upon  which  the  birds  have  their  nests.  But  at 
Belderig  Harbour,  a  "  fault"  occurs,  and  from  that  little  cove 
westwards,  the  North  Mayo  coast-line  is  formed  of  rock  of 
the  metamorphic  series,  so  crushed  and  jumbled  together,  that 
the  face  of  the  highest  cliffs  appear  crumbling  away  ;  the 
falling  particles,  in  many  places,  forming  steep  slopes,  and 
where  lodging,  providing  most  convenient  nesting-places. 

On  the  long  line  of  coast  between  Sligo  and  Killala  Bays, 
there  are  only  two  parts  sufficiently  high  for  the  breeding- 
haunts  of  cliff-breeding  birds ;  the  larger  one  of  Aughriss 
Head,  and  the  lesser  one  of  the  Killeenduff  cliffs.  Aughriss 
Head,  situated  about  twenty-four  miles  from  Ballina,  and 
fourteen  to  sixteen  from  Sligo,  is  a  short  promontory  jutting 
out  from  the  coast  line,  about  a  mile  in  width,  rising  to  150, 
or  200  feet  above  the  sea,  and  sloping  down  inland  to  the 
level  of  the  adjacent  country.  It  is  composed  of  Carboniferous 
limestone,  and  the  whole  sea-face  of  the  cliff,  from  base  to 
summit,  is  divided  into  shelves  and  ledges  of  various  widths, 
running  horizontally  along  the  face,  and  parallel  to  each 
other ;  but  as  the  rock  dips  down  towards  the  land  side,  the 
outer  edges  of  the  shelves  are  tilted  upwards  at  a  slight  angle, 
thus  forming  sheltered  positions  for  the  nests  almost  invisible 
from  the  outside. 

In  such  a  favourable  breeding-haunt  it  was  strange  that 
none  of  the  Great  Cormorants  were  to  be  seen,  but  immense 
numbers  of  the  Green  Cormorants  were  nesting  on  the  cliffs, 
the  nests  being  scattered  all  over  the  face  of  the  cliff  in  every 
crack  and  crevice  available,  and  in  some  of  the  more  sheltered 

Birds  observed  Breedmg  on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo.     i8i 

ledges  ;  and,  irrespective  of  the  birds  sitting  by  their  nests,  we 
counted  over  a  hundred  resting  on  a  low  fiat  reef  at  the  base 
of  the  cliff,  while  fully  as  many  more  were  on  the  water. 
Razorbills  and  Guillemots  were  in  thousands,  perfectly  in- 
numerable, thickly  packed  together  on  the  ledges,  while  the 
sea  was  dotted  over  with  numerous  flocks,  varying  in  numbers 
from  five  to  a  hundred  individuals  in  each  flock.  The 
Kittiwake  Gulls  were  in  two  large  colonies,  one  on  a  range 
of  cliff  about  three  hundred  yards  in  length,  and  the  other  on 
one  about  fifty  or  sixty  yards  shorter ;  while  on  a  space  of  a 
hundred  yards  between  the  two,  was  located  a  colony  of 
Herring  Gulls  numbering  about  fifty  pairs  of  birds. 

The  only  other  birds  seen  about  were  Rock  Pigeons  and  Jack- 
daws, frequenting  the  caves  and  holes,  while  Ringed  Plovers 
with  their  young  ones  were  running  about  the  bare  edges 
of  the  cliff  where  the  winter  storms  had  worn  away  the  soil. 
Choughs  were  said  to  have  bred  here  some  years  ago,  but  no 
trace  of  them  was  to  be  seen  on  the  occasion  of  my  visit  on 
the  22nd  of  July,  1891.  On  a  visit  to  this  head  on  the  9th  of 
June,  1893, 1  saw  nothing  new  at  the  breeding-haunt,  although 
I  had  the  advantage  of  viewing  the  sea- face  of  the  cliffs  from 
a  boat. 

Killeenduff  cliffs,  situated  about  three  miles  from  the  little 
town  of  Easky,  are  a  bold  range  about  100' feet  high,  and 
although  most  favourably  circumstanced  for  the  breeding  of 
seafowl,  are  only  frequented  by  a  few  pairs  of  Green  Cor- 
morants, and  Rock  Pigeons  in  the  caves ;  a  colony  of  House 
Martens  having  their  nests  in  the  face  of  the  cliff,  the  nests 
looking  like  little  dabs  of  mud  stuck  against  the  rock. 

After  leaving  Killeenduff"  no  rock-breeding  birds  are  to  be 
met  with  until  Killcummin  Head,  the  western  boundary  of 
Killala  Bay  in  the  County  Mayo,  is  reached,  where  a  few  pairs 
of  Green  Cormorants  nest,  as  well  as  some  Jackdaws,  and 
Starlings ;  a  pair  of  Peregrine  Falcons  had  an  eyrie  in  the 
highest  part  of  the  cliff",  and  about  thirty  years  ago  a  pair  of 
Choughs  also  bred  there. 

On  Killala  Pool  (the  inner  part  of  the  bay)  several  pairs  of 
Black  Guillemots  are  to  be  seen  throughout  the  year,  and 
probably  breed  in  the  cliffs  between  Kilcummin  Head  and 
L^ackin  Bay. 

1 82  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

On  the  "Inch,"  a  low  gravelly  island  on  the  western  side 
of  the  Pool,  a  colon}^  of  the  Common  and  Lesser  Terns  breed, 
as  well  as  Ringed  Plovers ;  while  on  the  sandhills  of 
Bartragh  Island  Sheldrakes  breed  in  the  Rabbit-holes. 

For  six  miles  west  of  Killcummin  Head  no  breeding-haunt 
(unless  that  of  a  pair  or  two  of  the  ubiquitous  Green 
Cormorants)  is  met  with  until  Downpatrick  Head  is  reached, 
with  its  pillar-like  rock  of  Doonbrista  standing  upright  126 
feet  out  of  the  water,  and  100  3^ards  from  the  head.  This 
rock  is  perfectly  inaccessable,  its  wall-like  sides  (in  some 
places  overhanging)  rising  out  of  deep  water,  and  although 
now  so  isolated,  and  inaccessable  to  man,  was  at  some  remote 
period  of  time  joined  to  the  mainland,  and  inhabited,  which 
is  proved  by  the  remains  of  a  stone  w^all  still  to  be  seen  on  the 

On  the  ledges  of  the  head  and  rock,  Kittiwakes  swarmed  in 
thousands,  and  when  disturbed  by  the  report  of  a  gun,  looked 
like  a  shower  of  snow  as  they  darted  out  from  the  face  of 
the  cliffs.  Green  Cormorants  were  also  in  large  numbers  both 
on  the  rocks  and  head  ;  while  on  the  flat  grassy  summit  of  the 
former  a  colony  of  twelve  to  fifteen  pairs  of  the  Great  Black- 
backed  Gull  held  undisputed  possession  ;  a  few  pairs  of 
Herring  Gulls  having  to  content  themselves  with  the  ledges 
just  below  the  top.  Razorbills  and  Guillemots  thickly  crowded 
together  on  the  shelves  of  the  head  and  rocks,  in  some  places 
in  dense  masses,  quite  innumerable,  though  not  in  such  large 
numbers  as  at  Aughriss  Head. 

Leaving  Ball3xastle  (or  Buntraher  Bay,  as  it  is  named  on 
the  maps),  a  few  pairs  of  Black  Guillemots  were  seen  in  the 
sheltered  cove,  and  the  cliffs  begin  to  rise  in  height  westward, 
until  Keadue  is  reached,  between  two  and  three  miles  from  Bally- 
castle  ;  just  before  reaching  Keadue,  and  situated  about  150 
yards  from  the  sea,  in  the  centre  of  a  grass  field,  a  curious 
chaldron-like  hole  is  seen,  almost  circular,  and  about  30  yards 
in  diameter,  the  sides  perpendicular  and  about  50  or  60  feet  in 
depth  to  the  rocky  bottom,  into  which  the  tide  flows  through 
a  tunnel-like  cavern.  It  was  low  tide  when  we  were  there, 
but  when  the  tide  is  high  it  rushes  in  with  tremendous  force 
in  stormy  weather,  sending  the  spray  up  to  a  great  height. 
While  sitting  on  the  edge  of  the  cliff  over  the  hole  we  observed 

Birds  observed  Breedmg  on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo.     183 

some  Jackdaws  feeding  their  young  in  the  crevices  of  the  sides, 
and  were  agreeably  surprised  to  hear  the  musical  calls  of  a 
Chough,  and  shortly  after  saw  a  pair  go  into  a  hole  near 
where  the  Jackdaws  were,  and  heard  them  feeding  their 
young  ones. 

Keadue  is  an  immense  amphitheatre-like  bay,  running  for 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  into  the  land,  and  about  as  wide  at  the 
entrance,  surrounded  by  a  perpendicular  wall  of  rock  350  feet 
in  height,  upon  the  edges  of  which  a  large  colony  of  Herring 
Gulls  had  nests  (perhaps  a  hundred  pairs),  while  several  pairs 
of  the  ubiquitous  Green  Cormorants  were  scattered  about  the 
face  of  the  cliffs,  having  nests  in  the  holes  and  crannies  ;  and 
about  halfway  on  the  western  side  a  beautiful  pair  of  Peregrine 
Falcons  had  their  eyrie  some  thirty  feet  below  the  top,  on  a 
flat  ledge  under  an  overhanging  vslab  of  rodk. 

As  there  were  conflicting  accounts  of  the  species  of  eagle 
breeding  on   the   North  Mayo  coast,  I  was  anxious  to  visit 
their  haunts,   and  ascertain  if  possible  which  species  really 
bred  there  ;  and  also  to  continue  my  observations  of  the  coast- 
breeding  birds  from  Downpatrick  Head  and  Keadue,  as  far 
west   along  the  coast  as  possible.      However,  owing  to  the 
long-continued  bad  weather  of  the  summer  of  1892,  I    was 
unable   to   leave   for   my  first   visit   until  the  30th  of  June, 
when,  at  a  quarter  past  8  o'clock,  a.m.,  I  left  Ballina  on  my 
twenty-mile  drive   to    Belderig,  via   Killala  and  Ball3'castle. 
On  reaching  the  latter  village,  while  our  horse  was  resting 
and  feeding,  I  walked  on  before  as  far  as  Keadue,  and  during 
my  three  miles  walk  through  the  valley  and  along  the  river, 
I  met  a  great  variety  of  birds.     Sedge  Warblers  singing  in  the 
reeds  by  the  river  banks  ;  Corncrakes  calling  from  the  little 
patches   of  oats,   the   three   species    of  Bunting ;    Thrushes, 
Common  and  Mountain  Linnets,  Goldfinches,  Swifts,  Swal- 
lows,   and   Sand    Martins  ;     a    few   Chafiinches   and    Green 
Linnets — stragglers   from    the    few    trees   and   bushes    near 
the  villages  ;  Meadow    Pipits  and  Skylarks,  the   latter  very 
numerous.       However,     as    soon    as   the    bog    district   v.-as 
reached,     a    little    beyond    Keadue,     onl}^    the    two   species 
of  larks  were  to  be  seen.       Though  whenever  there  was  a 
solitary  cottage,  even  in  the  bog,  with  its  little  patches  of  oats 
and  potatoes,  there  a  few  Twites  and  buntings  were  seen. 

184  The  Irish  NaUcralist. 

The  road  from  Ballj^castle  to  Belderig  runs  along  the  coast, 
not  far  from  the  cliffs,  through  a  desert  of  bog  and  moor,  but 
half-way  between  those  places  is  Glenglossera,  a  small  and 
verj^  picturesque  glen,  or  rather  ravine,  reaching  the  sea 
through  a  narrow  cove  in  the  high  cliffs  ;  at  the  head  of 
the  glen  is  the  pretty  shooting  lodge  of  Mr.  Mudge,  sur- 
rounded by  evergreen  shrubs  and  natural  brushwood,  the 
latter  clothing  the  sides  of  the  ravine,  and  offering  such  a 
contrast  to  the  wilderness  of  bog  all  round,  that  it  looks  like 
a  lovely  oasis  in  the  midst  of  a  desert. 

On  the  cliffs  near  the  mouth  of  the  cove  over  the  sea  a  pair 
of  Peregrines  have  an  e3^rie.  In  August,  some  3^ears  ago, 
when  Grouse-shooting,  Mr.  Mudge  shot  two  Golden  Eagles, 
an  adult  bird  w^hich  he  has  at  his  English  residence,  and  an 
immature  specimen  w^hich  he  show^ed  me  in  a  case  at  Glen- 

Belderig  is  a  small  village,  consisting  of  a  few  cottages 
thinly  scattered  over  a  broad  valley  or  depression  of  the  land, 
opening  out  into  the  little  harbour  between  the  cliffs,  while 
bog  and  mountain  surround  it  inland. 

The  sea-cliffs  from  Belderig  to  Broadhaven  Bay  are  the 
finest  I  have  seen  on  the  Irish  coast,  consisting  of  a  mountain 
range  varying  in  height  from  six  to  eight  hundred  feet,  cul- 
minating in  Benwee  Head,  829  feet  high.  The  cliffs  are 
highest  on  the  sea-face,  and  slope  down  inland  to  the  level 
of  the  great  bog,  turf  covering  them  to  an  immense  depth. 
Even  on  the  outer  edge  of  the  cliffs  it  is  seven  and  eight  feet 
deep,  and  falling  with  the  crumbling  face  of  the  cliffs,  and 
lodging  where  there  are  vacancies  between  stones  and  rocks, 
forms  most  convenient  nesting-places  for  the  Puffins  and 
other  birds. 

This  line  of  coast  is  indented  b}^  great  ba3^s,  at  short  distances 
from  each  other,  and  it  is  chiefly  on  the  high  wall-like  cliffs 
of  these  bays  that  the  sea-fowl  breed  in  such  numbers. 

(to  bk  conci.ude:d). 

[     i85     ] 


Annual  Report  and  Proceedings  of  the  Belfast  Naturalists' 
Field  Club,  for  the  year  ending  31st  March,  1S95  (thirty-second 
year).  Belfast :  Printed  for  the  Club,  by  A.  Mayne  &  Boyd.  Price 
of  extra  copies  to  members,  2s. 

This  publication  has  just  been  issued,  in  the  shape  of  a  well-printed 
volume  of  over  200  pages,  of  which  half  is  devoted  to  the  Proceedings  of 
the  Club,  and  half  to  a  "  Supplement  to  the  Flora  of  the  North-east  of 
Ireland,"  being  one  of  the  series  of  scientific  memoirs  relating  to  the 
natural  history  or  archaeology  of  their  district  which  this  vSociety  issues 
from  time  10  time.  Just  thirty  years  ago  the  Belfast  P'ield  Club  issued 
their  first  report,  an  eight-page  pamphlet,  covering  two  years'  work — a 
contrast  to  the  present  stout  volume,  which  indicates  the  growth  of 
this  Club  during  the  intervening  period.  From  the  Committee's  report 
we  learn  that  the  membership  now  stands  at  516,  being  by  far  the  highest 
number  ever  reached.  The  principal  events  of  the  summer  were  a  joint 
excursion  with  the  Dublin  Field  Club  in  June,  a  week's  visit  of  the  North 
Staffordshire  Field  Club  to  Belfast  during  the  same  month,  and  a  three- 
day  excursion  to  North  Donegal  in  July.  The  formation  of  the  Irish 
Field  Club  Union,  which  is  already  bearing  good  fruit,  is  referred  to  as 
calculated  to  work  for  the  general  benefit  of  all  the  Clubs  concerned.  The 
list  of  papers  read  at  the  winter  meetings  looks  at  first  sight  varied  and 
representative  of  the  several  branches 'of  the  Club's  work,  but  on  anal3'sis 
we  find  that  seven  papers  deal  with  geology,  only  two  with  zoology 
(and  of  these  the  titles  alone  are  given  in  the  Proceedings),  none  with 
botany,  and  the  remaining  five  with  literature,  art,  ethnography,  &c. 
This  weakness  in  zoology  and  botany  is  certainly  to  be  regretted,  in  view 
of  the  immense  amount  of  work  still  required  in  the  North  in  these 

In  the  reports  of  the  excursions  also,  which  occupy  21  pages,  the  same 
weakness  is  conspicuous  ;  not  half-a-dozen  animals,  nor  more  than  a  score 
of  plants  are  recorded  as  having  been  found  by  the  members  on  their 
nine  field-days,  and  as  a  matter  of  fact  almost  the  whole  of  this  small 
list  was  supplied  by  members  of  the  Dublin  Club  on  the  joint  excursion 
to  the  Boyne.  The  cause  of  this  deficiency  in  field-work  appears  to  be 
that  the  Belfast  Club  is  suffering  from  a  plethora  of  members. 
Is  this  Society  doing  more  work  now  than  during  the  many 
years  when  the  membership  ranged  from  200  to  300.'^  We  doubt  it.  It 
is  certainly  doing  less  field-work  on  its  excursions,  and  the  importance 
of  maintaining  the  esprit  de  corps  on  these  summer  trips  cannot  be  over- 
estimated; picnicking  and  consequent  demoralization  are  always  ready 
to  swoop  down  on  the  unwary  Field  Club  that  allows  its  excursions  to 
degenerate  into  pleasure-trips.  When  we  read  of  120  members  having 
attended  the  driving  excursion  to  Langford  Lodge — well  known  as 
a     "  show    place    " — we    are    not    surprised    to    find    that    absolutely 

1 86  The  Irish  Naturalisi. 

no  field-work  was  done  on  this  occasion  :  it  appears  to  be  a 
law  ot  Field  Club  mathematics  that  the  work  done  on  an  excursion 
usually  varies  inversely  as  the  number  of  members  present.  Perhaps  it 
is  to  this  cause  that  we  owe  a  redeeming  feature  of  the  Report  under 
review — the  excellent  researches  that  are  being  carried  out  by  a  few 
ardent  members  of  the  Geological  Committee  on  the  glacial  deposits 
of  the  district,  and  in  other  branches  of  local  geology.  Miss  Thompson's 
report  shows  that  the  boulder- clays  and  associated  beds,  and  the  larger 
erratic  blocks,  are  being  carefully  examined,  and  some  interesting 
discoveries  have  already  rewarded  the  researches  of  the  Geological 
Committee ;  while  Mr.  Hoskins'  analysis  of  Antrim  glauconite,  and 
Prof.  Cole's  notes  on  hullite,  are  valuable  contributions  to  our  know- 
ledge of  these  minerals. 

But  if  the  Belfast  Field  Club  is  weak  in  its  field-work,  it  is  certainly 
strong  in  a  different  department  of  its  labours — that  of  indoor  in- 
struction to  its  members.  Three  courses  of  lectures  were  held  during 
the  past  winter,  and  all  of  them  appear  to  have  been  decidedly  successful. 
Prof  Cole  gave  his  second  geological  course,  "  The  Study  of  Life  on  the 
Globe  "  ;  Prof  Johnson  contributed  twelve  lectures  on  "  The  Study  of 
Plant  Life  "  ;  while  under  the  care  of  Mr.  P.  J.  O'Shea  the  class  for  the 
study  of  the  Irish  language  has  continued  to  make  satisfactory  progress. 
The  geological  and  botanical  lectures  were  followed  by  practical  demon- 
strations. These  classes  should  serve  as  useful  adjuncts  to  field-work, 
and  as  a  stimulus  to  the  same,  but  it  should  never  be  imagined  that 
they  can  replace  it. 

As  a  relief  to  the  complete  absence  of  botanical  papers  in  the  Proceed- 
ings, we  have  the  loo-page  appendix,  "  Supplement  to  the  Flora  of  the 
North-east  of  Ireland,"  now  published  by  S.  A.Stewart  and  R.  Lloyd 
Praeger.  This  paper  shows  that  even  if  work  on  the  Club  excursions  has 
been  insignificant,  the  botanical  members  have  not  been  idle  when  on 
excursions  of  their  own.  It  is  now  just  seven  years  since  Stewart  and 
Corry's  "  Flora  "  was  published,  and  the  present  supplement  shows  a 
goodly  number  of  additions  to  the  lists  of  plants  of  the  three  counties — 
Down,  Antrim,  and  Derry — dealt  with  in  the  work  in  question.  As  a 
matter  of  statistics,  the  flora  (phanerogams,  vascular  cryptogams,  mosses, 
and  hepatics)  of  the  district  is  raised  from  1,169  species  to  1,229;  that  of 
County  Down  is  increased  by  60  species,  of  County  Antrim  by  58, 
and  of  County  Derry  by  45.  These  additions  include  a  number  of  plants 
of  much  interest.  Spiranthcs  Konianzoviana  is  indeed  a  bright  jewel  to  add 
to  the  local  botanists'  crown  ;  Garex  pancifiora  is  a  highly  interesting 
addition  to  the  list  of  Irish  mountain-plants  ;  the  critical  Polygonum, 
viaciilatuni  is  also  an  addition  to  the  flora  of  Ireland;  while  a  number  of 
species,  such  as  Kannncnhis  circi/iatus,  Drosera  intenncdia,  Saiissurea  alpina^ 
Orchis  py  rati  I  idalis^  Carex  aqiiatilis,  were  not  previously  known  to  grow  in 
this  part  of  our  country.  Withdrawals  and  corrections  to  Stewart  and 
Corry's  "  Flora  "  are  very  few,  showing  the  excellence  and  care  with 
which  the  "  Flora  "  was  compiled.       The  species  now  withdrawn  from 

Field  Club   Work  hi  the  North.  187 

the  list  of  local  plants  are  only  six  in  ri\x\\\hQ.x\— Ononis  spinosa,  Rosa 
micrantha^  Silaus  pratensis,  Calamintha  offi.cinalis,  Primula  veris,  Grimiiua 
ovata,  and  in  only  two  of  these  Zdi^^s—Rosa  and  Griinmia—is,  the  plant 
withdrawn  on  account  of  a  proved  error  of  determination,  the  remainder 
being  omitted  since  time  has  shown  that  they  were  merely  casuals  or 
escapes  in  the  stations  credited  to  them.  A  useful  feature  of  the  Supple- 
ment is  the  enumeration  of  a  number  of  plants  which  have  not  now  been 
seen  in  the  district  for  some  years ;  the  rediscovery  of  these  will  be  a 
useful  work  for  the  local  botanist,  since,  on  account  of  drainage  and 
other  changes,  their  confirmation  as  members  of  the  present  flora  is  a 
consummation  devoutly  to  be  wished.  The  supplement  is  wisely  printed 
in  pages  of  the  same  size  as  the  "  Flora  of  the  North-east  of  Ireland,"  in 
order  that  it  may  be  bound  with  it ;  and  it  furnishes  a  valuable  addition 
to  our  knowledge  of  Irish  botany. 


RoYAi,  Z001.0GICA1.  Society. 

Recent  donations  comprise  two  pairs  of  Hooded  Crows  from  H.  H. 
Jonas,  Esq.,  and  J.  P.  Swan,  Esq. ;  a  Hedgehog  from  G.  C.  Gray,  Esq. 
A  Camel  and  a  Chimpanzee  have  been  purchased,  and  a  Golden  Agouti 
born  in  the  Gardens. 

8,790  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  May. 

BEI.FAST  Naturalists'  Fiei^d  Ci,ub. 

May  i8th.— The  first  Excursion  of  the  season  was  held  on  this  date 
when  the  Club  paid  a  visit  to  the  old  Cistercian  Monastery  of  Greyabbey^ 
A  pleasant  morning  found  a  party  of  sixty  collected  at  the  Linen  Hall 
Library  at  10  a.m.,  and  a  start  was  made  at  once  in  brakes.  Passing  by 
Dundonald,  Newtownards,  and  other  places  of  interest,  the  first  h^lt  was 
made  at  Mountstewart,  the  seat  of  the  Marquis  of  Londonderr}-.  Here 
the  fine  mansion  was  thrown  open  to  the  members,  after  which  the 
cromleac  occupied  the  attention  of  the  party,  and  was  freely  photo- 
gra])hed.  This  cromleac,  as  Mr.  W.  Gray  pointed  out,  was  once  tlie 
centre  of  a  large  tumulus,  which  has  since  disappeared,  leaving  only  its 
core.  Having  examined  this  relic  of  olden  time,  and  having  noticed"  the 
good  sense  of  the  owner  of  the  soil  in  leaving  it  intact,  the  party  pro- 
ceeded to  Greyabbe3^  Mr.  J.  J.  Phillips  has  written  a  most  beautiful 
and  interesting  monograph  on  this  fine  old  ruin,  and  the  information 
imparted  by  it  during  the  day  greatly  increased  the  pleasure  of  those 
who  saw  it. 

Tea  was  provided  on  the  hill  close  by,  where  a  most  extensive  view 
delighted  the  eyes  of  all  present.  Strangford  Lough  and  its  islands, 
with  the  blue  Mourne  Mountains  in  the  distance,  and  the  ruins  of  the 
old  abbey  nestling  amongst  the  trees  beneath,  added  every  feature 
necessary  for  a  perfect  picture  ;  in  fact,  it  is  doubtfid  if  there  is  so  fine  a 
view  in  all  County  Down  as  is  here  to  be  had  in  the  evening  sunlight. 

1 88  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

At  five  o'clock  the  waggonettes  were  then  once  more  mounted,  and 
the  party  drove  off,  passing  on  the  wa}-,  close  to  Mountstewart,  a  vast 
erratic  of  basalt  resting  on  Triassic  sands  and  marls.  Mr,  Welch  has 
taken  a  capital  photo,  of  this  amazing  sample  of  the  power  of  ice  in  the 
great  ice  age.  Belfast  was  reached  at  eight  o'clock,  where  the  members 
dispersed.  The  botanists  of  the  part}'  found  nothing  rare,  but  Sediini 
telcphiiiDi  and  Anchiisa  senipervircns,  which  were  in  great  quantity.  In  one 
spot  the  double  variety  of  the  Lesser  Celandine  and  an  extremely  large 
variety  of  the  Wild  Hyacinth  were  growing  in  abundance.  The 
geologists  only  spent  a  few  minutes  at  a  small  section  of  boulder  clay, 
from  which,  however,  a  good  specimen  of  a  striated  block  was  extracted. 

May  25th. — The  geological  section  visited  the  Woodburn  district, 
seventeen  members  being  present.  It  is  satisfactory  to  find  that 
Professor  Cole's  recent  lectures  have  greatly  increased  the  interest  in 
field  geology,  as  evidenced  by  the  large  attendance  at  this  excursion. 
The  first  halt  was  made  outside  the  beautifvil  and  well-kept  glen  of  the 
Water  Commissioners.  A  cliff  of  Lower  Greensand  yielded  brachyolites, 
ventriculites,  Vermicularia,  pectens,  and  other  fossils.  Passing  up  the 
glen,  where  the  waterfalls  were  in  perfection,  the  party  crossed  meadows 
gay  with  orchis,  bugle,  rattle,  and  Water  Avens,  obtaining  the  Adder's 
Tongue,  and  plunged  into  the  nortli  glen,  where  the  dark  green  glan- 
conitic  sands  were  reached  after  a  good  deal  of  scrambling.  Many 
Exogyrce  and  lercbraiuhc  were  gathered,  whilst  the  glacialists  secured 
some  boulder  cla}'  from  about  400  feet  above  the  sea.  Passing  down 
stream  some  blocks  of  Lias  yielded  fish  teeth  and  scales,  and  eventually 
the  party  returned  to  Troopers  Lane. 

June  ist. — The  second  Excursion  of  the  Club  took  place  to  Glj'nn  and 
Gleno.  A  part}^  of  about  100  left  Belfast  by  the  2.15  express  to  Larne, 
which  was  kindly  stopped  at  Glynn  station  by  Mr.  Cotton  to  allow  the 
members  to  alight.  This  Excursion  was  rendered  especially  interesting 
owing  to  the  presence  of  Professor  Johnson  and  Mr.  S.  A.  vStewart,  two 
well-known  botanists,  who  gave  good  assistance  to  those  members 
taking  up  this  study.  On  leaving  the  station  a  halt  was  made  at  the 
churchyard,  where  the  ruins  of  the  old  church  were  examined.  The 
Secretaries  then  announced  that  a  prize  would  be  given  for  the  collection 
containing  the  largest  number  of  species  of  flowering  plants  gathered 
during  the  afternoon.  Mr.  Stewart  headed  the  party  who  wished  to  go 
on  to  Gleno,  whilst  the  remainder  stayed  in  the  glen.  A  walk  of  about 
two-and-a-half  miles  brought  the  former  to  the  quaint  little  village  of 
Gleno.  At  the  waterfall  the  botanists  searched  carefully  for  mosses, 
liverworts,  and  algie ;  although  nothing  very  rare  was  found,  Fontinalis 
Jitiviatilis  among  the  mosses,  and  Leutanca  among  the  algae  are  worth 
noticing.  Mr.  Stewari  obtained  a  specimen  of  Zygodon  Stirtoni,  which  is 
found  onl}'  at  Killarney  and  one  or  two  places  in  the  North.  The  large 
limestone  quarry  alongside  the  stj-eam  yielded  few  fossils,  but  there  were 
quite  a  number  of  the  little  Atiiorphospon^ia  globularis  weathered  out  on 
the  surface  in  one  part.  The  usual  Ananchyics  ovatus,  Belemniklla  imuronata, 
and  Terebratula  carnca  were  seen.  A  few  photographs  having  been  taken 
the  party  made  for  Glynn,  where  by  the  kindness  of  Mrs.  Johnson  the 
local  arrangements  had  been  made,  and  tea  was  provided  in  the  school- 
house  by  Messrs.  Inglis  and  Co.  This  was  followed  by  the  judging  of 
the  nine  collections  of  the  competitors  for  the  botanical  prize,  but  it  was 
only  as  the  train  neared  Belfast  that  Professor  Johnson  and  Mr.  Stewart 
were  able  to  say  that  Mr.  Richard  Hanna  had  taken  the  prize  with  ninety 
species  ;  Miss  Vinycomb  was  next  with  seventy-one,  and  the  lowest  was 
about  sixty,  so  the  competition  was  keen.  The  only  plant  of  note  was 
Dog's  Mercury  (^Mcrcurialis  perennis),  which  was  in  some  quantity,  and  is 
locallv  rare. 

Proceedi7igs  of  Irish  Societies.  189 

Dubinin  Naturawsts'  Fiei^d  Ci.ub. 

May  25th. — An  especially  interesting  excursion  was  made  on  May  25th, 
when  a  large  party  visited  the  bog  near  TuUaniore  in  King's  County, 
which  is  well  known  to  naturalists  as  the  largest  breeding  place  in  Ire- 
land of  the  Black-headed  Gull.  Leaving  Dublin  at  9.15,  a  rapid  journey 
in  a  special  through  carriage  brought  the  members  to  Tullamore,  where 
they  were  joined  by  some  local  friends,  and  drove  immediately  to  the 
vicinity  of  the  bog.  Here  they  were  met  by  Mr,  R.  Digby,  J.  P.,  and  the 
Rev.  Canon  Russell,  D.D.,  who  acted  as  guides  during  the  day.  No  time 
was  lost  in  getting  out  on  the  bog,  where  the  unusual  spectacle  of  some 
fifty  persons  wending  their  way  cautiously  among  the  pools  and  marshes 
to  the  centre  of  the  vast  spongy  plain  produced  a  great  commotion 
among  the  only  inhabitants — thousands  of  graceful  sea-birds,  that  rose 
in  clouds  before  the  part}',  and  eddied  like  snowflakes  overhead,  filling 
the  air  with  their  wild  musical  din.  Here  among  the  bog-pools  were 
numbers  of  slightly-formed  nests,  many  of  which  contained  brown 
spotted  eggs,  others  3'oung  birds  in  the  beautiful  brown  and  black 
mottled  down  of  infancy,  while  others  of  larger  size,  covered  with  dark 
feathers,  ran  about  among  the  heather,  or  skulked  in  the  beds  of  rushes. 
The  photographers  of  the  party  busily  took  snap-shots  at  the  birds,  old 
and  young,  while  the  botanists  were  well  pleased  to  find  abundance  of 
the  Cranberry  (FarczwzV/;;^  Oxycoccos)^  with  its  pink  blossoms  dotting  the 
wet  moss,  the  waxy  bells  of  the  Andromeda  {A.  polifolid),  the  Great  Sun- 
dew {Drosera  anglica),  a  somewhat  rare  fern,  Lasirea  spinnlosa,  and  other 
plants ;  and  the  entomologists  captured  a  variety  of  rare  bog  insects,  a 
list  of  which  is  contributed  by  Mr.  J.  N.  Halbert  to  the  present  number 
(p.  172).  The  edge  of  the  bog  was  regained  without  mishap,  and  the 
party  next  explored  the  beautiful  wood  of  Clonad.  Here  were  found 
both  species  of  Buckthorn  {Rhamniis  latharticus  and.  R.  frangtda),  the  Inter- 
mediate Avens  {Geuin  interniediiDii),  the  Columbine  {Aqiiilegia  vulgaris),  the 
Water  Avens  {Geiim  rivale),  and  many  other  interesting  species.  In 
meadows  adjoining  grew  the  Green-winged  Orchis  {0.  i/iorio),  Q.i\d  fine 
plants  of  the  Royal  Fern  {Osniunda  regalis)  were  obtained  on  the  banks  of 
a  stream  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  following  fungi  were  collected  by 
Mr.  Greenwood  Pini  and  Dr.  H.  J.  McWeeney : — Agariciis  (Gahrd)  hypjio- 
rum,  Fr.  ;  A.  {Gabra)  viycenopsis,  Fr.  ;  and  A.  {Oniphalia)  timbelliferus,  Fr., 
on  Sphagnujn  ;  Peronospora  parasitica  on  Sisymhritim  Alliaria  ;  J\  pygmcea  on 
linemone  neviorosa  ;  Aicidiuiii  crassum,  Pers.,  on  Rharnnus  catJiarticus  (the 
spermogonia  were  also  found  on  the  upper  side  of  the  leaf);  CEcldiuni 
aquilegice ;  Puccinia  epilohii ;  P.  coronata,  Corda,  abundant  on  both  species 
of  Buckthorn  ;  Penidllium  olivaceu!n(Ca..),  on  discoloured  spots  on  Aquihgia- 
leaf  The  whole  party,  now  reinforced  by  a  number  of  the  local  gentry, 
assembled  at  the  forester's  house  at  five  o'clock,  where  an  ample  tea  was 
provided  by  the  Misses  Gardiner,  of  Leinster-street,  Dublin.  Subse- 
quently a  short  business  meeting  was  held."  Mr.  Greenwood  Pim,  M.A., 
F.L.S.,  who  occupied  the  chair,  on  behalf  of  the  members  warmly 
thanked  INIr.  Digby  and  Canon  Russell  for  the  great  assistance  they  had 
given  during  the  day.  Mr.  A.  J.  Pentland  and  Miss  Pentland  were  then 
elected  members  of  the  Club.  The  return  journe}^  was  made  in  time  to 
catch  the  7.42  train  to  town,  and  Dublin  was  reached  punctually 
at  ten. 

igo  The  Irish  Naturalist. 



Irish    plants   in    the    new   London   Catalogue,— It  may  be 

interesting  to  point  out  some  of  the  changes  as  regards  Irish  plants 
which  have  been  made  in  the  ninth  edition  of  this  useful  work.  Irish- 
men will  regret  that  St.  Dabeoc's  Heath  no  longer  bears  his  name 
{Daboecia),  but  is  changed  to  Boretia,  and  that  the  Lough  Neagh  sedge 
Carex  Biixbazimii  becomes  C.  fusca,  but  the  law  of  priority  is  inexorable. 
Two  other  exclusively  Irish  plants,  Asplcnitim  Clermontce,  and  Potamogeton 
longifolhis,  Bab.,  are  marked  as  hybrids.  We  have  cause  to  be  grateful, 
however,  that  Rosa  hibcniica  still  retains  its  name,  though  it  had  a  narrow 
escape,  and  that  the  following  now  help  to  swell  the  small  numl)er  of 
Irish  plants,  Thalictntm  lollinuin  var.  calcarcum,  Carex  rhynchophysa,  and 
the  varieties  Ilartii,  Stcwartii,  and  occidentale  from  the  long  array  of  Hawk- 
weeds.  The  new  spelling  of  Spiranthcs  J\o/iianzo//iana,  and  Isoetes  laciistris 
V.  Morei  should  be  noted  ;  the  latter,  which  was  spelled  Moorci  in  the 
eighth  edition,  was  I  suppose  a  misprint. 

C.  H.  Waddei^L,  Saintfield. 


Jubula  Hutchinsiae  (Hook,)-— I  am  glad  to  be  able  to  record  a 
new  station  for  this  beautiful  scale-moss,  which  I  have  only  seen  before 
in  the  North  of  Ireland  at  Rostrevor  and  Tollymore  Park.  It  was  found 
by  Miss  S.  M.  Thompson  in  a  damp  fissure  of  the  rocks  on  the  coast 
south  of  Newcastle,  County  Down.  There  is  no  appearance  in  the 
North  of  its  variety  integrifolia,  which  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  links 
between  the  flora  of  S.W.  Ireland  and  that  of  Spain  and  the  West 

C.  H.  Waddei*!/,  Saintfield. 



Cladocera  from  the  West  of  Ireland.— The  following  Clad- 
ocera  have  been  identified  b}^  me  in  material  collected  at  various  times 
by  Prof.  D'Arcy  W.  Thompson  (of  Dundee)  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
town  of  Galway — Sida  crystallina,  Miiller ;  Daphnia  piilex,  De  Geer  ;  D. 
longispina,  Miiller ;  D.  galcata,  G.  O.  Sars  ;  Si/nocephalus  veivlus,  Miiller ; 
Ceriodaphnia  viegalops,  G.  O.  Sars  ;  Bosmina  longispina,  Miiller ;  Etirycerciis 
lamellatns,  Miiller;  Acerpcriis  harpie,  Baird ;  Alonopsis  eloiigaia,  G.  O.  Sars; 
Lyncciis  affinis,  Kurz. ;  Grapiolcbcris  tcsindinaria,  Fischer  ;  Alone! la  nana,  Baird ; 
Pleuroxus  trigonellus,  Miiller ;  Chydorns  sphericns,  Miiller ;  Leptodora  hyalina, 
Lilljeborg.  Of  these  species  the  rarest  is  Lyncens  affinis,  a  form  only 
recently  added  to  the  British  lists.  It  has  lately  been  found,  however, 
by  Mr.  Scourfield  in  North  Wales,  by  Mr.  T.  Scott  in  the  West  of 
Scotland,  and  by  myself  near  Birmingham. 

T.  V.  Hodgson,  Birmingham. 


Plague  of  Beetles  In  Calway  in  1688. — I  send  an  extract  from 
Boate  describing  a  curious  plague  of  beetles  in  Galway  in  i6S8  : — 
"In  the  summer  of  1688  a  vast  swarm  of  insects  of  the  Scarabeus 
or  beetle  kind  appeared  on  the  S.W.  coast  of  Galway,  not  far  from 
the  town.  They  were  brought  by  a  S.W.  wind  and  proceeded 
towards  Headford  to  Tuam,  where,  and  in  the  adjacent  country,  they 
lay  by  thousands  among  the  trees  and  hedges,  hanging  to  the  boughs  in 

Notes.  191 

clusters,  and  sticking  to  the  backs  of  one  another,  like  bees  when  they 
swarm.  In  this  manner  they  continued  quiet  during  the  heat  of  the  day, 
but  towards  evening  they  simultaneously  took  wing  with  a  strange  noise 
resembling  the  distant  beating  of  drums,  and  in  such  vast  and  incredible 
numbers  as  to  darken  the  air  for  many  miles  around,  In  a  short  time 
they  devoured  all  the  leaves  of  the  trees,  and  the  countr}',  though  it 
was  then  in  the  middle  of  summer,  was  left  as  naked  as  if  it  had  been  in 
the  middle  of  winter.  The  grinding  of  the  leaves  in  the  mouths  of  this 
vast  multitude  made  a  sound  similar  to  the  sawing  of  timber.  They 
destroyed  all  the  gardens  round  the  country,  and  particularly  Mr. 
Martin's  beautiful  plantations  at  Dangan  ;  entered  the  houses,  and, 
crawling  about,  fell  into  the  food  of  the  people ;  and  wherever  they 
happened  to  stride  they  left  a  slight  mark  behind.  Their  spawn  they 
deposited  near  the  surface  of  the  ground,  where  it  did  considerable 
damage  by  devouring  the  roots  of  the  corn  and  grass.  These  formidable 
invaders  were,  however,  easily  killed  ;  smoke  was  their  greatest  enemy, 
and  one  wet  day  destroyed  great  heaps  of  them.  They  proved  good  food 
for  the  swine  and  poultry,  and,  according  to  some,  were  also  used  by  the 
poorer  sort  of  people.  PVoni  the  time  of  their  first  appearance  they  con- 
tinued to  proceed  progressively  with  the  westerly  wind,  and  in  1696  they 
reached  the  Shannon  ;  but  they  were  gradually  destroyed.  The  year 
before  about  40  or  50  horse  loads  were  found  lying  dead  along  the  shores 
of  the  bay,  for  miles  westward  of  Galway.  It  was  supposed  this  new 
colony,  coming  from  their  native  lands,  Normandy  or  Brittany  in  France, 
met  with  a  contrary  wnnd,  which,  having  blown  them  into  the  sea,  they 
were  drownied,  and  their  bodies  cast  ashore.  Since  that  time  nothing 
of  the  same  kind  has  appeared." 

Richard  T.  KeIvI.y,  Dublin. 

[It  is  only  a  few  days  since  we  received  complaints  from  Co.  Galway  of 
the  serious  ravages  of  the  small  chafer  Phyllopcrtha  horticola,  L.,  during  the 
present  summer.  Very  probably  the  beetles  referred  to  in  the  above 
interesting  old  record  belonged  to  that  species. — Kds.] 

Lepidoptera  from  SIig:o. — In  the  March  number  of  the  current 
volume  (p.  77)  I  record  the  capture  by  Rev.  R.  A.  M 'Clean  of  Erebia 
epiphron  var.  cassiope  near  Sligo.  Having  now  looked  through  his  entire, 
collection,  the  following  species  of  moths  seem  to  be  worthy  of  record  :-  - 

GeoM£;TRID^. — Eiirymene  dolobraria,  Epione  apiciaria,  Acidalia  remuiaj-ia, 
Bapta  temeraia,  Numeria  piilveraria,  Scodioiia  belgiaria,  Hybernia  nipicapraria, 
Anisopteryx  asailaria,  Eininelcsia  tcvniala,  Eupitheiia  dodoncata,  E.  lariciata, 
Larcntia  nniltisirigaria,  Melanthia  ocellata,  Cidaria  miala,  C.  siierata,  C.  corylata, 
C.  silaceata,  C.  suffiimata,  Pdiirga  coniitata. 

SphinGID^. — S/nerinihiis  ocellatus. 

NOTODONTID.^. — Pterostonia  palpina. 

CymaTOPHORID.'E. — Thyalira  batis,  T.  dera^a,  Cymatophora  duplaris. 

NOCTUID^. — GraiiiDiesia  trigranimica,  Stilbia  anomala,  Ma/nestra  persicarue, 
Celcena  HaivortJiii,  Dianihcecia  nana,  D.  capsincola,  D.  ctuubali,  Epiinda  lutidenta^ 
vars.  sedi,  and  liinebcrgensis,  Cleoceris  viininalis,  Agrotis  vestigialis,  A.  cu7'Soria, 
A,  pnrcox,  A.  strignla,  A.  confusa,  Panolis pinipcrda,  Xanthia  fulvago,  X.  Jlavago, 
Charicleanmbra,  Xylocampa  areola,  Xylina  orniihopus,  X.  socia,  Plusia  bractea. 

IvlTHOSllD^. — Gnophria  rnbricollis. 

PYRAt,lD^. — Botys  niralis,  B.  fuscalis,  Scoparia  ambigiialis,  Noviophila 
nocinella,  Scapula  lutealis,  Crai)ibiis  niaigaritellus,  C.  horiuellus,  C.  genicnleus. 

TlNElD^. — Dmrnca  fagella,  Hyponomeiita  cagnagclhis. 

ToRTRlCiD^li. — Tortrix  ministrana,  Sericoris  lacunana,  Argyrotoza  conwayana, 
Pardia  iripinutana,  Catoptria  idicctana,  Aigyrolepia  hartmanniana. 

Z YGiE NI D.-t; . — Zygcena  lonicene. 

Hepiai^id^I^.  -Ihpia'.iis  hcctus. 

Geo.  H.  Carpenter. 

192  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


Notes  on  Black-headed  Culls.— The  following  notes  arc  from 
observations  which  I  made  at  Lough  INIask,  Co.  INJ.ayo,  and  Gull  Island, 
Gartan  Lake,  Co.  Donegal. — The  birds  all  seem  to  begin  to  lay  at  the  one 
time— once  an  o.^^  is  laid  either  the  cock  or  hen  is  on  the  nest  so  that 
the  eggs  come  out  very  irregularly ;  they  lay  from  three  to  five  eggs, 
generally  three  or  four,  but  in  a  few  nests  there  may  be  six.  When  the 
chicks  are  all  out  they  stop  for  about  a  week  at  the  "gullery  "  and  then 
all  suddenly  disappear.  The  young  chicks  do  not  seem  to  be  alile  to 
swim,  as  some  that  fell  off  the  island  at  Gartan  were  drowned.  One  year 
the  gamekeeper  at  Toormakeedy  robbed  the  regular  gullery  to  get  the 
eggs  to  feed  his  Pheasants,  and  the  Gulls  moved  to  a  rocky  island  and 
crag  in  the  small  river  that  flows  into  the  north  end  of  Lough  Mask, 
here  they  could  be  easily  watched  as  one  could  creep  within  100  yards 
of  them.  When  the  chicks  were  about  ten  days  old  they  all  suddenly 
left.  To-day  when  passing  the  gullery  was  alive,  the  next  day  there  was 
scarcely  a  Gull  to  be  seen,  and  on  going  to  the  island  one  only  found  one 
or  two  late  clutches.  After  the  gullery  was  deserted  I  found  in  the  Co. 
Mayo  in  the  grass  fields  and  in  the  Co.  Donegal  in  the  corn-field  a 
hovering  pair  of  Black-heads  that  mobbed  me  if  I  came  near  as  if  their 
young  were  about,  but  although  I  worked  the  ground  very  close  I  never 
could  find  one ;  but  in  two  or  three  weeks  the  country  would  have  nu- 
merous small  flocks  consisting  of  two  adults  and  three  or  four  young 
ones  flying  about  feeding.  I  firmly  believe  the  Gulls  bring  their  young 
to  these  fields,  in  fact  it  is  all  but  positively  proved — but  how  do  they 
do  it .''  Do  they  carry  them  }  The  Mallard  Duck  does  carry  its  young  as 
at  Cragg,  Lough  Derg,  Co., Clare  ;  so  also  does  the  Woodcock.  Why  there- 
fore may  not  the  Black-headed  Gull  do  likewise  ?  The  Terns  and  the 
Grey-backed  Gull  keep  about  Lough  Mask  till  their  young  are  well  able 
to  fly.  G.  H.  KiNAHAN,  Dublin. 


Exposed  LlasatWhltepark  Bay,  North  Antrim.  —Heavy  storms 
in  former  3'ears  exposed  small  patches  of  Lias  shales  near  the  "  Kitchen" 
Middens"  in  this  bay,  but  these  were  very  soon  covered  up  again, 
sometimes  ])y  next  few  tides.  The  great  storm  of  December  22nd  last, 
has  left  lasting  traces  of  its  fury  here,  and  by  removing  many  thousands 
of  tons  of  sand  and  shingle  from  the  centre  of  the  strand  to  the  east  end 
has  exposed  the  beds  for  a  distance  of  over  a  thousand  long  b}'  from 
twenty  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  wide.  All  that  now  remains  are 
large  masses  of  Chalk  scattered  over  the  Lias,  There  does  not  seem  to 
be  even  after  four  months  exposure  any  sign  of  the  sand  covering  up 
again,  but  it  might  be  well  for  geologists  to  take  advantage  of  this  fine 
exposure  while  they  may  ;  the  beds  are  fairly  fossiliferous,  indeed  it  is 
from  here  and  from  the  little  section  a  little  higher  up  along  the  banks  of 
the  stream  that  the  Causeway  guides  get  the  majority  of  the  specimens 
of  ammonites  which  they  sell  to  tourists,  and  there  are  plenty  of 
indications  that  they  are  working  there  now.  It  would  be  impossible  to 
accurately  describe  the  great  change  the  storm  made  from  the  little  port 
at  Eallintoy  to  this  point.  Almost  all  the  shingle  which  lay  in  gullies 
around  the  sea-stacks  has  been  thrown  up  high  beyond  high  water 
mark  ;  at  one  place  lying  along  a  field  30  to  40  feet  inside  the  low  ditch. 

Even  more  destructive  was  the  storm  on  the  West  Strand,  near  Golf 
Hotel,  Portrush,  where  the  sand  has  been  removed  in  immense  quantities 
all  along  the  face  of  the  dunes,  exposing  for  almost  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
the  well-known  submerged  peat  beds  there,  which  before  the  storm  showed 
only  in  a  small  patch  about  two  feet  below  the  Hotel ;  it  being  now 
from  seven  to  eight  feet  high  there  the  alternate  layers  of  peaty  matter 
and  sand  can  now  be  well  examined,  insects,  &c.,  searched  for.  Roots  and 
branches  of  trees,  evidently  of  the  pine  tribe,  are  common,  and  what 
appeared  to  me  like  leaves  or  stems  of  Zostera  .?  or  other  esiuarine  plant. 

R.  We;,  Belfast 

Vol.  IV.  AUGUST,  1895.  No.  8. 



So  far  as  it  is  possible  to  judge  with  our  still  very  imperfect 
knowledge  of  the  various  Irish  county  floras,  the  County 
Dublin  is  exceptionally  rich  in  orchids.  Out  of  a  total  of,  say, 
twenty-three  Irish  species,  no  less  than  sixteen  are  included 
in  the  actual  Dublin  flora,  while  further  research  may  be  ex- 
pected to  raise  the  number  to  eighteen  by  the  re-discovery  of 
two  recorded  species  which  have  not  been  recently  observed. 
This  proportion  of  sixteen  to  twenty-three  is  somewhat  ex- 
ceeded in  the  Counties  of  Cork,  Galway,  and  Kerry,  with 
areas,  respectively,  about  eight,  seven,  and  five  times  as  great 
as  that  of  the  County  Dublin  ;  Wicklow,  with  more  than 
twice  the  Dublin  area,  numbers  about  seventeen  species ; 
Westmeath,^  with  exactly  double,  and  Armagh/  with  one  and 
a  half  times  the  area  of  Dublin,  each  number  twelve  species 
in  their  orchid  floras  ;  Donegal,  with  five  times  the  Dublin 
area,  has,  perhaps,  no  more  than  an  equal  number  of 
species ;  and,  finally,  the  three  north-eastern  counties  of 
Ireland  :  Derry,  Antrim,  and  Down,  with  a  combined  area 
more  than  eight  times  that  of  the  County  Dublin, 
one  less  than  its  number  of  orchid  jspecies^ — fifteen.  On  the 
whole,  then,  the  orchid  flora  of  the  County  Dublin  may  be 
set  down  as  exceptionally  rich  when  compared  with  that  of 
other  Irish  counties,  though  it  must  be  confessed  that  its 
richness  lies  rather  in  the  number  of  its  species  than  in  the 
presence  of  any  of  the  rarer  Irish  members  of  this  peculiarly 
interesting  order  of  plants. 

The  following  notes,  selected  rather  hastily  from  some  j^ears' 
observations  in  the  highlands  and  lowlands  of  the  county,  will 

1  See  Mr.  H.  C.  Levinge's  "  Plants  of  Westmeath,"  /.JV„  1894. 

2  See  Mr.  Praeger's  "  Flora  of  Armagh,"  /.N.,  1893. 

^  EJxcludin^  Epipactis palustris  and  Cephalanthera  ensifolia. 


194  *  'j^he  Irish  Naturalist. 

be  found,  perhaps,  to  contain  nothing  strikingly  novel  for 
students  of  the  Dublin  flora.  It  is  hoped,  however,  that  they 
may  serve  to  exhibit  with  some  clearness  the  county  distribu- 
tion of  the  Dublin  orchids,  as  at  present  known,  and  thus 
show  the  direction  in  which  further  inquiry  may  be  useful. 

Malaxls  paludosa  (Sw.)— Bog  Orchis.— vStill  in  some  abundance 
in  its  old  station  on  Glendliu  Mountain,  where  I  had  the  pleasure  of 
pointing  it  out  in  September  last  to  Dr.  I^eitch,  of  Silloth,  who  on  the 
same  day  discovered  another  station  for  the  species  on  the  mountains  to 
the  eastward  above  GlencuUen  Bridge,  at  a  height  of  i,ooo  feet.  For  ten 
years  this  plant  has  maintained  itself  in  precisely  the  same  patch  of 
Sphagnwn  on  Glendhu  Mountain.  It  would  be  of  interest  to  know 
whether  it  still  holds  its  ground  in  its  earliest  recorded  Dublin  station, 
at  the  head  of  Glenasmole,  where  it  was  found  eighty  years  ago  by  John 
Templeton,  who,  in  his  IMS.  Irish  Flora,  records  the  discovery  in  these 
words:— "In  marshy  places  about  Kelly's  Glen,  River  Dodder,  July, 
1814,  in  company  with  Dr.  Ta3-lor  and  Mr.  Mackay ;  in  flower  July  23rd, 
1814."  Mr.  John  Bain,  who  more  than  once  gathered  the  plant  here  in 
his  early  botanical  excursions  with  Dr.  Mackay  about  the  date  of  the 
publication  of  the  Flora  Hibernica{i^2i^),  tells  me  that  Templeton's  station 
is  no  doubt  the  mossy  plashes  on  the  right  above  Grierson's,  now  Cobb's, 
Lodge  at  the  head  of  the  glen.  Malaxis,  it  may  be  noted,  should  be 
sought  for  not  only  in  living  Sphagnum  beds,  but  also  round  their  edges, 
where  a  constant  trickle  of  moisture  passes  over  freer  ground.  In  its 
Glendhu  station  it  usually  occurs  in  groups  or  clusters,  a  number  of 
small  plants,  one  inch  or  less  in  height,  surrounding  a  larger,  sometimes 
three-inch,  central  plant.  This  outer  ring  arises,  no  doubt,  from  the 
growth  of  the  characteristic  leaf-bulbils  dropped  by  the  more  mature 
central  plant. 

Ranging  in  Dublin  from  1,000  to  1,300  feet. 

Llstera  cordata  (R.  Br.)— Lesser  Tway-bi,adi:.— Probably  abund- 
ant in  the  Dublin  mountains  wherever  the  heather  is  well  grown  and 
not  too  dense  below.  First  recorded  for  the  county  in  the  late  Mr.  A.  G. 
More's  Rtrent  Additions  (1872).  Mr,  H.  C.  Hart  tells  me  that  he  gathered 
the  plant  on  Feather  Bed  Mountain  in  1867.  It  occurs  frequently  on 
Glendhu  Mountain,  on  Kippure,  and  on  the  slopes  between  Kilmashogue 
and  the  Three  Rock. 

Ranging  from  1,200  feet  on  Kilmashogue  to  2,000  feet  on  Kippure. 

Llstera  ovata  (R.  Br.)— Common  Tway-bi;ade.— Abundant  in  the 
county,  especially  on  moist  "  drift "  banks.  Specimens  gathered  last 
year  on  the  railway  cuttings  between  Raheny  and  Killester,  where  this 
orchid  grows  in  great  profusion,  measured  2  feet  2  inches  in  height, 
with  leaves  6  inches  by  3  inches.  The  three-leaved  form  mentioned  in 
Smith's  English  Flora  (4th  Kd.,  1830),  is  probably  not  uncommon  in  the 
county.    Mr.  W.  H.  Bloomer  has  shown  me  fine  specimens  of  it  gathered 

The  Orchids  of  County  Dublin,  195 

on  the  railway  banks,  near  Shankill,  and  I  have  found  the  form  frequent 
in  woods  near  the  head  of  Saggard  Slade. 
Ranges  from  sea-level  at  Balbriggan  to  1,000  feet  on  Slieve  Thoul. 

Splranthes  autumnalis  (Rich.)— Lady's  Tresses.— Apparently- 
very  rare  in  the  county.  Recorded  from  Bray  Common,  from  Killiney, 
and  from  Loughlinstown,  but  not  recentl3^  Found  on  the  North  Bull 
about  the  year  1885  by  the  late  Mr.  A.  G.  More.  It  would  be  desirable  to 
search  for  this  plant  along  the  top  of  the  drift  banks  from  Killiney  to 
the  Bray  river,  towards  the  middle  or  end  of  August. 

Epipactis  palustris  (Crantz)— Marsh  HeIvIvEborine. — This 
species  appears  to  have  been  formerly  much  more  abundant  in  the 
county  than  at  present.  Templeton,  in  his  MS.  Flora,  gives  the  follow- 
ing localities  : — "Jamestown,  \  mile  beyond  Kilgobbin,  Co.  Dub- 
lin, Dr.  Stokes,  October  26,  1801.  Plentiful  in  a  bog  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Killiney  Bay,  and  among  the  sand-hills  at  Baldoyle 
Strand."  The  first  of  these  is  its  earliest  recorded  Dublin  station  :  in  the 
third,  better  known  as  Portmarnock  sand-hills,  it  still  holds  its  ground, 
Mr.  Praeger  having  gathered  it  there  last  year.  The  plant  is  now  per- 
haps extinct  in  the  stations  Stagstown  and  Kingstown^  given  by  Wade 
in  his  PlantcB  Rariores  (1804).  Should  this  be  so,  it  would  make  all  the 
more  acceptable  the  new  station  quite  recently  added  in  Glenasmole, 
where  a  considerable  number  of  plants  was  discovered  by  Rev.  C.  F. 
d' Arcy  on  this  year's  June  excursion  of  the  Dublin  Field  Club. 

Lowland  in  the  county,  reaching  only  to  600  feet  (in  Glenasmole). 

Epipactis  latifolla  (Sw.)--Hei,i.Eborine.— Recorded  in  Mackay's 
Catalogtie  of  the  Indigenous  Plants  of  Ireland,  1825,  for  Portmarnock  sands, 
an  unsatisfactory  habitat  for  a  woodland  species.  In  Mackay's  Flora 
mbernica,  published  eleven  years  later,  the  Portmarnock  station  is  trans- 
ferred to  E.  palustris.  Though  the  plant  is  marked  in  the  British  Associa- 
tion Guides  1878,  as  "  rather  tare  "  for  Dublin  and  Wicklow,  I  had  no 
recent  records  for  the  county,  until  last  month  (July,  1895),  when  I  had 
the  good  fortune  to  discover  about  a  dozen  plants  of  this  species  in  a 
wood  near  Ballybetagh,  north  of  the  Scalp. 

Orchis  pyramidalis  (Linn.)— Pyramidal  orchis.— A  decidedly 
calcicole"  plant,  abundant    in    Dublin,  where    it    finds   in    almost  all 

*  Not,  of  course,  the  modern  Kingstowm,  the  Dunleary  of  Wade's 
generation ;  but  the  district  of  Kingston,  lying  about  a  mile  N.  of  the 
Scalp,  where  the  Rev.  vS.  A.  Brenan  informs  me  he  gathered  the  plant  in 

2  This  convenient  word  is  adopted  from  Coutejean's  "  Geographic 
Botanique,"  Paris,  1881,  as  it  clearly  denotes  the  observed  connection 
between  lime-soils  and  certain  species  of  plants,  without  in  any  way 
begging  the  very  vexed  question  as  to  whether  the  influence  of  the 
mineral  is  chemical  or  mechanical. 

A    2 

196  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

quarters  a  congenial  habitat  on  the  limestone  drift  spread  over  so  large 
an  area.  It  occurs  in  all  the  eight  botanical  districts  into  which  I  have 
divided  the  county,  and  is  apparently  lowland  here,  as  elswhere  in 
Ireland,  hardly  reaching  to  a  higher  level  than  600  feet. 

Orchis  IVIorlo  (I^nn.)— Green-winged  Orchis.— Like  the  preceding 
species,  though  rare  in  many  parts  of  Northern  and  Southern  Ireland,  the 
Green-winged  Orchis  is  widely  distributed  through  Dublin,  where  it  has 
been  observed  in  seven  of  the  eight  county  districts.  It  grows  in  great 
profusion  at  Baldrummond,  N.E.  of  Ballyboghil,  where  I  found  it  in  May 
last,  thickly  spread  over  some  acres  of  damp  pasture.  It  is  frequent  in  sandy 
fields  to  the  E.  of  Portrane  peninsula  and  abundant  on  the  drift  banks  of 
Glenasmole  and  its  tributary  glen  of  Glassamuck}'. 

Ranges  from  sea-level  to  1,000  feet  at  Piperstown. 

Orchis  mascula  (Linn.)— Eari,y  Purpi^E  Orchis— Occurs  in  all  eight 
districts  of  the  county,  where,  however,  it  seems  less  abundant  than  in 
the  North  of  Ireland. 

Ranges  to  750  feet  in  Glassamucky  glen. 

Orchis  Incarnata  (Linn.)— Apparently  rare  in  the  county,  having 
been  found,  so  far,  in  only  two  of  its  districts.  It  is  recorded  from 
sandy  pastures  at  Sutton  and  Portmarnock,  and  occurs  in  considerable 
quantity  by  the  Grand  Canal  at  Hazlehatch  and  in  the  Slade  of  Saggard, 
above  the  old  bridge. 

Ranges  from  sea  level  to  600  feet  at  Saggard  Slade  (*)• 

Orchis  maculata  (Linn.)— Spotted  Orchis.— The  commonest 
orchid  of  County  Dublin,  as  it  is,  perhaps,  of  all  Ireland,  and  indeed  of 
the  British  Isles.  Well  distributed  through  all  eight  districts  of  the 

A  high  ranging  species  in  Dublin,  as  it  is  throughout  the  British  Isles, 
reaching  to  1,950  feet  on  Seefingan  mountain. 

Ophrys  aplfcra  (Huds.)— Bee  Orchis.— This,  perhaps  the  hand- 
somest of  the  Dublin  orchids,  occurs  in  five  of  the  county  districts,  all 
the  stations,  w^ith  one  exception,  the  Green  Hills,  being  near  the  coast. 
It  is  apparently  rare  in  all  its  Dublin  stations,  save  at  Skerries,  where 
Rev.  T,  B.  Gibson  found  it  in  abundance  in  1892. 

A  lowland  and  distinctly  calckok  species,  probably  occurring  in  many 
other  stations  on  drift  banks  and  gravel  eskers. 

(*).  0.  latifolia,  Linn.,  is  for  the  present  omitted  from  the  county  list, 
as  it  is  to  be  feared  that,  though  recorded  from  many  stations,  it  has  not 
been  discriminated  from  0.  incamaia.  Treating  the  two  species  as  an 
aggregate,  the  county  distribution  will  be  extended  to  four  districts. 

The  Orchids  of  County  Dublin.  197 

Ha)t>enarIaconopsca(Benth.)— Fragrant  Orchis.— Widely  distri- 
buted in  the  county,  occurring  in  seven  of  the  districts,  and  very  abundant 
in  many  places  on  the  drift,  especially  in  railway  cuttings.  It  grows  most 
luxuriantly  in  the  cuttings  near  Killester  on  the  Great  Northern  Railway, 
where  I  have  gathered  specimens  measuring  fully  i  foot  11  inches  in 

lyowland  in  the  county,  reaching  only  to  about  650  feet  (in  Glena« 

Habenarla  viridis  (R.Br.)— Frog  Orchis. — Rather  common,  occur- 
ring in  six  of  the  county  districts,  and  abundant  in  many  stations  in  the 
uplands,  as  on  the  Brittas  Hills,  in  Upper  Glenasmole  and  round  Friars- 
town  and  Piperstown.  This  species  seems  to  be  quite  indifferent  as  to 
soil.  It  appears  on  the  basalt  at  Ballynascorney,  on  the  limestone  drif 
at  Balbriggan  and  Glenasmole,  in  sandy  pastures  by  the  shore  near 
Skerries,  and  in  stiff  non-calcareous  clays  on  Carrickbrack  in  the  Naul 

Ranging  from  sea-level  to  1,000  feet  on  Mount  Seskin  and  Kilakee 
Mountain,  and  to  1,050  feet  on  Knockanavea. 

Mabenarla  albida  (R.Br.)— Rare,  recorded  only  from  two  districts 
of  the  county.  Templeton,  in  his  MS.  Flora,  enters  it  as  found  "  in 
pastures  on  the  sides  of  Kelly's  Glen,  Dodder  River,"  the  date  of  the 
record  being  certainly  not  later  than  1820.  It  still  maintains  itself  in 
this  station,  where  Mr.  Greenwood  Pim  gathered  it  in  1889,  and  Dr. 
M'Weeney  so  recently  as  in  1894. 

Habenaria  chlorantha  (Bab.)— Butterfi<y  Orchis.— Rather  fre* 
quent  in  the  three  mountain  districts  of  the  county,  as  on  the  northern 
slopes  of  Slieve  Thoul,  in  Upper  Glenasmole  and  at  Ticknock.  This  is,  no 
doubt,  the  species  recorded  by  Wade  in  his  Catalogue  of  Dublin  Plants 
(1794)  under  Habenaria  bijolia  as  found  "  at  Stagstown  "  (Ticknock)  and 
**  between  Lugmore  and  Kilty-loones  "  (Kiltalown). 

Ranges  to  900  feet  on  Slieve  Thoul. 

To  the  foregoing  notes  on  the  orchids  clearly  entitled  to  a 
place  in  the  present-day  flora  of  the  County  Dublin,  may  be 
added  a  few  words  on  the  following  two  species,  which, 
though  recorded  for  the  county,  have  not  been  recently 

NeottlaNldus-avis  (Rich.)- Bird's  Nest  Orchis.— For  this  there 
are  two  old  records,  both  for  the  same  locality.  Woodlands,  on  the  Liffey,  a 
most  likely  station  for  the  plant.  Wade,  in  his  Planta  Rat  lores  (1804),  gives  us 
the  first  record  in  these  words : — "  In  the  thickets  among  the  rotten  leaves, 
Luttrellstown'  wood,  Co.  Dublin,  flowering  so  early  as  April."  The 
flowering  season  here  given  would  appear  to  point  to  Lathraa,  which  still 

*  The  old  name  forWoodlands. 

igS  The  Irish  N'aturalist 

grows  in  Woodlands,  rather  than  to  Neottia.  Yet  Wade  could  hardly  have 
mistaken  one  plant  for  the  other,  and  his  record  is  supported  by  the 
following  from  the  MS.  Flora  of  John  Templeton,  a  more  competent 
authority: — "In  I^uttrelstown  wood,  Co.  Dublin,  Mr.  Brinkley  ;  ^  seen 
in  abundance  by  Dr.  Taylor  and  m3^self,  July,  1814."  I  have  not  myself 
had  an  opportunity  of  looking  for  the  plant  in  Woodlands  at  the  proper 
season,  and  it  is  most  desirable  that  a  thorough  search  should  be  made. 
Perhaps  some  reader  of  the  Irish  Naturalist  can  refer  me  to  a  record 
more  recent  than  Templeton's. 

MaUenaria  bifolia  (R.  Br.)— There  does  not  appear  to  be  any 
definite  recent  record  for  this.  The  older  records  belong  to  a  period  be- 
fore the  species  was  limited  by  the  separation  from  it  of  H.  cJilorantha 
(Bab.).  There  is  nothing  in  the  known  Irish  distribution  of  the  plant  to 
make  its  appearance  in  the  county  improbable. 

I  shall  be  happy  to  receive  notes,  accompanied  by  vSpecimens, 

of   further   County   Dublin  localities   for    any  of  the  rarer 

orchids  mentioned  in  these  jottings,  and  more  especially  for 

either  of  the  two  which  I  have  ventured  to  exclude  from  the 

actual  county  flora. 



(A  Report  laid  before  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  28th  May,  1894.'^ 

[^Concluded from  page  184.) 
On  reaching  Belderig  and  stopping  at  the  post-office  and 
public-house,  I  made  enquiries  about  the  eagles,  but  could 
get  no  definite  information  about  them,  until  a  young  keeper 
from  Glencalry,  coming  for  letters,  hearing  my  enquiries,  ad- 
vised me  to  see  an  old  cliff-climber,  named  M'Andrew,  who  it 
was  said  knew  more  about  eagles  than  any  man  in  the 
countr}^  for  he  lived  all  his  life  near  the  cliff  in  which  the 
eyries  were  situated.  The  old  man  lived  about  three  miles 
away  in  the  mountain,  and  the  keeper  offering  to  show  me  the 
way  to  his  house,  we  set  off  at  half-past  three,  on  our  three 
miles  walk  over  two  ranges  of  hills  and  through  soft  wet  bog. 

1  Dr.  Brinkley,   Astronomer  at    Dunsink  and   afterwards    Bishop   of 
Cloyne.    He  appears  to  have  botanized  a  good  deal  in  the  County  Dublin. 

Birds  observed  Breedifig  on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo.     199 

Reaching  the  cottage  at  about  six  o'clock  we  found  the  old 
man  cutting  grass,  but  on  hearing  what  we  wanted,  he  became 
quite  excited,  threw  down  his  scythe,  and  would  have  talked  of 
eagles  and  their  nests  all  night  if  allowed.  He  told  me  that 
eagles  as  long  as  he  remembered  regularly  bred  on  that  part 
of  the  coast  until  about  three  years  before,  when  he  had  the 
nest  robbed  bj^  a  boy  who  he  let  down  with  a  rope  over  the 
cliff,  and  that  since  then  the  pair  had  removed  further  west  to 
the  Porturlin  cliffs.  On  questioning  him  as  to  their  appear- 
ance he  described  them  as  follows,  saying  "  The  eagle  that 
bred  on  the  cliffs  was  the  Grey  Eagle,  almost  as  grey  as  a 
Goose,"  and  that  they  lived  chiefi}^  on  hares,  sometimes  taking 
a  Duck,  or  a  Hen,  and  occasionally  a  lamb,  but  that  they  were 
not  nearly  so  destructive  to  lambs  as  the  Black  Eagle  that 
occasionally  visited  them  from  the  mountains  inland  near 
Corick  and  Bangor"  ;  thus  distinguishing  between  the  light- 
coloured  Sea  Kagle  of  the  cliffs,  and  the  darker-coloured 
Golden  Eagle  of  the  inland  mountains.  Finding  I  had  no 
chance  of  seeing  the  eagles  I  was  about  to  return,  when  the 
old  man  avSked  if  I  would  like  to  see  some  birds  on  the  cliffs, 
and  L,oughtmurriga,  the  former  nesting-place  of  the  eagles. 
So  after  less  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile's  walk  up  the  boggy  side 
of  the  hill,  we  came  to  the  sea-cliffs  of  a  great  bay,  semicircular, 
like  a  vast  amphitheatre,  bounded  by  wall-like  cliffs  600  and 
700  feet  high  from  the  water.  Lying  down  I  looked  over  the 
edge,  and  was  amazed  at  the  thousands  of  birds  covering  the 
face  of  the  cliff,  and  flying  about  between  it  and  the  water, 
giving  the  idea  of  bees  swarming  round  a  hive — Puffins, 
Razorbills,  Guillemots,  and  Kittiwake  Gulls,  all  building  in 
that  order,  except  that  the  Puffins  were  everywhere  on  the 
face  of  the  cliff  from  the  lowest  tier  of  Kittiwakes'  nests  up  to 
the  very  summit.  However,  I  should  mention  that,  for  any 
one  of  the  other  birds  there  must  have  been  a  hundred  Puffins. 
I  lay  for  a  long  time  looking  on  in  wonder  and  amazement 
at  the  scene  before  me,  for,  although  I  had  read  of  such 
gatherings,  I  was  never  until  then  able  to  realize  the  fact. 

We  then  moved  about  three  hundred  yards  to  the  east  and 
came  on  another  bay  opening  out  from  the  cliff  of  I^ought- 
murriga,  790  feet  high ;  here  the  birds  were  still  more  numerous. 
Puffins  in  tens  of  thousands,  all  over  the  face  of  the  cliffs, 
burrowing  in  the  turfy  slopes,  and  occupying  every  hole  and 

loo  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

corner  behind  stones  and  rocks,  and  every  crack  and  crevice 
available  for  a  nest.  At  the  base  of  lyoughtmurriga  was  the 
island  of  Moistha  (Islan  Master  of  the  Ordnance  Survey  map) 
separated  by  a  little  strait  three  fathoms  deep,  and  only  wide 
enough  for  a  rowing  boat  to  pass  through, 

Moistha  is  an  oval-shaped  island,  350  feet  high,  having  a 
rounded  grassy  top,  upon  which  the  Puffins  were  innumerable, 
and  especially  so  on  the  western  slope  facing  the  evening  sun. 
Fully  a  quarter  of  an  acre  was  thickly  carpeted  by  them,  as 
thickly  as  they  could  stow,  while  the  sun  shining  on  their 
snow-white  breasts,  and  red  bills,  caused  them  to  look  like  an 
immense  bed  of  tulips,  or  other  bright-coloured  flowers  in  a 
grass  garden. 

Near  the  highest  part  of  the  cliff,  we  saw  a  young  Peregrine 
nearly  fledged  sitting  at  the  mouth  of  a  hole,  in  which  probably 
the  nest  had  been  ;  our  attention  was  directed  to  him  by  the 
loud  screaming  of  the  parent  birds,  after  we  reached  the  top 
of  the  cliff.  A  pair  of  Ravens  (the  man  told  us)  bred  every 
year  in  the  cliff,  until  that  season,  when  the  Peregrines  (or 
**  Blue  Hawks,"  the  local  name)  drove  them  awa3^  I  remained 
watching  this  wonderful  sight  of  sea-birds  until  past  eight 
o'clock,  and  then  returned  to  Belderig,  which  I  reached  close 
to  eleven. 

Next  morning,  the  weather  still  continuing  fine,  I  drove  to 
Porturlin,  which,  although  only  seven  or  eight  miles  by  water, 
is  sixteen  miles  by  road,  through  a  dreary  wilderness  of  flat 
wet  bog,  with  numerous  black-looking  pools  and  loughs  inter- 
spersed throughout  its  wide  expanse ;  and  so  bare  of  life,  that 
besides  the  skylarks,  only  one  solitary  Golden  Plover  appeared 
in  view  during  the  long  drive  there  and  back  ;  and  the  road 
was  so  bad,  that  for  the  latter  half  of  the  way  we  had  to  go  at 
a  walking  pace,  and  did  not  get  to  Porturlin  until  nearly  two 

This  little  fishing  village  is  situated  in  a  deeper  and  narrower 
valley  than  Belderig,  reaching  the  sea  by  a  narrow  cove 
through  the  cliffs,  while  to  the  west  of  the  village,  close 
behind,  rises  the  Hill  of  Doonmara,  649  feet  high,  the  com- 
mencement of  the  range  running  on  to  Portacloy  and  Broad- 
haven,  also  indented  by  great  bays,  with  crumbling  cliffs 
similar  to  Belderig. 

Birds  observed  Breedmg  on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo.     20 1 

On  arriving  at  the  village,  we  met  all  the  men  and  boys  just 
returning  from  their  morning  mackerel-fishing,  in  which  they 
were  most  successful,  the  crews  of  eleven  curraghs  bringing 
in  on  an  average  300  to  400  fish  each,  all  taken  with  hand- 
lines.  I  spoke  to  several  about  the  eagles,  but  although  they 
all  knew  and  saw  the  birds  frequently,  none  knew  where  they 
bred ;  until  a  boy,  just  coming  up  while  I  was  speaking,  said 
he  knew  where  the  nest  was  on  the  cliffs,  containing  two  young 
ones  nearly  fledged.  So,  engaging  him  to  come  with  me  and 
show  the  nest,  we  set  off  to  climb  Doonmara  behind  the  village, 
but  when  we  got  to  the  top,  reaching  the  level  plateau  of  bog 
that  extended  along  the  range  of  cliffs,  he  saw  the  canoes 
again  going  out  fishing,  and  not  wishing  to  lose  his  share  of 
the  evening  take,  he  returned,  leaving  me  to  puzzle  on  by  myself 
in  search  of  the  eagles.  I  walked  along  the  cliffs  for  half  an  hour, 
when  I  came  to  the  first  bay  indenting  the  high  cliff  of  Altmore, 
and  if  I  was  surprised  at  the  numbers  of  birds  at  Lought- 
murriga,  I  was  fairly  astonished  here  when  I  looked  on  the 
cliff,  for  I  think  there  were  tens,  and  hundreds  of  thousands 
of  Puffins  ;  the  entire  face  of  the  stupendous  cliffs  was  covered 
with  them,  and  the  sea  below  was  almost  obscured  from  sight 
by  the  swarms  of  birds  on  the  wing — thousands  of  Kittiwakes 
Guillemots,  and  Razorbills,  nesting  in  the  same  order  as  on 
the  other  cliffs. 

I  walked  on  for  half  a  mile,  and  came  to  the  second  bay 
running  into  the  cliff  of  Altredmond,  which  takes  its  name 
from  a  coastguard  whose  boat  was  upset  near  the  base  of  the 
cliff ;  all  the  crew  perished,  he  only  escaping  by  climbing  up 
the  face  of  this  stupendous  precipice,  where  no  human  being 
ever  climbed  before,  or  ever  will  again.  Looking  down  over 
the  edge  it  is  impossible  to  realize  how  any  being  without 
wings  could  climb  from  the  water,  and  reach  the  summit  in 
safety.  In  this  bay  the  birds  were  in  still  greater  numbers. 
Three  quarters  of  an  hour's  walk  brought  me  to  the  third  bay, 
which  was  the  same  ;  the  cliffs  covered,  the  water  dotted  over 
with  little  flocks,  while  those  on  the  wing  actually  swarmed, 
and  gave  me  the  idea  of  the  great  **  I^oonories"  in  the  Arctic 
Regions  as  described  by  Captain  Markham  and  Sir  I^eopold 

I  still  walked  on  ahead,  but  no  eagles  appeared,  and  I  came 
to  the  fourth  and  largest   bay  of  all,    and,  strange  to  say^ 

A  3 

202  -     The  Irish  Naturalhi.    >  -^        .'. . 

although  quite  as  favourable  in  appearance  as  the  other  bays 
for  seabirds'  breeding  haunts,  none  were  to  be  seen,,  except  a 
few  pairs  of  Guillemots  near  the  entrance. 

Not  wishing  to  go  any  further  from  Porturlin,  as  it  was  late 
in  the  day,  although  there  were  still  some  miles  of  coast  unex- 
plored, I  sat  down  to  rest,  and  carefully  examined  the  cliffs 
with  my  glass  ;  but  I  saw  no  birds  oi  any  kind  except  a  pair 
of  Peregrines,  and  these  by  their  noisy  anxiety  indicated  that 
they  had  either  eggs  or  young  somewhere  near.  After  a  time 
I  perceived  a  greyish  object  stirring  behind  a  stone  on  a  ledge, 
but,  unless  when  moving,  perfectly  indistinguishable,  and  this 
proved  to  be  one  of  a  pair  of  young  Peregrines  sitting  behind 
a  grey  stone  ;  they  were  about  as  large  as  grouse,  and  some 
dark  feathers  appearing  amongst  their  white  down  gave  them 
that  grey  colour  so  like  the  stones  by  which  they  were  sitting. 
After  satisfactorily  identifying  the  birds,  I  set  out  on  my 
return,  and  having  walked  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  I  heard 
the  screaming  of  a  Peregrine  in  the  distance,  and  after  a  time 
the  noisy  screams  coming  nearer,  I  looked  about  and  per- 
ceived just  in  front  of  me,  flying  towards  me,  a  magnificent 
eagle  closely  followed  by  a  screaming  Falcon.  Both  birds 
passed  over  me,  the  eagle  carrying  a  hare  by  the  head  and 
forequarters,  the  rest  of  the  body  dangling  from  his  talons  as 
he  flew  slowly  along  towards  the  cliffs,  and  disappearing  below 
the  edge,  passed  out  of  sight.  I  had  a  good  view  of  the  bird 
with  my  glass,  and  seeing  the  white  feathers  of  the  tail,  have 
no  doubt  of  its  being  the  Sea  Kagle  {Halicetus  albicilla).  The 
bird  had  evidentl}^  come  a  long  way  over  the  bogs  from  the 
inland  district,  and  was  carrying  the  hare  to  its  young  in  the 
cliff  of  "Spink, "where  the  boy  told  me  the  nest  was  situated. 

Having  thus  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  eagle,  but  not 
being  successful  in  finding  the  nest  in  consequence  of  the 
desertion  of  my  guide,  I  returned  to  Porturlin,  and  got  back 
to  Belderig  between  nine  and  ten  o'clock.  The  weather 
changed  that  night,  and  I  was  obliged  to  return  home  next 
day  on  a  twenty-mile  drive  in  a  storm  of  wind  and  heavy  rain, 
which  continued  for  ten  days,  and  prevented  my  revisiting 
the  cliffs  ;  when  the  weather  cleared  up  it  was  too  late  in  the 

The  foregoing  notes,  being  the  result  of  my  two  days'  visit 
in  1892,  were  so  satisfactory  that  I  was  encouraged  to  pay  a 

^irds  observed  Breeding  on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo.    203 

more  prolonged  visit  to  this  district  in  1893,  and  take  more 
time  to  explore  the  range  of  cliffs  as  far  as  Portacloy. 

So,  on  the  23rd  of  May,  in  company  of  my  friend  Mr.  H. 
Scroope,  junr.,  I  set  out  on  my  second  visit  to  the  North  Mayo 
coast,  with  the  intention  of  walking  along  the  cliffs  from 
Belderig  to  Porturlin,  and  thence  to  Portacloy,  and  if  the 
weather  permitted  to  explore  the  sea  side  of  the  cliffs  from 
the  water.  During  our  drive  from  Ballycastle  to  Belderig  we 
found  the  Herring  Gulls  and  Green  Cormorants  breeding 
here  and  there  along  the  line  of  cliffs,  and  in  consequence  of 
being  so  thinly  scattered  not  appearing  numerous  anywhere 
after  passing  Keadue. 

On  reaching  Belderig  at  three  o'clock,  it  being  too  late  in  the 
day  to  go  on  to  Porturlin,  we  walked  from  the  harbour  along 
the  cliffs  to  the  first  headland  (Benwecruagh)  and  Horse 
Island,  where  the  old  disused  copper  mine  is  situated  ;  the 
island  is  a  mere  mass  of  rock,  about  half  an  acre  in  extent, 
probably  a  hundred  feet  in  height  from  the  water,  and  joined 
to  the  mainland  by  a  ridge  or  causeway  formed  by  the  fallen 
debris  from  the  cliff,  just  above  the  highest  spring  tides.  On 
the  flat  summit  of  the  island  Oyster- catchers  bred,  and  we 
found  their  eggs  in  a  depression  in  the  rock,  resting  on  a  few 
small  stones  for  a  lining  to  the  nest.  Oyster- catchers  breed 
all  along  the  coast,  on  the  small  island  rocks,  and  on  the 
bare  summit  of  the  cliffs  in  many  places.  In  a  hole  of  the 
cliff  in  the  south-west  side  a  pair  of  Choughs  had  a  nest,  and 
not  far  from  it  a  pair  of  Black  Guillemots  had  a  nest  also, 
while  another  pair  were  in  the  water  at  the  base.  I  was  sur- 
prised to  see  the  Black  Guillemots  breeding  so  high,  at  least 
ninety  feet  above  the  water.  A  pair  of  Grey  Crows  haunted 
the  cliffs  also,  and  we  were  told  these  birds  bred  in  many  places 
along  the  cliffs  of  that  part  of  the  coast.  Guillemots  and 
Razorbills  also  had  nests  on  the  headland  and  inside  the 
entrance  of  some  large  caves  at  the  base. 

Next  morning  we  set  out  on  our  seven  miles'  walk  over  the 
cliffs  to  Porturlin,  and  when  crossing  the  river  that  flows  just 
below  the  village  of  Belderig,  we  were  surprised  at  hearing  a 
Whinchat  singing,  and  shortly  after  saw  him  on  a  furze-bush  on 
a  bank,  but  although  we  searched  carefully  for  the  nest  were 
unsuccessful,  although  we  were  certain  it  was  near,  for  the 
bird  was  always  near  the  same  part  of  the  little  field.    We  were 

A  4 

204  '^^^^  Irish  Naturalist. 

glad  to  have  ascertained  that  the  range  of  the  Whinchat  ex- 
tended so  far  to  the  north-west  of  the  county,  for  the  only 
other  locality  in  North  Mayo  where  I  have  met  this  bird  is 
near  Killala. 

On  walking  along  the  cliffs,  we  found  that,  irrespective  of 
the  great  breeding-haunts  in  the  bays,  there  were  many 
smaller  colonies  of  Kittiwakes,  Guillemots,  and  Razorbills 
scattered  all  along ;  and  that  many  were  passed  over  unnoticed 
in  consequence  of  not  being  within  view  from  the  land  side, 
it  being  quite  impossible  to  see  them  without  a  boat.  On  the 
east  side  of  lyoughtmurriga,  on  a  ledge  a  short  way  below  the 
summit  of  the  cliff,  we  saw  the  old  nest  of  an  eagle  that  had 
been  robbed  about  four  years  ago  ;  it  was  an  immense  heap 
of  sticks,  apparently  composed  of  the  thick  stems  and  roots 
of  heather.  The  various  rock-birds  were  as  numerous  as  ever, 
but  in  consequence  of  the  Puffins  being  hatching  inside  their 
holes,  the  birds  sitting  on  the  cliffs  and  on  Moistha  Island 
did  not  appear  in  such  numbers  as  when  visited  later  last 

On  the  land  side  of  lyoughtmurriga,  in  a  patch  of  the  only 
long  heather  we  met,  we  were  surprised  to  see  a  pair  of  Stone- 
chats  and  their  fulh^-fledged  young  flitting  about.  The  slope 
of  the  hill  on  which  this  long  heather  was  growing  had  less 
turf  on  it,  and  was  drier,  which  was  the  cause  of  the  more 
luxuriant  growth.  On  arriving  at  Porturlin  we  engaged  a 
curragh  and  four  men  to  take  us  out  to  Pig's  Island  (Pig's- 
back  its  local  name),  about  half  a  mile  to  the  west  of  the 
harbour,  a  long  narrow  island  about  150  feet  high,  with  steep 
sides,  and  having  a  great  archway  through  the  centre.  On 
the  sheltered  ledges  underneath  an  immense  colony  of  Kitti- 
wakes bred,  while  in  holes  in  the  turf  and  under  stones  large 
numbers  of  Puffins  and  Razorbills  were  hatching,  and  Herring 
Gulls  on  the  grassy  top.  We  put  a  boy  on  the  rocks,  and  he 
scrambled  up  and  got  us  some  Puffins'  and  Razorbills'  eggs, 
and  a  clutch  of  Herring  Gulls  also,  but  the  wind  rising  and 
the  sea  getting  up,  he  was  obliged  to  hasten  down,  and  it  was 
with  great  difficulty  we  got  him  safe  on  board  again.  It  was 
very  provoking  the  wind  rising  and  not  giving  time  to  search 
for  the  Stormy  Petrels  that  had  nests  in  the  turf  over  the  arch, 
and  from  which,  some  weeks  later,  an  addled  ^^'g  and  several 
birds  were  sent  to  Mr.  Scroope.     On  several  rocky  islets  at  the 

Birds  observed  Breeding  on  the  Coasts  of  Sligo  and  Mayo.   205 

base  of  Altmore  inside  Pig's  Island,  thousands  of  Razorbills  and 
Guillemots  were  sitting — birds  that  would  have  been  un- 
noticed from  the  land  side.  It  was  most  disappointing  that 
during  our  stay  the  wind  kept  blowing  persistently  from  the 
north-west,  raising  such  a  swell  on  the  rocks  that  we  had  no 
opportunity  of  exploring  by  boat,  and  until  this  can  be  done 
the  list  of  birds  met  with  must  necessarily  be  imperfect.  We 
then  got  to  our  car,  and  back  to  Belderig  for  the  night,  and 
next  morning  drove  by  road  to  Porturlin,  sending  the  car  on 
from  there  to  meet  us  at  Portacloy  after  our  walk  along  the 

Having  engaged  a  very  intelligent  boy  for  a  guide,  we  set 
off  on  our  walk  over  the  cliffs.  The  bays  at  Altmore  and 
Altredmond  have  certainly  the  largest  number  of  sea-birds 
yet  met  with  ;  I  am  certainl}^  within  bounds  when  I  say  the 
Puffins  were  in  hundreds  of  thousands,  almost  millions.  At 
Altredmond  we  saw  another  old  nest  of  the  eagle  ;  after 
passing  the  last-mentioned  bay  we  came  to  another,  the  large 
bay  mentioned  in  my  first  visit  as  having  no  sea-birds  except 
a  few  Guillemots  and  Razorbills  near  the  entrance.  A  little 
beyond  it  was  a  smaller  bay  bounded  by  the  headland  of 
'*  Spink,"  where  the  eagle's  nest  was  last  season.  This  was 
a  curiously  shaped  pointed  rock,  the  outer  end  rising  up  into 
a  sharp  pinnacle  twenty  or  thirty  feet  high,  upon  which  the 
eagles  used  to  stand,  having  a  fine  look-out  all  round  them, 
both  inland  and  over  the  sea,  so  that  they  could  not  be 
approached  unawares  from  an}^  side  ;  and  some  feet  below  the 
nest  was  situated,  but  not  visible  from  the  land  side  ;  but 
although  we  saw  nothing  of  the  eagles  that  day,  the  boy  told 
us  they  were  all  the  season  about  the  cliffs.  In  the  same  cliff 
a  pair  of  Peregrines  had  a  nest,  and  we  saw  the  Teiral  take  a 
Puffin  out  of  a  flock  and  carry  it  to  his  mate  and  young  at 
the  nest.  From  that  bay  right  on  to  Portacloy  the  sea-birds 
were  breeding  in  large  numbers,  while  at  Portacloy  we  found 
the  largest  colony  of  Guillemots  and  Razorbills  that  we  had  yet 
seen,  breeding  by  themselves  apart  from  other  birds.  There 
was  another  ej-rie  of  Peregrines  in  the  cliff  on  the  east  side  of 
the  cove,  and  a  colony  of  Choughs,  of  which  we  saw  the  site 
of  one  nest.  Not  having  time  to  explore  what  remained  of 
the  few  miles  of  coast  between  Portacloy  and  Broadhaven, 
including  Benwee  Head,  we  returned  to  Belderig  for  the  night, 

2o6  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

thus  ending  a  most  enjoyable  and  interesting  visit  to  a  line  of 
coast  which,  for  the  number  and  variety  of  the  birds  breeding 
on  it,  and  for  its  wild  and  rugged  scenery,  cannot  be  equalled 
in  Ireland, 


In  the  first  part  of  this  report,  published  in  the  July  number 
of  the  Irish  Naturalist^  I  erroneously  stated  (page  182,  line  5) 
**that  for  six  miles  west  of  Kilcummin  Head  no  breeding 
haunt  is  met  with  until  Downpatrick  Head  is  reached."  I 
was  unaware,  until  a  few  weeks  ago,  of  the  fact  of  birds  breed- 
ing in  that  part.  I  had  never  visited  it,  nor  could  I  get 
reliable  information  until  my  young  friend,  Mr.  G.  Scroope, 
of  Ballina,  passing  along  the  coast  in  an  excursion  steamer 
on  the  28th  of  June,  observed  several  breeding  stations  on  the 
cliffs  between  Lacken  Bay  and  Downpatrick  Head.  Stimulated 
by  this  information,  on  the  nth  inst.,  in  company  of  Mr.  G. 
Scroope,  his  father,  and  brother,  I  drove  to  Lacken  Bay,  and 
then  walked  along  the  cliffs  as  far  as  Crevagh  Head,  where 
we  were  obliged  to  return  by  heavy  and  persistent  rain  coming 

We  met  five  breeding  stations  of  Kittiwake  Gulls  (the 
smallest  of  about  130  pairs),  while  Razorbills  and  Guillemots 
frequented  each  station.  Herring  Gulls  were  met  with  at  only 
two.  A  pair  of  Great  Black-backed  Gulls  were  also  observed, 
but  not  breeding,  having  evidently  come  from  their  great 
breeding-haunt  on  Doonbrista,  off  Downpatrick  Head, 

As  Crevagh  Head  is  only  half-way  to  Downpatrick,  many 
other  stations  are  probably  on  the  unexplored  cliffs  extending 
in  that  direction,  which  at  some  future  time  I  hope  to  visit. 
The  Green  Cormorants  breed  all  along  the  line  of  coast,  but 
none  of  the  Great  species  were  seen  anywhere  on  the  clifis 
during  our  walk. 

[      207      1  ^ 


THE  SPRING  OF  1895. 

BY  JAMES  J.  WAI.KKR,  R.N.,  F.EJ.S. 

Hkr  Majesty's  ship  ''  Northampton,"  employed  on  special 
training  and  recruiting  service,  visited  several  Irish  ports 
during  April  and  May  of  the  present  year,  and  I  lost  no  oppor- 
tunity of  working  hard  for  Coleoptera  whenever  I  was  able  to 
land.  I  was  favoured  with  fine  weather  during  nearly  the 
whole  of  the  cruise,  but  a  hard  gale  of  wind  experienced  at 
two  of  the  most  interesting  places — viz.,  Bangor  and  Bun- 
crana,  interfered  somewhat  with  collecting,  and  no  doubt 
reduced  the  number  of  species  which  would  otherwise  have 
been  observed.  At  the  suggestion  of  the  Rev.  W.  F.Johnson 
of  Armagh,  I  forward  a  full  list  of  my  captures  to  the  Irish 
Nahiralist  as  a  small  contribution  to  our  knowledge  of  the 
Coleopterous  fauna  of  Ireland.  All  the  species  on  which  I  had 
any  doubt  have  been  examined  and  identified  by  my  friend, 
Mr.  G.  C.  Champion. 

Taken  at  Queenstown,  Co.  Cork,  27th  April  to  8th  May, 


Carabus  nemoralls,  Mull.— Scarce. 

C.  granulatus,  I,.— Common  under  stones,  &;c. 

Notlophilus  bigfuttatus    F. 

Nebria  brevicollls,  P. 

Loricera  pilicornis,   F. 

Cllvina  fossor,  L.— Common. 

Badister  bipustulatus,  F. — Occasional  under  stones. 

Acupalpus  dorsalis,  F.— Ivocal,  by  sweeping  in  damp  places  and 
under  stones, 
A.  exiguus,  var.  luridus,  Dej.— With  the  preceding,  scarce. 

Harpalus  latus,  L. — Common,  under  stones  on  dry  hill-sides. 
H.  proteus,  Payk.— Not  common. 

Dichlrotrlchus  pubesccns,  Payk.— Under  stones  on  the  shore. 
PoecIIus    cuprcus,  Iv,     )  Occasionally    found  running  on  paths, 
P.  versicolor,  Sturm.      JT      &c, 

Ptcrostlchus  madidus,  F. 

P.  vulgaris,  L,. 

p.  nigrita,  F.  )  .     ,  , 

P,  strcnuus,  Panz.         [    Not  rare,  in  damp  places. 

P,  dlllgcns,  Sturm.         ) 

5o8  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Abax  strloIa«  F. — Occasionally  under  stones. 

Amara  lunlcollls,  Schiod.) 

A.  communis,  Panz,  V  On  paths,  &c.,  close  to  the  town. 
At  trlvlalls,  Gyll.                  ) 

Calathus  clsteloldes,  Panz. 

Anchomenus  parumpunctatus,  F.~Damp  places. 

Bembldlum  rufescens,  Guer.— Scarce,  under  stones. 

B.  obtusum,  Sturm. 
B.  lam  pros,  Herbst. 

Demetrlas  atrlcapillus,  L. 

Dromius  linearis,  01. 

D.  nigrrlventrls,  Thorns.— Scarce,  under  stones  on  hillsides. 

Agrabus  bipustuiatus,  ly. 

Gyrlnus  opacus,  Sahl. 

Aleochara  brevlpennis,  Gr.— One  specimen. 
A.  lanugrinosa,  Grav. 
A.  maesta,  Grav. 

Oxypoda  longrlusciila,  Er. — In  wet  places. 

Astllbus  canallculatus,  P. 

Homalota  vestlta,  Gr. — On  muddy  sea-shore. 
H.  g:ramInIcola,  Gyll. 

Tachyporus  obtusus,  var.   nitldlcollls,  Steph.~Not  rarely,  by 

sweeping,  &c. 

Tachlnus  ruflpes,  Iv. 

Megracronus  cingulatus,  Mann. — One  specimen,  under  a  stone. 

IVIycetoporus  splendens,  Marsh. 

Quedlus  tristis,  Grav. 
Q.  moloctilnus,  Grav. 
Q.  fumatus,  Steph. — One  example. 

Staphyllnus  pubescens,  DeG.— Four  specimens,  on  dusty  road. 
S.  caesarcus,  Ceder. — Common. 

Ocypus  ater,  Grav. — Occasionally  under  stones. 

Phllonthus  splendens,  F.— One  fine  male,  by  sweeping. 
P.  lamlnatus,  Creutz. 
P.  marglnatus,  F. 

XanthoIInus  linearis,  Ol. 

Baptolinus  alternans,  Grav. — Under  decaying  fir  bark. 

Lathroblum  boreale,  Hoch. 

L.  brunnipes,  F. — Common. 

L.  quadratum,  Payk. — One  specimen,  in  wet  place. 

Platystethus  cornutus,  Gyll.— By  sweeping. 

-    Bryaxis  haematica,  Reich.— One,  by  sweeping. 

Sllpha  atrata,  L. — Common,  and  very  variable,  from  the  most 
pronounced  form,  subrotttndata,  Steph.,  to  specimens  indistinguishable 
from  those  I  have  from  Kent  and  Hampshire. 

Choleva  serlcea,  F.— By  sweeping. 

Hlster  carbonarlus,  111.— Taken  on  the  wing. 

Captures  of  Coleoptera  in  IrelaJid during  the  Spri^ig  of  1895.   209 

Coccinelia  xlv-gruttata,  I^, 
C.  xviii -guttata,  L. 
C.  xiv-punctata,  L. 

Epuraea  melina,  Er. —By  sweeping. 
E.  florea,  Er. 

Otnosita  discoidea;  F.— Scarce. 

IVleligethes  virldescens,  F. 

Coninotnus  nodifcr,  Westw. — One  or  two,  by  sweeping. 

IVIicrambe  vini,  Panz. — Common,  on  furze-blossom. 

Onthophag'us  fractlcornis,  Payk. — Locally  common,  in  sheep- 

Aphodius  erraticus,  L.  \ 

A,  fossor,  L.  f 

A.  ater,  DeG.  VMore  or  less  plentiful,  in  dung. 

A,  merdarius,  F.  | 

A.  rufipes,  L.  / 

Athous  haemorrholdalis,  F. — Common,  by  sweeping. 

Cyphon  variabilis^  Thunb. 

Helodes  margin ata,  F.— Common,  by  sweeping  on  the  banks  of  a 

CIS  fcstlvus,  Panz. — Rare,  under  Beech  bark. 

Lema  lichen  is,  Voet. —Common,  by  sweeping,  varying  to  quite 

L.  Erichsoni,  Suffr. — Six  specimens  of  this  rare  species  were  taken 
on  May  7th  and  8th,  bj  sweeping  on  grassy  banks. 

Chrysomcia  Banksi,  F.— Scarce. 

Castroldea  viridula,  De  G.— On  dock,  rather  sparingly. 

Phaedon  armoraciae,  L.  , 

Calerucella  tenella,  L. 

Haltica  lythrl,  Aub^— One  specimen,  by  sweeping. 

Phyllotreta  ncmorum,  L. 

•    P.  brasslcse,  F. — On  Cardamine p-atensis. 

Aphthona  nonstrlata,  Goeze— Abundant,  on  Iris pseudacoi-us. 

Plectroscelis  concinna,  Marsh. 

Helops  striatus,  Fourc— Not  rare,  under  fir-bark. 

Rhlnosimus  planlrostris,  F.— By  sweeping. 

Wleloc  proscarabseus,  L.— Very  local,  occurring  in  one  lane  only. 

Rhynchltes  mlnutus,  Hbst.— Several,  by  sweeping. 

Aplon  subulatum,  Kirb)-.      ^ 

A.  ml n latum,  Germ.  I  , 

A.  cruentatum,  Walt.  (All  more  or  less  common,  by  sweep- 

A.  trifolll,  L.  I      ing. 

A.  nigritarsc,  Kirby.  | 

A.  vircns,  Hbst.  J 

A.  Striatum,  Kirby.— Not  rare,  on  furze-blossom. 

A.  Cyllcnhall,  Kirby.  )  ^    sweeping. 

A.  hydrolapathi,  Kirby.  5     ^  *-     » 

Ai  humlle,  Germ. 

210  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Otiorrhynchus  sulcatus,  F.— Not  rare. 
O.  plclpes,  F.— Common. 

Strophosomus  coryli,  F.— Common. 

Llophlaeus  nuUIIus,  F.— Several  specimens. 

Sciaphilus  murlcatus,  F.— Common. 

S.  retusus,  Marsh. — Not  rare,  on  Furze-blossom,  &c. 

Sitones  cinerascens,  Fahr.— Two  examples,  by  sweeping. 

S,  regrensteinensis,  Hbst.    \      r^  ^ 

S.  tibialis,  Hbst.  ;      Common,  on  Furze. 

S.  flavescens,  Marsh. 

S.  sulcifrons,  Thunb.— By  sweeping. 

Hypera  punctata,  F. 

H,   rutnicis,  L.— Common,  on  docks. 

H.  plantag:inis,  DeG. 

H.  trilineata,  Marsh  —One  or  two,  by  sweeping. 

H.  nigrirostris,  F. 

Liosoma  ovatulum,  Clairv.— Common,  in   damp  places.      I  have 
taken  the  var.  collaris,  Rye,  here  in  moss,  in  November,  1894. 

Orchestes  qucrcus,  L.       \ 

O.  aini,  Iv.  [  Rarely,  by  sweeping, 

var.  ferrug^ineus.  Marsh. ) 
O.  fas'!,  I/. — A-bundant  on  beech. 

Erlrrhinus  acridulus,  L.— In  damp  places. 

Dorytomus  tortrix,  ly.— Under  poplar  bark,  rare. 

IVIecinus  pyraster,  Herbst. 

Anthonomus  pedicularius,  L.— By  sweeping. 

Ceuthorrhynchus  assimllts,  Payk.  "|  ' 

C.  crysimi,  F.  | 

C.  contractus,  Marsh.  !  By  general  sweep- 

C.   pollinarius,  Forst.  f     ing. 

C.  plcurostigma.  Marsh.  | 

Ceuthorrhynchidius  troglodytes,  F.  J 

Rhinoncus  pericarpus,  L. 

Balaninus  pyrrhoceras.  Marsh— Scarce. 

Rhopalomesites  Tardy!,  Curt. — Remains  common  in  Beech,  but 

living  specimens  not  observed. 

Phloeophthorus    rhododactylus.    Marsh— One    specimen,    off 

Pityophthorus  puttesccns.  Marsh  {micrographusy  Brit.  Cat.) — One, 
by  sweeping. 

At  Midletown,  Co.  Cork,  I  took  the  following  species  on  the 
afternoon  of  May  6th  : — 
Amara  ovata,  F. — One,  under  a  stone. 
Aleochara  ttrcvipcnnis,  Grav.— One,  in  dusty  road. 
Staphylinus  caesareus,  Ceder. — Two  examples. 
Tachyporus  obtusus,  var.  n itidicoll Is,  Steph.— By  sweeping. 
Boletobius  trinotatus,  Er.— By  sweeping,  under  firs. 
Lathrobium  toorcale,  Hoch. 
Piatystethus  cornutus,  Gyll. 

I  By  sweeping,  in  a  marshy  place. 

Captures  of  Coleoptera  in  Ireland  during  the  Spring  of  1895.  211 

Omaliumexcavatum,  vSteph. 

Silpha  atrata,  L. — Brown  variety. 

Anisotoma  calcarata,  Br. — One  male  specimen. 

Olibrus  toicolor,  F. 

IYIicropeplustnarg^ai*ltse,  Duv. 

IVIonotoma  spinicollis,  Aube.— By  sweeping,  nnder  fir  trees. 

Coccinella  hieroglyph ica,  L.— One  specimen. 

Aphodlus  sticticus,  Panz. — One  example,  by  sweeping  under  firs. 

Lema  ErichsonI,  SufFr.  — Two  examples,  by  sweeping  among  weeds. 

Prasocuris  junci,  Brahm. 

Hydrothassa  marginella,  L. 

Rhinosimus  planirostris,  F.— By  sweeping. 

Aplon   subulatum,  Kirby.— Common. 

A.  Cyllenhali,  Kirby. — Several,  by  sweeping. 

A.  humilef  Germ.,  &c. 

Phyllobius  otolongus,  L. — Scarce  and  immature. 

Barypeithes  sulcifrons,  Boh.— By  sweeping  under  fir  trees,  rare. 

Scfaphilus  muricatus,  F. — Not  uncommon. 

Coeliodes  iv-maculatus,  L,.— Abundant,  on  nettles. 

PhytoltJius  Iv-tuberculatus,  F.   >  ,      ^ 

Hylastes  ater,  Payk.  S  ^^  ^^eeprng  under  fir  trees. 

On  May  13th    and    14th   inst.,   I   met  with  the  following 
species,  between  Bangor  and  Newtownards,  Co.  Down  : — 

Carabus  neinoralis,  Mull. — One  specimen. 
Ci  grranulatus,  Iv. 

Poecllus  versicolor,  Sturm. — In  the  road. 

Pterostlchus  madidus,  F. 

P.  niger,  Schall. — One  specimen. 

P.   nigrita,  F. 

Aleochara  fusel  pes,  F.— In  carrion. 

Staphylinus    putoescens,    DeG. — One  example,   caught  on  the 

S.  erythropterus,  L. — Under  stones,  and  running  on  the  road. 

Philonthus  aeneus,  Rossi. 
P.  laminatus,  Creutz. 
Lathrobium  elongatum,  L. 
L.  fulvipenne,  Grav. 

Eusphalerum  prlmulae,  Steph.— Not  rare,  by  sweeping. 
Silpha  atrata,  L. — Brown  variety  only. 

Anisotoma  calcarata,      Er.— Five    specimens    of  both  sexes,  by 
Choleva  airills.  111. — One  specimen. 

Epurasa  aestlva,  Iv. 

E.  melina,  Er. — By  sweeping. 

Mlcropeplus  margarltae,  Duv.   1 

Latridius  lardarlus,  De  G.  > By  sweeping. 

Coninomus  nodlfer,  Westw.       J 

212  .  The  Irish  Nattiralist 

Cytilus  varius    F.— Three  specimens. 
Aphodius  depressus,  Kug.— In  dung. 
Athous  haemorrhoidalis,  F.— Common. 
Agriotcs  obscurus,  Iv. 

Corymbites  quercus,  Gyll.  ]  In  great  abundance,  by  sweeping  in 
var.  ochropterus,  Steph.     >      grass   fields ;    intermediate    forms 

)      common. 

Telephorus  limbatus,  Thoms.— By  sweeping. 

Lema  Erichsoni,  Suffr. — Two  specimens,  by  sweeping,  on  13th. 

Lochmsea  sutu rails.  Thoms. — By  sweeping  heather. 

Blaps  mucronata,  Latr. — One  in  Newtownards. 

Rhlnosimus  planirostris,  F.— By  sweeping. 

Apion  carduorum,  Kirby. 

A.  viclae,  Payk. 

A.  crvi,  Kirby. 

A.  Cyllenhali,  Kirby.— Rather  common,  by  sweeping  under  trees, 

A*  hydrolapathl,  Kirby. — Common. 

A.  humlle,  Germ,  &c. 

Otiorrhynchus  picipes,  F. 

Strophosomus  coryll,  F. 

Sciaphilus  murlcatus,  F. — Common. 

Llophlaeus  nubilus,  F. — Common,  some  of  the  specimens  very 

Phyllobius  oblongus,  Iv. — Not  rare,  by  sweeping. 

Barypeithes  sulcifrons,  Boh.— Not  rare  in  one  place,  by  sweep- 
ing under  trees. 

Barynotus  obscurus,  F.— Under  stones  and  by  sweeping. 

Sitones  tibialis,  Herbst. 
S.  sulcifrons,  Thunb. 

Hypera  rumicls,   L. 

H.  polygoni,  Iv — One  or  two,  by  sweeping. 

H.  trilineata,  Marsh. — One  specimen. 

Llosoma  ovatulum,  Clairv. — Common,  in  damp  places. 

CcBlIodes   cardui,    Herbst. — Rarely,  by  sweeping. 

Ceuthorrhynchus  cricae,  Gyll.  \  By  sweeping  heather  at  "  Helen's 

C.  contractus,  Marsh.  )      Tower. ' 

C.  quadridens,  Panz.— Not  rare,  by  sweeping. 

C.  pollinarius,  Forst. 

C.  angulosus,  Boh.— Three  examples  of  this  very  rare  species  were 
taken  on  May  14th,  by  sweeping  under  trees  bordering  a  marshy  place, 
about  a  mile  from  Bangor. 

C.  pleurostig-ma,  Marsh. — Common. 

C.  rugulosus,  Herbst. — One  or  two  by  sweeping. 

Rhlnoncus  pericarpius,  L. 

Lltodactylus  Icucogaster,  Marsh.— One,  by  sweeping  on  banks  of 
a  pond. 
Phytobius  Iv-tuberculatus,  F.— One  or  two,  by  sweeping. 


[     ^13     ] 

Otiorrhy7ichus  atiroptmctatus,  Gyll. 


Three  years  ago,  Mr.  H.  K.  Gore  Cuthbert,  in  a  paper  on  the 
Weevils  of  South  lyouth,^  recorded  a  species  from  the  north 
of  the  Boyne  mouth  obtained  by  beating  Alder  and  Beech  as 
Otiorrhynchus  maurus,  Gyll.,  a  mountain  beetle  of  which  the 
only  Irish  specimens  were  taken  in  1875  by  Mr.  G.  C. 
Champion  on  Slieve  Donard%  Mr.  Cuthbert  remarked  that  his 
insects  were  much  lighter  in  colour  than  the  typical  O.  maurus. 
Mr.  J.  N.  Halbert  recently  took  the  same  species  in  some 
numbers  at  various  points  in  Cos.  Dublin,  Meath  and  lyouth, 
and,  with  his  usual  careful  discrimination,  observed  structural 
differences  between  it  and  O.  maurus  of  much  greater  value 
than  the  colour  distinction.  A  suspicion  that  we  had  a  Weevil 
new  to  the  British  list  was  awakened,  and  specimens  were 
sent  to  some  of  the  leading  British  coleopterists.  One  of 
them,  Mr.  G.  C.  Champion,  in  a  recent  note,^  has  pronounced 
the  insect  to  be  O.  auropuftctatus,  Gyll.,  a  Pyrenean  species, 
found  also  in  the  Auvergne  and  in  Spain,  and  a  most  note- 
worthy addition  to  our  fauna. 

The  identification  of  this  Weevil  as  O.  utaurus,  Gyll.,  was 
natural  enough,  as,  by  the  table  for  discriminating  the 
Otiorrhynchi  in  Canon  Fowler's  *'  Coleoptera  of  the  British 
Islands,'"*  the  captor  of  our  insect  would  be  readily  led  to  refer 
it  to  that  species,  with  which  O.  auropunctatus  agrees  in  its 
unspined  front  femora,  and  rugose  pronotum  and  elytra.  It 
is,  however,  not  closely  related  to-  O.  maurus^  from  which  its 
much  longer  legs  and  antennae  distinguish  it  at  once.  The 
first  two  joints  of  the  funiculus  of  the  antennae  are  consider- 
ably longer  than  the  succeeding  joints,  and  are  themselves  of 
unequal  length,  the  second  being  half  as  long  again  as  the 
first  (fig.  2).  The  British  species  to  which  it  approaches  most 
nearly  is  O.  tenebricosus,  Herbst ;  from  this,  as  Mr.  Champion 
points  out,  it  may  be  easily  separated  by  its  smaller  size,  and 

^  Irish  Nat.,  vol.  i,,  1892,  p.   158.  ^  EhUMo>  Mag.,  vol.  xii  ,  p.  82. 

^  Ent.  Mo,  Mag.y  vol.  xxxi.,  1895,  p.  133.  *  VoL  v.,  p.  174. 


The  Irish  Naturalist. 

rougher  surface.  Mr.  Champion  further  remarks  that  it  re- 
sembles a  atroapterus,  DG.,  in  shape  and  size,  but  differs  also 
from  that  species  in  its  rougher  sculpture.  O.  auropunctatus 
derives  its  name  from  the  scattered  patches  of  golden  pubes- 
cence on  the  thorax  and  elytra— an  adornment  which  becomes 
very  easily  rubbed  off.  Our  Irish  specimens  vary  in  colour 
from  rich  chestnut  brown  to  almost  black. 

Otiorrhynchus  auropunctatus,  Gyll. 

Fig.  I  Female,  iiat.  size.     Fig.  2  Male,  magnified. 

Fig.  3  Hinder  end  of  abdomen  of  Male. 

The  section  of  Otiorrhynchus  to  which  O.  aiiropimctatus 
belongs  is  characterised'  by  the  very  distinct  longitudinal 
striation  (fig.  3)  beneath  the  hindmost  abdominal  segment  in 
the  male.  This  group  is  specially  characteristic  of  the 
Mediterranean  district  and  Southern  Europe,  only  a  few  species 
— of  which  O.  tenebricosus  is  one — extending  their  range  into 
Central  and  Northern  Europe.  We  have,  therefore,  in  this 
beetle  a  most  interesting  addition  to  the  group  of  animals  of 
southern  origin,  which,  absent  or  extremely  rare  in  northern 
Continental  Europe  and  in  Great  Britain,  form  so  interesting 
a  feature  in  the  fauna  of  Ireland. 

I^rom  the  various  captures  of  this  weevil  by  Messrs.  Cuth- 
bert  and  Halbert,  it  appears  to  be  distributed  along  the  eastern 
Irish  coast  from  Carlingford  to  Dublin.     The  localities  where 

^  O.  Stiefliil— Bestimmungstabellen  der  Europ.  Curculioniden  Schaff- 
hauseti,  1883, 

Notes  on  a  New  British  Beetle.  215 

it  has  been  found  are  Santry,  Raheny,  Portmarnock,  and 
Donabate  in  Co.  Dublin  ;  I^aytown  in  Co.  Meath  ;  Ternionfeckin 
and  Carlingford  in  Co.  lyouth.  It  is  obtained  by  beating 
shrubs  and  trees.  It  is  certainly  remarkable  that  so  com- 
paratively large  an  insect  should  have  been  overlooked  by  the 
older  naturalists ;  not  a  specimen  is  to  be  found  in  the  collec- 
tion of  that  prince  of  Irish  entomologists,  the  late  A.  H.  Haliday. 
One  can  only  conjecture  that,  in  the  localities  where  the  insect 
occurs,  he  did  not  for  some  reason  collect  by  beating  or  .sweep- 
ing. The  wide  distribution  of  the  weevil  and  the  analogy  of 
its  range  with  that  of  other  animals  show  that  its  presence  here 
cannot  be  ascribed  to  recent  introduction.  While  it  is  not 
possible  to  assert  definitely  that  O.  auropunctatus  does  not 
occur  in  Great  Britain,  it  is  hardly  likely  that  it  has  been 
overlooked  for  many  years  in  a  country  so  well  supplied  with 

From  the  discovery  of  this  weevil  in  Ireland  we  are  naturally 
led  to  speculations  as  to  how  it  found  its  v/ay  here.  In  a  case  in 
the  Dublin  Museum,  recently  described  by  me,^  I  have  ventured 
to  roughly  group  the  animals  of  the  British  fauna  in  three 
divisions : — those  with  a  wide  range  over  the  whole  of  our 
islands,  those  characteristic  of  the  south-eastern  and  lowland 
districts  of  Great  Britain  ("  Teutonic  Fauna"),  and  those 
characteristic  of  Ireland  and  the  western  and  highland  dis- 
tricts of  Great  Britain  ("  Celtic  Fauna").  In  this  last  division, 
two  distinct  groups  of  animals  at  least  can  be  recognised. 
One  includes  animals  of  northern  origin,  characteristic  of 
northern  and  arctic  Europe,  and  sometimes  also  of  the  Alps, 
which  have  come  into  Ireland  by  way  of  Scotland  ;  of  such  the 
ground-beetle  Pelophila  borealis,  is  perhaps  the  most  striking 
example.  The  other  group  comprises  animals  of  southern 
origin,  which,  outside  the  British  ^  Isles,  are  found  in  the 
Mediterranean  district,  and  extend  their  range  in  some  in- 
stances as  far  as  the  Madeira,  Canaries,  and  Azores.  It  is 
clearly  to  this  latter  group  that  Otiorrhyiichus  auropjaietatus 
must  be  assigned. 

Dr.  R.  F.  Scharff's  recent  preliminary  paper  on  the  Origin 
of  the  Irish  Fauna^  will  doubtless  be  fresh  in  the  minds  of 
all  readers  of  these  remarks,  and  his  support  of  the  theory 


Report  of  Museums  Association,  1894,,  pp.  109,  117. 
*  Proc,  Rd.A,  (3)  vol.  iii.,  1894,  p.  479. 

2i6  l^he  Irish  Naturalist. 

of  an  ancient  freshwater  lake  on  the  site  of  the  present  Irish 
Sea  and  St.  George's  Channel,  with  land-connections  to  the 
north  and  to  the  south  of  it,   across  both  of  which  animals 
passed  into  Ireland,  will  be  seen  to  correspond  with  the  sub- 
divisions of  our  fauna  which  I  have  here  suggested.     As  Dr. 
Scharff  states  that  the  land-connections  in  question  were  of 
Pliocene  age,  it  is  clear  that  he  does  not  believe  in  the  total 
extinction  of  our  fauna  either  by  land-ice  or  by  submergence 
during   the    Pleistocene  Period,  which  is  generally  held  by 
geologists  and  zoologists.     For  the  reasons  for  this  disbelief 
we  must  await  the  publication  of  his  promised  large  memoir. 
I  would,  however,  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  Mr.  Jukes- 
Browne^  locates  a  lake  in    a  similar   situation    during    the 
Pleistocene  Period,  after  the  Ice  Age  had  passed  away,  and 
the  land  had  risen  once  more  from  the  glacial  sea.     He  sup- 
poses the  immigration  of  our  fauna  to  have  taken  place  then. 
But,  whether  earlier  or  later,  it  seems  clear  that  the  animals 
of  the  Celtic  fauna  were  passing,  one  group  southwards,  the 
other  northwards,  between  the  St.  George's  lake  and  the  coast 
of  the  Atlantic,  then  far  to  the  west  of  the  present  Irish  coast- 
line, before  the  animals  of  the  Teutonic  fauna  crossed  the  site 
of  the  present  North  Sea  into  Great  Britain.     The  breaking 
down  of  the  land-connections  with  Ireland,  and  the  conver- 
sion of  the  St.  George's  lake,  first  into  a  gulf,  and  then  into  a 
sea-channel,  prevented,  as  has  been  pointed  out  by  Dr.  A.  R. 
Wallace''   and  other  naturalists,  the  extension  of  these  into 

The  distribution  in  Ireland  of  Otionhynchus  auropicndatus 
recalls  that  of  the  land-snail,  Helix  pis a?ia,  which  inhabits  our 
eastern  coast  to  the  north  of  Dublin,  extending  however  only 
from  the  south  of  Co.  I^outh  to  Rush  in  Co.  Dublin^  but 
appearing  in  Great  Britain  at  points  in  South  Wales  and 
Cornwall.  Its  distribution  abroad  extends  all  over  the 
Mediterranean  region  and  to  the  Madeira,  Canaries,  and 
Azores.  Another  distinctively  Mediterranean  animal,  the 
ground-beetle  Nebria  complanata,  now  placed  by  Dr. 
Ganglbauer^  in  a  peculiar  genus,  Eurynebria,  is  also 
characteristic  of  the  east  coast  of  Ireland,  but  is  found  onl}^  to 

1 "  The  Building  of  the  British  Isles,"  London,  1888,  p.  298^  PI.  xiv. 

'  "Island  Life,"  2nd  ed.,  London,  1892,  p.  379. 

2  "  Die  Kafer  von  Mitteleuropa,"  vol.  i,  AVien,  1892,  p.  98. 

Notes  on  a  Neiv  British  Beetle.  ^17 

the  south  of  Dublin,  in  Counties  Wicklow  and  Wexford.  lyike 
Helix  pisa7ia,  it  occurs  also  in  South  Wales  and  South-western 
England  (North  Devon).  Now,  most  of  the  distinctive  Celtic 
animals  of  southern  origin  are  characteristic  of  the  west  coast 
of  Ireland,  where  occur  those  plants  of  the  Atlantic  type 
which  have  made  our  western  counties  so  fascinating  a  field 
for  botanists.  For  example,  the  famous  Kerry  Slug,  Geomalacus 
viaculostis,  and  the  Galway  Burnet  Moth,  Zygcena  nubigefia,  are 
unknown  in  eastern  Ireland.  It  seems  therefore  that  we  can 
trace  for  the  Celtic  animals  of  southern  origin  a  western  and 
an  eastern  line  of  migration  ;  the  former  along  the  Atlantic 
sea-coast  of  the  old  continental  land,  the  latter  along  the 
valley  of  the  river  which  flowed  south-westward  from  the 
ancient  St.  George's  lake,  and  which  must  have  received  the 
Severn  and  the  rivers  of  eastern  and  southern  Ireland  as 
tributaries.  Our  fine  Dublin  House-Spider,  Tegenaria  hibernicay 
Cb.,  very  closely  allied  to  a  Pyrenean  species,  must  be  re- 
garded as  belonging  to  the  eastern  migration.  It  occurs  in 
Cork  as  well  as  in  Dublin,  but  we  must  remember  that  the 
Lee  as  well  as  the  I^iffey  was  a  tributary  of  the  ancient  eastern 
river.  This  spider,  though  undoubtedly  indigenous,  has 
apparently  found  human  dwellings  more  comfortable  than 
the  open  air  in  our  north-western  island. 

If  we  accept  Dr.  ScharfPs  view  that  our  Celtic  fauna  is  pre- 
Glacial — and  it  is  certain  that  it  is  older  than  the  Teutonic 
fauna — we  might  believe  that  by  the  ancient  Atlantic  coast, 
and  along  the  banks  of  this  old  river,  such  mild  conditions  of 
climate  prevailed  that  species  were  able  to  maintain  them- 
selves in  those  localities,  while  most  of  the  present  land-sur- 
face of  Ireland  was  covered  with  glaciers.  The  objection  to 
such  a  view,  which  will  at  once  occur  to  geologists,  is  the 
apparent  submergence  of  the  hills  of  Wales  and  Dublin  to  the 
extent  of  about  1,400  feet  as  evidenced  by  the  shell-gravel  on 
Moel  Tryfaen  and  Two-rock  Mountain.  Moreover,  the 
marine  origin  of  the  Boulder-Clay  which  Mr.  J.  Wright's  recent 
discoveries  of  foraminifera  in  that  deposit  render  highly 
probable,  would  require  a  submergence  as  fatal  to  a  pre-Glacial 
fauna  as  the  orthodox  ice-sheet.  But,  if  the  migrations  we 
are  discussing  took  place  in  Pleistocene  times  as  the  ice  passed 
away,  and  the  land  (after  deep  submergence  and  .subsequent 
elevation)  subsided  towards  its  present  level,  the  animals  would 

2 1 8  The  Irish  Na  hi 7  a  list. 

naturally  reach  their  present  stations  on  the  western  and  east- 
ern Irish  coasts  respectively.  Some  individuals  of  the  eastern 
(river- valley)  migration  would  retire  eastwards  towards  what 
is  now  south-western  England  and  Wales,  where  a  few  of 
their  descendants  are  still  to  be  found  ;  but  the  incursion  of 
the  newer  Teutonic  fauna  has  made  their  persistence  there 
harder  than  in  Ireland,  and  so  we  find  that  some  of  the  species, 
as  Otiorrhy7ichtcs  atiroptmctattis,  are  absent  from  Great  Britain, 
while  the  rest  are  scarcer  there  than  in  Ireland.  Some  animals 
of  the  western  migration  seem  to  have  passed  on  northwards 
into  Scotland ;  the  Galway  Burnet  Moth  for  instance  occurs 
in  Argyllshire.  The  land-connection  to  the  north  of  the  old 
lake  remained  after  the  southern  river- valley  had  been  sub- 
merged beneath  the  sea.^ 

As  an  example  of  a  southern  species  which  appears  to  have 
followed  both  the  western  and  eastern  lines  of  migration,  we 
may  take  our  peculiar  holly-boring  weevil,  Mesites  Tardyi, 
Curtis,  belonging  to  a  most  characteristic  Mediterranean  and 
Atlantic  genus.  Abundant  in  the  south-west  of  Ireland,  this 
insect  occurs  near  Westport,  and  in  the  Clyde  and  Argyll  dis- 
tricts of  Scotland  ;  it  seems  therefore  to  have  passed  north- 
wards along  the  old  Atlantic  seaboard.  But  it  is  also  found 
at  places  on  our  eastern  coast  from  Wicklow  to  Belfast,  as 
well  as  across  the  Channel  in  North  and  South  Devon,  which 
suggests  that  it  also  followed  the  old  river  and  lake  valley  to 
the  east  of  modern  Ireland^ 

Our  comparison  of  the  distribution  of  our  new  British 
Beetle  with  that  of  other  animals  has  therefore  opened  up  to 
us  problems  of  the  highest  interest  in  the  past  geography  of 
our  islands,  and  of  the  neighbouring  continental  lands. 
The  discontinuous  range  of  these  southern  forms  shows  them 
to  be  of  very  considerable  antiquity.  Whether  they  entered 
our  country  in  Pliocene  or  Pleistocene  times,  they  mUvSt  have 
preceded  those  members  of  our  fauna  which  have  come  to 
us  directly  from  Central  Europe.  The  land- tracts  over 
which  these  distinctly  Pyrenean  and  Mediterranean  animals 
had  travelled  to  Ireland,  were  covered  by  the  waters  of  the 
sea,  while  early  races  of  men  were  still  able  to  ramble  into 
Britain  over  an  isthmus  where  the  waves  of  the  Straits  of 
Dover  and  the  North  Sea  now  roll. 

^  Cf.  A.  J.  Jukes-Browne,  op.  cit.,  PI.  xv.,  and  R.  F.   Scharflf,  he.  p.  485, 

[       219       ] 


RoYAi,  Zooi^oGiCAi,  Society. 

Recent  donations  comprise  a  Badger  from  W.  J.  Matson,  Esq.,  and  a 
number  of  fish  from  P.  Mahony,  Esq.  A  Golden  Agouti  has  been  pur- 
chased, and  a  Red  Deer  fawn  born  in  the  Gardens. 

16,150  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  June. 

Dubinin  Microscopicai,  Ci,ub. 

May  i6th.— The  Club  met  at  Mr.  F.  W.  Moore's. 

Mr.  Greenwood  Pim  exhibited  a  curious  black  mould  which  occurred 
on  Bananas,  given  him  by  Prof.  Cole,  and  which  had  been  imported  from 
the  Canary  Islands.  Being  unable  to  identify  it,  Mr.  Pim  sent  specimens 
to  Mr.  Massee,  who  states  it  is  Glenospora  Cicrtisii  (Berk.),  and  that  it 
had  not  previously  occurred  in  Great  Britain. 

Professor  T.  Johnson  exhibited  Ectocarpus  sccundus  (Kiitz.),  a  brown 
sea- weed  showing  two  kinds  of  flurilocular  sporangia,  like  those  des- 
cribed recently  in  this  species  by  Bornet,  who  found  the  plurilocular 
sporangia  differing  in  size,  shape,  and  in  the  size  of  the  compartments. 
The  contents  of  the  larger  loculi  are  probably  female,  and  of  the  smaller 
male.  Direct  experimental  evidence  is  required.  The  species  (taken  in 
Bantry  Bay)  is  an  addition  to  the  list  of  Irish  species. 

Mr.  M'Ardi^E  exhibited  Diplophylluin  miniitum,  (Dicks.),  which  he 
collected  recently  in  L,ord  Howth's  demesne.  The  specimens  of  this  rare 
liverwort  showed  the  dichotomous  branching  of  the  plant,  and  shoots 
bearing  in  the  axil  of  each  leaf  antheridia  of  a  large  size,  having 
remarkably  long  pseudopodia. . 

June  20th.— The  Club  met  at  Mr.  Greenwood  Pim's,  who  exhibited 
Ustilago  Vaillantii  (TuL),  which  .occurred  on  the  anthers  and  ovones  of 
Scilla  bifolia  in  the  Trinity  College  Botanic  Garden,  forming  the  so-called 
"  Black-eyed  "  variety  of  that  Scilla.  It  was  referred  to  Dr.  P.  Wright, 
who  kindly  identified  it,  and  states  that  it  is  an  addition  to  the  British 
Mycologic  Flora.     It  is  said  to  occur  also  on  Gupa  lutea, 

Mr.  M'ArdIvE  exhibited  Jtatgermania  bicrenata  (Lindenberg),  which  he 
recently  collected  in  Howth  Demesne.  This  scarce  plant  is  easily 
separated  from  the  other  \i\di.^r\.\.dX^  Jiingermani(x,  by  the  smaller  size,  acute 
segments  of  its  leaves,  and  remarkable  guttulate  cells,  and  above  all  the 
paroecious  inflorescence.  It  is  an  addition  to  the  Co.  Dublin  list  of 

Mr.  J.  N.  HaIvBERT  exhibited  the  nymph  of  Cryptostemma  alienw/i,  H.S., 
recently  captured  amongst  wet  gravel  in  the  bed  of  the  Dodder,  near 
.  Tallaght.  Mr.  A.  H.  Haliday,  when  recording  this  insect  from  the  Black 
Lakes,  Co.  Kerry  (JVat.  Hist.  Rev.  1855,  p.  61),  mentioned  the  occurrence 
of  theyellowishlarvceandpupaewiththeperfectinsect.  The  nymph,  how- 
ever, is  further  distinguished  by  the  presence  of  a  well-defined  red  colour 
patch  on  the  dorsal  side  of  the  2nd,  3rd,  and  4th  abdominal  segments. 
This  species,  which  at  first  gave  some  trouble  as  regards  its  affinities,  is 
now  placed  among  the  Ci/nicidcc  next  Ceratocombtis. 

Mr.  Henry  J.  Seymour  showed  a  section  of  a  Gold-bearing  Quartz- 
Diorite,  from  Fort  Salisbury,  Matabeleland.  The  gold,  which  occurs  in 
small  fragments    quite  visible  to  the   unaided   eye,   is  almost  entirely 

220  The  hish  Naturalist, 

developed  in,  or  near,  the  crystals  of  hornblende  ;  the  lattermaking  up 
about  20  per  cent,  of  the  total  bulk  of  the  rock.  In  the  mass,  the  rock 
has  a  slight  schistose  structure,  and  is  said  to  yield  from  80-100  oz.  of 
gold  per  ton.  The  mean  result  of  several  experiments  gave  its  sp.  gr.  as 
2  85.  A  few  cr3^stals  of  sphene,  and  some  of  titanic  iron,  appear  in  the 

RE;y.  Canon  Russell  showed  a  preparation  of  the  feathers  of  a  duck 
showing  the  scales,  to  the  peculiar  structure  of  which  their  irridescence 
is  evidently  due.  The  feathers  had  been  boiled  first  in  caustic  potash, 
and  reduced  almost  to  a  pulp,  and  then  put  up  in  glycerine  jelly.  Their 
metallic  lustre  could  be  plainly  seen  after  this  treatment  under  reflected 
light.  The  barbs  seem  to  be  composed  of  a  single  file  of  cells,  marked 
longitudinally  with  fine  lines  like  those  on  the  scales  of  the  wings  of 
the  Lepidoptera,  which  bring  out  the  colours  found  on  all  such  striated 

These  stride  appear  to  have  been  noticed  before  ;  but  in  the  centre  of 
each  scale  there  is  a  well-marked  oval  or  round  figure,  of  which  the 
exhibitor  could  get  no  account  from  any  book.  It  was  conjectured  that 
they  might  be  the  nuclei  of  epithelial  cells.  If  this  be  so,  the  only 
way  of  accounting  for  their  absence  in  the  scales  of  butterflies  and 
beetles,  is  that  on  these  latter  the  scales  are  simply  inserted  in  sockets, 
and  are  not  organically  connected  with  the  membrane  on  which  they  are 
set.  The  cells  of  the  barbs  seem  to  grow  out  of  the  substance  of  the 
feather,  and  cannot  be  detached  from  it.  The  feathers  examined  were 
those  of  the  Peacock,  the  Teal,  and  an  Argentine  Duck  ;  in  all  the  same 
structure  is  to  be  found. 

Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club. 

June  15. — A  party  of  twenty-five  proceeded  by  the  Northern  Counties 
Railway  to  Limavady  and  the  valley  of  the  Roe,  On  arrival  at  the 
prosperous  clean  town  of  Limavad}-,  a  start  was  made  for  the  Glen,  a 
distance  of  a  couple  of  miles.  The  first  halt  was  made  at  O'Cahan's  Rock, 
where  the  party  spent  a  pleasant  hour  botanizing,  lunching,  and 
photographing,  the  splendid  crag  forming  a  feature  hard  to  surpass. 

Mrs.  Leebody,  the  well-known  Derry  botanist,  joined  here,  and  her 
local  knowledge  proved  useful  throughout  the  day.  A  steep  climb  from 
the  river-bed  brought  all  to  the  top  of  the  precipitous  rock,  from  which 
the  view  of  the  Roe  Valley  was  very  beautiful.  The  Dog's  Leap  was  then 
made  for,  where  the  curious  pot-holes  below  the  bridge  came  in  for  a 
share  of  observation,  and  where  those  members  interested  in  engineer- 
ing (among  whom  Mr.  A\'.  A.  Traill,  of  Bushmills,  was  prominent) 
enjoyed  an  inspection  of  the  electric  light  station  and  sawmill  owned 
and  worked  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Ritter,  J. P.,  to  whom  the  Club  were  indebted 
for  this  pleasure.  The  dynamos  are  driven  by  a  turbine,  the  mill  by  an 
ordinary  wheel,  and  a  new  pit  is  in  process  of  formation  for  an  additional 
turbine.  After  enjoying  the  cool  water  of  the  well,  the  return  journey  was 
begun,  passing  down  the  other  side  of  the  river  through  woods  where 
the  most  delightful  views  of  water  and  mountains  were  obtained. 
Here  the  botanists  were  pleased  to  find  a  great  profusion  of  Lastnca 
(€inula,  a  fern  which  is  locally  uncommon.  Mr.  Ritter's  house  at  Roe 
Park  was  soon  reached,  and  by  his  courtesy  was  thrown  open  to  those 
of  the  party  who  cared  to  inspect  a  most  perfectly  ai)pointed  amateur's 

Proceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  221 

On  leaving  the  house,  a  mile  and  a  half  or  so  brought  the  party  to  the 
Alexander  Arms,  where  an  excellent  tea  was  provided.  After  tea,  Mr. 
W.  H.  Patterson  thanked  Mr.  W.  Gray  in  the  name  of  the  Club  for  the 
trouble  he  had  taken  in  acting  as  guide  to  this  most  interesting,  but 
little  known  district.  A  short  business  meeting  was  then  held,  and  the 
following  were  elected  members: — Dr.  Lorraine  Smith,  Mr.  J.  M  M'llroy, 
Mr.  John  Bain,  Mr.  vS.  K,  Kirker,  C.E.,  of  the  Board  of  Works,  Major- 
General  Bland,  Mr.  John  Savage,  and  Mr.  James  M.  Fall.  The  6-5  train 
was  then  taken,  reaching  Belfast  shortly  after  nine.  The  geology  of  the 
district  is  mainly  of  rocks  either  Silurian  or  older,  being  mainly  mica 
schists,  with  bands  of  primary  limestone  interstratitied,  as  Mr.  Gray 
pointed  out  near  the  Dog's  Leap.  During  a  short  wait  at  Limavady 
Junction,  Mr.  W.  H.  Patterson  obtained  samples  of  the  very  rich  estuarine 
clay  which  covers  the  whole  neighbourhood,  and  on  the  return  journey 
several  of  the  microscopists  took  lumps  to  wash  down  for  foraminifera. 
The  very  numerous  shells  were  in  excellent  condition,  although 
the  stay  was  not  long  enough  to  secure  any  rarities.  The  botanists  had 
the  advantage  of  both  Mr.  S.  A.  Stewart's  and  Mrs.  Leebody's  presence. 
During  the  day  the  botanists  found  the  following  plants  which  may  be 
worth  mentioning : — Laniiuni  album,  Arenaria  trinervis,  Geum  intermedium, 
Listera  Nidus-avis,  Ca7'cx  hvvigata,  and  Lastraea  a-inula  (Bree's  fern).  It 
may  also  be  worth  noting  the  very  great  abundance  of  the  larger  variety 
of  the  Cow- wheat  {Melanipyrum  pratense),  the  flowers  being  large  and  fine. 
The  weather  being  so  dry,  land  shells  were  few,  and  none  of  them  out 
of  the  common.  Altogether  the  day  was  a  most  enjoyable  one,  the  party 
being  the  right  size  for  good  work,  and  the  weather  being  everything 
that  could  be  desired. 

June  i8th. — The  Geological  Section  met  at  the  Museum  in  the  rooms 
recently  acquired  by  the  Club  to  be  fitted  up  as  a  library  and  laboratory, 
where  all  collections  formed  by  the  Club  can  be  preserved.  Erratics 
from  northern  boulder  clay  were  contributed  by  Messrs,  R.  Bell, 
J.  Moore,  J.  St.  J.  Phillips,  and  A.  G.  Wilson,  and  details  arranged  about 
the  collections  previously  accumulated. 

June  22nd. — The  Geological  Section  visited  Islandmagee,  proceeding 
from  Magheramorne  station  across  the  ferr}',  and  along  the  shore  to 
Barney's  Point, to  explore  the  beds  of  Lower  Lias  which  occur  at  that  place, 
underlying  the  Greensand  and  Chalk  which  fringe  the  western  coast  of 
Islandmagee.  The  afternoon  was  spent  in  collecting  fossils,  including 
two  specimens  of  the  rare  Ceromya  gibbosa,  the  original  specimen  hav- 
ing been  first  discovered  by  Mr.  W.  Gray  in  this  locality  many  years 
ago.  Nautilus,  Pecten,  Pinna,  Lima,  and  other  liassic  fossils  were  also 
obtained  by  the  naturalists,  who  determined  to  revisit  the  shore 
later  in  the  season. 

Dubinin  Naturai^tsts'  Fiei^d  Ci^ub. 

June  22nd. — A  highly  successful  excursion  was  held,  when  a  party  of 
60  members  visited  Glenasmole.  Leaving  Earlsfort- terrace  at  1.30,  in 
brakes,  the  dusty  roads  were  soon  left  behind,  and  when  the  steep  hill 
at  Bohernabreena  was  surmounted,  the  beauty  and  pleasure  of  the  scene 
were  fully  appreciated.  The  deep  glen  with  the  reservoir  shimmering 
in  the  sunlight,  the  high  brown  mountain  beyond,  the  hedges  filled  with 
wild  roses  and  Honeysuckle,  and  the  meadows  blazing  with  flowers, 
formed  indeed  delightful  contrasts  to  the  hot  and  dusty  streets  of  the 
city.  The  partj^  drove  straight  to  the  head  of  the  glen,  where  the 
members  scattered  for  a  couple  of  hours.      To   the  botanists  fell  the 

222  The  Irish  Nahiralist. 

principal  spoils  of  the  day.  The  sloping  pastures  capping  the  great  drift 
banks  along  the  eastern  side  of  the  glen  below  the  old  churchyard  of  St. 
Anne's  rivalled  a  Swiss  Alp  in  the  number,  variety,  and  brilliancy  of 
their  flowers.  Orchids  were  specially  numerous  here.  The  spotted 
Orchis  {0.  maculata)^  the  Tway-Blade  {Listera  ovata),  the  Frog  Orchis 
{Habenaria  viridis),  the  Fragrant  Orchis  {H.  conopsea),  the  Butterfly  Orchis 
{H.  chloranthd),  and  the  Green-winged  Orchis  (0.  Morio)  (this  latter  now 
past  flowering),  were  all  gathered  in  abundance,  while  one  of  the  botanists, 
the  Rev.  C.  F.  D'Arcy,  was  fortunate  enough  to  discover  here  a  consider- 
able quantity  of  the  Marsh  Helleborine  (^Epipactis  palustris),  a  species  very 
rare  in  the  County  Dublin,  and  not  yet  recorded  for  this  station.  Here, 
too,  Dr.  M'Weeney  pointed  out  some  finely  developed  plants  of  the 
Adder's  Tongue  [Ophioglosstim  znilgaiuni)  and  the  Moonwort  {Botrychium 
lunat-ia).  The  common  Guelder  Rose  (  Vibttrmim  opulus),  truly  native  here, 
was  seen  flowering  by  the  rills,  the  Mountain  Trefoil  (  Trifolium  medmni), 
rather  rare  in  the  county,  showed  its  heads  of  vivid  crimson  in  abund- 
ance, and  the  handsome  Downy-leaved  Rose  was  in  full  bloom  on  the 
banks  of  the  Reservoir. 

At  the  opposite  side  of  the  glen  some  of  the  botanists  ascended 
Leecawn  Mountain  to  the  only  known  station  for  the  Beech-Fern 
{Polypodium phegopteris)  vn  County  Dublin,  and  were  pleased  to  find  the 
plant  growing  there  quite  as  vigorously  as  when  first  discovered  by  the 
Rev.  C.  F.  D'Arcy  in  1883.  On  the  way  down  to  the  rendezvous  at  the 
head  of  the  glen  two  other  rare  County  Dublin  species  were  noted,  the 
Sweet  Mountain  Fern  {Lasirea  Oreopteris)  abundant  on  the  rock-strewn 
slopes  between  700  and  900  feet,  and  the  Common  Club-moss  {Lycopodiu/n 
clavaitwi)  spreading  its  curious  network  of  green  stems  over  the  ground 
in  the  shade  of  the  Bracken.  In  a  marsh  on  the  main  arm  of  the  Dodder 
above  the  Lodge,  some  fine  clumps  of  another  rare  County  Dublin  plant, 
the  Panicled  Sedge  {Carex paniailatd)  were  discovered  by  the  Secretary. 

Among  the  insects,  Mr.  Farrell  found  the  large  mountain  ground- 
beetle  (Cfl;r^^z^j"^/a<^ra/?/^).  Otherbeetles  taken  were  Hydroportis  septentrionalisy 
Byrrhtts  pilula,  and  Malthinus  piinctaius.  The  plant-bug  Calocoris  striatcUus, 
and  a  crane-fly  of  the  mountain  genus  Ainalopis  were  also  noteworthy. 

All  assembled  at  6  o'clock,  when  Miss  Gardiner  had  an  ample  repast 
ready,  which,  by  kind  permission  of  Mrs.  Power,  was  spread  on  the  lawn 
adjoining  the  pretty  shooting-lodge  .it  the  top  of  the  glen.  After  tea  a 
short  business  meeting  was  held,  at  which  J.  A.  Jackson  and  Mrs.  Long 
were  elected  members  of  the  Club,  and  the  President  (Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter) 
expressed  the  indebtedness  of  the  members  to  Mrs.  Power  for  her  kind- 
ness. Shortly  afterwards  the  return  journey  was  commenced,  and  the 
city  was  reached  at  10  o'clock. 

—   223    — 




Plumatella  repens,  L.  In  Ireland. — This  pretty  freshwater 
polyzoan,  which  was  first  discovered  in  Ireland  by  Prof.  Allman,  has  re- 
cently been  found  by  Mr.  Greenwood  Pirn  in  a  small  pond  in  his  garden 
at  Monkstown.  Mr.  Pirn  noticed  it  adhering  to  the  underside  of  the 
leaves  of  the  white-water  Lily  {Nymphaca  alba),  and  correctly  identified 
the  interesting  species  as  Plumatella  repens, 

R,  F,  SCHARFF,  Dublin. 


Spi*lngr  Lepidoptera  at  Armagh. — Owing  to  the  long-continued 
severity  of  the  weather  outdoor  work  was  useless  till  April,  However 
I  had  dug  some  pupae  in  the  autumn,  and  these  being  indoors  emerged 
at  pretty  much  their  usual  time.  A  very  beautiful  Phigalia pedaria  emerged 
on  February  8.  It  is  very  much  suffused  with  yellow,  and  Mr.  C.  G. 
Barrett,  to  whom  I  submitted  it  for  inspection,  tells  me  that  it  is  the 
most  yellow  form  he  has  seen.  On  February  i8th  Hybemia  viargiiiaria 
emerged,  the  pupa  had  been  dug  up  in  the  Palace  Demesne.  The 
Tceniocavipce  now  began  to  appear,  the  first  being  T.  incerta,  which  emerged 
on  March  2nd.  On  March  3otli  one  of  my  pupils  brought  me  a  specimen 
of  Anisopteryx  ccscitlaria  which  he  had  caught  m  his  house. 

The  sallows  had  suffered  severely  from  the  frost,  and  the  bloom  was  late 
and  not  abundant.  However,  on  April  i6th  I  and  my  friend,  Mr.  J.  H. 
Johnston,  determined  to  see  what  we  could  get,  and  succeeded  in  captur- 
ing TcEiiiocampa  stabilis,  T.  incerta,  T.  gothica,  T,  gracilis,  and  a  solitary 
Xylocajiipa  areola  with  Anticlea  badiata  taken  on  the  wing.  On  the  follow- 
ing evening  I  was  fortunate  enough  to  take  a  nice  specimen  of  T.  opima, 
and  a  pretty  form  oi  Peronea  hastiana.  On  the  19th  we  (Mr.  Johnston  and 
myself)  were  joined  in  our  nocturnal  rambles  by  Rev.  H.  Harpur.  This 
proved  a  record  night  for  numbers  of  moths.  It  was  rather  damp  and 
pitch  dark,  and  consequently  exactly  suited  for  our  fell  purposes.  We 
took  several  T.  gracilis,  one  T.  opima,  which  fell  to  Mr.  Harpur's  lot,  and 
numbers  of  T.  incerta,  &c.  T.  gothica  was  present  simply  in  crowds. 
One  curious  thing  happened  : — we  were  working  a  large  tree,  and  Mr. 
Johnston,  who  was  beating,  not  being  able  to  reach  the  higher  branches, 
shook  the  tree  violently,  in  the  hopes  that  some  at  least  would  fall  into 
the  sheet.  Some  certainly  did,  but  immediately  afterwards  the  lantern 
was  besieged  by  frantic  moths  which  we  proceeded  with  all  our  hands 
to  box.  A  fine  Selenia  bihinaria  also  flew  to  the  lantern  and  fell  a  victim 
to  its  misplaced  confidence.  T.  gothica  was  far  the  most  numerous,  far 
outnumbering  all  the  others  together.  It  varied  somewhat  in  colour, 
some  being  much  darker  and  others  rather  lighter  in  hue  than  ordinary. 
In  size,  however,  they  were  very  constant,  also  in  markings.  Hadena 
thalassina  emerged  on  May  2nd,  and  on  the  following  evening  I  captured 
Selenia  bilunaria  while  out  for  a  stroll.  Butterflies  now  began  to  appear, 
including  battered  Vanessa  ^irtiae,  Pararge  egeria,  with  plenty  of  the  pretty 
Euchloe  cardamines.     EJvening  rambles  produced  Cidaria  siiffiimata,  Coremia 

224  "^^^^  Irish  Naturalist, 

unidentaria,  C.  ferriigata,  Cahera  ptisaria,  E^ipithecia  vulgata^  and  a  nice  speci- 
men of  Anticlea  nigyofasciaria.  In  my  pupa  case  emerged  Spilosovia 
7nenthastri,  Phragmatobia  ficli^inosa,  and  Acro7i}/ita  psi.  I  tried  sugar  many 
times,  but  always  without  success.  On  May  25th  I  drove  to  Ivough  Neagh, 
and  at  Churchill  took  a  few  Theda  rubi  and  Fidonia  atomaria  ;  but  being  in 
a  hurry  to  reach  the  lake,  I  only  spent  a  few  minutes  on  the  bog,  and 
hence  the  scantiness  of  my  captures. — W.  F.  Johnson,  Armagh. 

Dyschirlus  obscurus,  Cyll.  at  Loug^h  Neagrh, — This  rare 
beetle  was  taken  by  the  late  A.  H.  Haliday  on  the  sandy  shore  of  Lough 
Neagh  more  than  40  years  ago.  Since  his  time  no  record  of  its  capture 
has  been  given.  In  the  E.  M.  M.  for  1893,  Mr.  G.  C.  Champion  mentions 
that  he  has  found  three  specimens  without  locality  in  the  collection  of 
the  late  Dr.  Syme,  who  collected  chiefly  in  Scotland.  1  have  made 
several  unsuccessful  attempts  to  obtain  it  at  Lough  Neagh.  In  1893  I 
took  a  single  specimen,  and  last  year  two,  but  this  year  I  and  Mrs. 
Johnson  managed  to  capture  quite  a  respectable  number.  Mr.  Carpenter 
kindly  compared  these  with  Haliday's  specimens  in  the  Science  and  Art 
Museum,  and  also  forwarded  it  to  Herr  Reitter.  It  agrees  with  Haliday's 
insect,  and  Herr  Reitter  pronounces  it  to  be  undoubtedly  D.  obscurus,  Gyll. 

W.  F.  Johnson,  Armagh. 

The  Strldulation  of  Corixa. — I  have  again  had  opportunity  of 
hearing  a  Corixa  sing.  The  note  increased  in  volume  during  the  week  I 
had  him.  One  evening  a  dozen  people  were  listening ;  I  caught  the 
insect  twice  and  put  it  in  a  bottle  alone,  but  in  both  cases  there  was 
silence  until  I  restored  it  to  its  companions.  Because  of  this  I  could  not 
examine  it  as  I  wished,  but  everyone  agreed  as  to  the  motion  made, 
which  was  generally  referred  to  as  "  combing  its  whiskers." 

M.  Thompson,  Cork. 


Little  Bittern  In  Co.  Carlow.— Mr.  Clarence  Cary  writes  to 
Land  and  Water  for  June  ist  that  a  Little  Bittern  was  shot  on  the  Barrow 
at  Carlow  on  May  19th. 


Introduction  of  English  Hares  into  Ireland. — Having  been 
asked  more  than  once  by  correspondents  if  I  could  give  them  any  in- 
formation on  the  introduction  of  English  Hares  into  Ireland,  I  propose 
to  publish  in  the  Irish  Naturalist  a  list  of  such  introductions  as  have  come 
under  my  notice.  Before  doing  so  I  should  be  much  obliged  to  any 
readers  of  this  Journal  who  would  kindly  give  me  any  notes  on  this  subj  ect, 
such  as  might  add  to  those  I  already  possess. 

G.  K.  H.  Barrett-Hamii^ton,  Kilmannock,  New  Ross. 

Occurrence  of  the  IVIarten  in  the  County  Waterford.— Two 

specimens  of  the  Marten  (male  and  female),  Martcs  sylvaiica,  were  taken 
here  last  month.  They  were  both  caught  in  rabbit  traps,  the  female  on 
the  6th,  the  male  on  the  7th  June.  Length  of  the  female  27^  inches  ; 
that  of  the  male  30Hnches.  They  were  both  caught  in  a  large  rabbit 
burrow  in  Curraghmore.  The  colour  of  the  spots  on  the  chest,  in  both 
specimens,  is  yellow. 

\Vii,i<iAM  W.  Fi^emyng,  Coolfin,  Portlaw,  Co.  Waterford. 







^Ije  girtelj  Jtaturaltet^ 

Vol.  IV.  SEPTEMBER,  1895.  No.  9. 


HELD  AT  GALWAY,  JULY  iiTh  to  lyto,  1895. 


Secretary  Irish  Field  Club  Union. 

It  may  be  desirable  to  preface  the  present  account  of  the  Galway  Field 
Club  Conference  with  a  note  on  the  history  and  objects  of  the  Irish  Field 
Club  Union,  under  the  auspices  of  which  the  Conference  was  held.  In 
July,  1894,  a  three-day  joint  excursion  of  the  Dublin,  Cork,  and  Ivimerick 
Field  Clubs  was  carried  out,  F^'ermoy  being  the  headquarters  of  the 
party.  At  a  conference  held  on  the  evening  of  the  second  day,  for  the 
discussion  of  Field  Club  matters,  emphasis  was  laid  on  the  isolation  of 
the  southern  Field  Clubs,  and  on  the  desirability  of  bringing  all  the 
Irish  Field  Clubs  into  closer  contact.  The  suggestions  made  on  this 
occasion,  and  in  subsequent  discussions  among  the  Secretaries  of  the 
Clubs  represented,  were  not  lost  sight  of,  and  after  some  correspondence, 
the  following  memorandum  was  submitted  to  the  Committees  of  the 
Belfast,  Dublin,  Cork,  and  Limerick  Field  Clubs  : — 


In  the  carrying  out  of  the  duties  connected  with  their  offices,  the 
Secretaries  of  the  four  Irish  Naturalists'  Field  Clubs  have  for  some  time  felt 
the  want  of  closer  connection  between  the  Clubs,  by  which  more  frequent 
meetings  might  be  arranged,  and  by  which  the  Clubs  might  assist  each 
other  by  the  occasional  interchange  of  lecturers,  and  by  the  loan  of  papers, 
specimens,  lantern  slides,  &c.  At  present  the  Clubs  have  but  a  slight 
knowledge  of  each  other,  and  of  each  others'  resources,  and  such  aids 
to  their  work  as  the  above-mentioned  can  now  only  be  carried  out  after 
much  enquiry  and  correspondence.  With  a  view  to  facilitate  these  and 
kindred  objects,  the  Secretaries  suggest  that  a  joint  committee  be 
formed,  consisting  of  the  President  and  Secretary  of  each  Club,  and  that 
these  officers  be  empowered  by  the  Committee  of  each  Club  to  repre- 
sent them  on  this  joint  committee,  theit  actions  being  in  all  cases 
subject  to  the  approval  of  the  committee  of  their  Club.  The  Secretaries 
suggest  that  this  organization  be  called  the  Irish  Field  Club  Union,  and 
they  feel  convinced  that  such  a  bond  between  the  Clubs  will  strengthen 
each,  and  greatly  assist  the  cause  of  Field  Club  work  in  Ireland. 

(Signed),       Francis  Joseph  Bigger,  Sec  B.N.F.C. 

R.  Iyi,OYD  Praeger,  Sec.  D.N.F.C. 

John  L.  Copeman,  Sec.  C.N.F.C 

FRANCIS  NEAI.E,  Sec.  ly.N.F.C. 
Dublitl,  23.  II.  94. 


226  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

The  following  resolution  was  thereupon  adopted  by  the  Committee  of 
each  Club  referred  to  :  — 

*•  Resolved  :  That  this  Committee  approve  of  the  suggestions  embodied 
in  the  memorandum  submitted  to  them  by  the  Secretaries  of  the  four 
Irish  Field  Clulxs,  and  they  hereby  appoint  the  President  and  Secretary 
to  represent  them  on  the  Joint  Committee." 

The  Field  Club  Union  Committee,  then  created,  appointed  R.  Lloyd 
Praeger,  Secretary  Dublin  Field  Club,  as  their  vSecretary,  and  during  the 
ensuing  winter  (1S94-95)  an  interchange  oflecturers  was  carried  out  with 
marked  success.  Mr.  Joseph  Wright,  of  Belfast,  lectured  at  Dublin,  Cork, 
and  Limerick;  Professor  Haddon,  of  Dublin,  lectured  at  Belfast;  and 
Professor  Cole,  of  Dublin,  lectured  at  Cork  and  Limerick. 

The  excursion  which  is  reported  in  the  pages  which  follow  is  the 
second  definite  result  of  the  formation  of  the  Field  Club  Union,  which 
is  now  fairly  embarked  on  a  life  of  practical  usefulness  and  scientific 

Wejdnesday,  July  ioTh. 
The  members  of  the  Belfast  Club  were  the  first  to  take  the  field.  The 
northern  party,  to  the  number  of  about  fifty,  took  the  T.45  train  to 
t)ublin,  where  they  were  met  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Union,  and 
despatched  to  the  Gresham  and  Hammam  Hotels.  At  7  o'clock  they 
assembled  at  the  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Glasnevin,  where  they  were 
teceived  by  the  President  and  Officers  of  the  Dublin  Field  Club,  and  a 
numerous  company  of  the  members  of  the  local  Society.  After  tea  a 
couple  of  pleasant  and  instructive  hours  were  spent  in  examining  the 
many  botanical  treasures  of  the  Gardens  under  the  guidance  of  Mr.  F, 
W.  Moore,  A.L.S.,  Curator,  and  his  able  assistant,  Mr.  D.  M'Ardle. 

Thursday,  Jui.y  iith. 

'  Punctually  at  9  o'clock  the  First  Class  Special  Train  provided  by  the  Mid- 
land Great  Western  Railway  Company  steamed  out  of  Broadstone  Station 
with  the  members  of  the  Belfast  and  Dublin  Clubs,  and  representatives  of 
several  English  Societies  on  board,  and  a  very  rapid  journey  across  the 
Great  Central  Plain  of  Ireland  was  pleasantly  spent  in  studying  maps 
and  scientific  papers  relating  to  the  districts  about  to  be  visited. 
Shortly  after  noon  the  bogs,  woods,  and  pastures  of  the  Central  Plain 
gave  way  to  the  bare  limestone  pavements  so  characteristic  of  Galway  and 
Clare,  and  at  12.30  the  train  drew  up  at  the  platform  at  Galway.  At 
I  o'clock  brakes  were  mounted,  and  the  party  drove  through  the  pretty 
suburb  of  Salthill  to  Gentian  Hill,  a  promontory  of  drift  standing  out 
into  the  sea,  where  lunch  was  served.  Here  the  members  of  the  Cork 
and  Limerick  Field  Clubs  joined  their  brethren  of  Dublin  and  Belfast, 
and  when  lunch  was  over  the  party  scattered  for  their  first  ramble. 
From  Gentian  Hill  a  good  idea  of  the  geography  of  the  district  was 
obtained.  Eastward  lay  Galway  and  the  level  lands  of  the  Limestone 
Plain.  To  the  southward,  across  Galway  Bay,  rose  the  great  grey 
terraced  limestone  hills  of  the  Burren  district  of  County  Clare.  To 
the  westward  the  Aran  Islands  could  be  dimly  seen  rising  out  of  the 

Galway  Field  Chib  Co7iference.  227 

waters  of  the  Atlantic,  while  northward  and  north-westward  rose  low 
rocky  granite  hills,  backed  by  the  higher  metamorphic  mountains  of 
H  Connemara.  The  geologists  of  the  party  examined  with  much  interest 
the  grand  sections  formed  by  the  stead}-  encroachment  of  the  ocean  on 
the  tough  drift  which  composes  this  and  the  adjoining  promontories.  The 
botanists  were  delighted  to  find  at  Gentian  Hill  several  rare  mountain 
plants,  which  were  growing  close  to  sea-level,  after  the  manner 
characteristic  of  the  west  coast  of  Ireland — such  were  the  Spring  Gentian, 
Mountain  Dryas,  Blue  Moor-grass,  and  Dwarf  Juniper ;  and  on  the  muddy 
shore  adjoining  a  good  find  was  made  in  the  Dwarf  Grass- wrack,  which 
was  found  growing  in  abundance.  The  entomologists  searched  the 
seaweed  thrown  up  by  the  tide  and  were  rewarded  by  the  discovery  of 
the  local  marine  rove-beetle  Cafiiis  fucicola.  Besides  the  small  but 
handsome  M'olf-spider  Pardosa  monticola,  a  specimen  of  its  large  newly-' 
discovered  relation  F.  ptirbeckensis,  F.  Cb.  rewarded  the  collector  of 

At  7.30  dinner  was  ready  at  the  Railway  Hotel,  which  formed  the  head- 
quarters of  the  party  during  their  stay.  After  dinner  a  number  of  local 
ladies  and  gentlemen  arrived  by  invitation  to  meet  the  members  of  the 
Field  Clubs.  Among  those  who  accepted  the  invitation  were  the 
President  of  Queen's  College,  and  Mrs.  Moffat ;  Sir  Valentine  Blake  and 
Lady  Blake;  the  High  Sheriff  of  Galway,  Mrs.  Townsend,  and  the  Misses 
Townsend;  Colonel  O'Hara,  D.L.,  and  Miss  O'Hara;  Marcus  Lynch, 
D.L.;  Major  Wilson  Lynch,  D.L. ;  Professor  Kinkead,  M.D.,  Miss  Kinkead 
and  party;  Prof.  BreretcU;  L.R.C.S.I. ;  Lt.- Colonel  Cochran  and  Officers, 
Depot  Connaught  Rangers ;  Rev.  J.  C.Clarke,  B.A,,  Mrs.  Clarke,  and 
Miss  Clarke ;  Rev.  J.  T.  Berry  ;  Rev.  R.  Boyd  ;  Rev.  Father  Lally,  P.P. ; 
Mr.  James  Perry,  M.E.,  County  Surveyor,  and  Mrs.  Perry;  Mr.  W.  N. 
Binns,  B.E.,  Borough  Surveyor;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Murray,  and  Miss  Murray ; 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tivy;  Mr.  J.  A.  Grant,  &c. 

During  the  evening  the  Galway  String  Band  performed  in  the  hall, 
and  musical  items  were  contributed  by  Prof  Robertson  and  Mr.  J.  A. 
Grant.  Several  members  showed  specimens  of  the  rarer  plants  and 
animals  of  the  district,   and  explained  their  points  of  interest.    The 

company  did  not  disperse  until  a  late  hour. 


Friday,  Jui,y  12TH. 

Friday  dawned  gloriously  fine,  and  the  party,  which,  now  reinforced 
by  local  friends,  had  swelled  to  over  100,  left  Galway  in  high  spirits  by 
special  train  at  9  o'clock,  en  route  for  the  mountains  of  Connemara.  Oil 
the  way  to  Oughterard  the  new  railway  passes  through  a  charmingly 
diversified  district  of  wood  and  lake,  with  the  wide  expanse  of  Lough 
Corrib  to  the  eastward.  After  passing  Oughterard,  the  land  rises,  and 
the  railway  emerges  on  the  great  plain  of  South  Connemara— miles  upon 
tniles  of  brown  undulating  bog,  with  flashing  lakes  in  every  hollow.  As 
the  train  sped  along,  lovely  views  were  continually  obtained  of  the 
quartzite  mountains  of  Maam  Turk,  and  subsequently  of  the  still  more 
picturesque  Twelve  Bens.    At  Recess  station  the  members  alighted,  and 

A    2 

22S  The  Irish  Natia^alisi. 

the  party  divided  into  two,  one  section  driving  and  walking  along  tli6 
Clifden  road  to  ascend  Ben  Lettery,  while  the  other  section  examined  the 
bogs  and  lakes  in  the  immediate  vicinity.  The  mountain  party  passed 
along  the  chain  of  lakelets  which  extend  througliout  the  course  f)f  the 
Ballynahinch  River,  and  turned  up  the  steep  side  of  Ben  I^ettery  (1904 
feet),  which  overlooks  the  beautiful  lake  of  Ballynahinch.  F'rom  the 
summit  a  truly  superb  panorama  was  obtained.  Northward,  peak  beyond 
peak,  rose  the  mountains,  and  through  a  gap  to  the  north-west  was  seen 
the  rugged  outline  of  Achill  Island.  Further  southward  lay  Inishbofin, 
and  the  whole  western  coastline  of  Connemara,  and  the  town  of  Clifden. 
To  the  southward,  across  a  vast  stretch  of  bog  dotted  with  lakes  in- 
numerable, stretched  the  Atlantic,  with  long  arms  reaching  up  to 
Roundstone  and  Cashel,  and  many  outlying  islands,  behind  which 
the  low  ridges  of  the  Aran  Islands  stood  clearl}'  up.  South-eastward 
lay  Galway  Bay,  backed  by  the  grey  uplands  of  Burren,  and  further 
eastward  Lough  Corrib  and  the  I/imestone  Plain.  On  the  summit,  the 
rare  mountain  ground-beetle  Leislus  montamis,  and  the  interesting  little 
spider  Hahnia  montana  were  found.  Photographs  having  been  secured  and 
natural  history  specimens  duly  put  away,  the  descent  was  undertaken, 
and  Recess  station  reached  in  time  for  a  refreshing  cup  of  tea  befor'e 
train-time.  The  lowland  party  had  also  a  most  satisfactory  day.  A 
number  of  rare  plants  had  been  collected,  including  the  Pill  wort,  and  iu 
common  with  the  mountain  party,  they  had  collected  many  of  the 
characteristic  Connemara  species,  such  as  St.  Dabeoc's  Heath,  London 
Pride,  and  Pipewort.  The  large  and  handsome  wolf-spider  Dolomedei 
fimbriatus  attracted  the  attention  of  many  observers  on  the  bogs  ;  while 
the  entomologists  were  agreeably  surprised  to  find  one  of  the  most 
striking  British  Orthoptera — Muostethus  grossus,  often  considered  a  rare 
species^n  positive  abundance.  Others  of  the  party  had  visited  the 
"Connemara  Marble"  quarry  on  Lisoughter,  behind  Recess  Hotel,  and  had 
obtained  good  examples  of  this  beautiful  serpentine.  It  was  with  much 
regret  that  members  found  their  day  at  an  end,  and  took  their  seats  in  the 
special  train  that  was  waiting  for  them. 

After  dinner,  bags,  bottles,  and  vasculums  Were  emptied  on  the  tables, 
and  until  a  late  hour  members  were  busily  engaged  in  examining  and 
jioting  the  many  captures  and  finds  made  during  the  day. 

Saturday,  Jui.y  13TH. 

A  morning  of  driving  mist  found  the  naturalists  embarked  on  board  the 
6s.  *'  Duras  "  at  9  o'clock,  which  in  no  way  lightened  as  the  steamer 
passed  down  the  river  and  set  her  course  for  Ballyvaughan,  on  the 
southern  side  of  Galway  Bay.  However,  the  cheerful  predictions  of  the 
conductors  were  duly  fulfilled,  for  as  the  destination  was  approached  the 
clouds  broke  and  the  sun  shone  out,  lighting  up  gloriously  the  strange 
bare  slopes  of  the  Burren  mountains  and  the  great  masses  of  vapour  that 
still  hung  over  the  higher  summits.  Advantage  was  taken  of  the 
leisure  afforded  by  the  passage  to  hold  a  meeting  of  the  collectors 
of  the  party,  when  the  work  of  identifying  and  cataloguing  the  various 
captures    was     distributed     among     the     different  naturalists,     one 

Galway  Field  Club  Conference,  229 

man   being  made  responsible  for  the  report  on  each  group  ;  the  result 
of  this  distribution  of  labour  is  seen  in  the  scientific  reports  which  follow. 
On   landing  at   Ballyvaughan,  the  party  were  joined  by  Mr.  P.  B, 
O'Kelly,  a  Ballyvaughan  botanist,  whose  local  knowledge  was  freely 
placed  at  the  disposal    of   members,   and    proved    of  much    service, 
Gleninagh,  on  the  sea,  three  miles  north-west  of  Ballyvaughan,  was  the 
rendezvous,  and  the  party  slowly  made  their  way  along  the  road  in  this 
direction,  with  the  sea  on  the  right,  and  the  great  limestone  hills  rising 
steeply  on  the  left.    This  was  the  field-day  of  the  botanists,  for  the  flora 
of  the  Burren  is  most  peculiar  as  well  as  rich.      It  was  not  long  before 
most  of  the  characteristic  plants  were  discovered.    The  Maidenhair  was 
found  ere  Ballyvaughan  was  a  mile  behind.     On  the  low  grounds  Mr. 
O'Kelly  pointed  out  the  Bee  Orchis  and  the  extremely  rare  Close-flowered 
Orchis,  now  in  fruit,  for  which  for  many  years  Castle  Taylor  in  County 
Galway  was  the  only  known   British   station.     On  the  limestone  hills 
above  was  found  abundance  of  the  Mountain  Dryas,  Bear-berry,  Purple 
Helleborine,  Bloody  Cranesbill,  Spring  Gentian,  and  other  rare  plants. 
Lunch  was  served  at  2  o'clock  under  the  shadow  of  the  old  castle  of 
Gleninagh,  after  which  scientific  occupations  —shore-collecting,  botaniz- 
ing, insect-hunting,  and  geologizing — were  energetically  resumed.   Some 
of  the  party  drove  to  Black  Head,  where  the  Maidenhair  was  found  in 
abundance,  as  well  as  other  rarities.      Mr.   O'Kelly  conducted  one  or 
two  of  the  party  to  the  home  of  the  Shrubby  Cinquefoil,  which  grows 
in  much  abundance  not  far  from  Ballyvaughan.     Others,  who  ascended 
to  the  flat  summit  of  Cappanawalla  (1023  feet)  brought  back  strange 
accounts  of  the  vast  stretches  of  bare  grey  limestone  which  extend  on 
the  higher  grounds.    At  5.30  the  steamer's  whistle  warned  stragglers  to 
linger  no  longer,  and  when  at  length  the  last  late-comer  was  on  board, 
the  return  journey  was  made  without  loss  of  time.    After  dinner,  the 
tables  were  again  devoted  to  an  exhibition  of  the  day's  spoil.     These 
evening  exhibitions  of  each  day's  work  were  found  of  much  service, 
especially  in  the  way  of  giving  the  less  experienced  members  an  oppor- 
tunity of  examining   specimens   at  their  leisure,  of  asking  questions, 
and  of  watching  demonstrations  of  identification    and  mounting    of 
specimens.     It  was  found  that  a  beetle,  Miaris  campanula,  new  to  the 
Irish  list,  and  the  local  moths,  Anticlea  cticullata  and  Phothcdes  captiuncula,  as 
well  as  the  striking  black  spider,  Prosthesima  Petiverii,  had  rewarded  the 
labours  of  the  insect-hunters  on  this  day,  " 

Sunday,  Jui,y  14TH. 

On  this  day,  according  to  the  Programme,  members  were  to  "  make 
their  own  arrangements."  A  party  of  archaeologists  and  conchologists 
made  an  early  start  for  Clare-Galway  Abbey,  and  spent  a  profitable  day 
in  that  vicinity.  The  majority  of  the  party  attended  service  at  the 
beautiful  old  Church  of  Saint  Nicholas.  After  lunch  two  pleasant 
receptions  awaited  the  members.  The  President  of  Queen's  College 
received  a  numerous  party  at  the  College,  and  conducted  them  through 
the  buildings  and  gardens,  and  entertained  them  to  tea  in  his  own  house ; 
while  another  large  section  of  the  members  rowed  up  the  River  Corrib 

2SO  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

in  the  well-appointed  boats  of  the  Royal  Galway  Boat  Club  (most 
kindly  placed  at  their  disposal  by  the  Committee)  to  enjoy  the  hospitality 
of  Sir  Valentine  and  Lady  Blake  at  Menlo  Castle.  Along  the  banks  of 
the  river  some  good  insects,  including  a  rove-beetle,  Stenus  melanopus,  new 
to  Ireland,  and  plants  were  collected,  and  at  Menlo  the  rare  sedge  Carex 
pseiido'cypertis  was  obtained.  ,The  quaint  old  house,  said  to  be  the  oldest 
inhabited  house  in  Ireland,  excited  great  interest,  and  the  generous 
hospitality  of  the  host  and  hostess  completed  the  pleasure  of  the  visit. 
At  6  o'clock  dinner  was  served,  and  in  view  of  the  early  start  next 
morning,  most  members  wisely  retired  at  an  early  hour. 

Monday,  Jui^y  i6'rH. 

Punctually  at  5.30  a.m.,  the  Secretary's  shrill  whistle  called  members 
down  for  an  early  cup  of  tea.     A  prompt  response  ,was  made,  and  at  6 
o'clock  sharp  the   ss.    "  Duras"  cast  off  her  moorings  with  the  whole 
party  on  board,  excepting  a  few  who  did  not  care  to  face  the  thirty-five- 
mile  sail  across  the  troubled  waters  of  Galway  Bay.     Once  again  the 
Field  Clubs  were  favoured  with  a  fine  day,  in  a  district  well-known  as 
one  of  the  wettest  in  Ireland.     At  8  o'clock  Miss  Gardiner  had  breakfast 
prepared  with  the  despatch  and  neatness  that  characterized  her  some- 
what arduous  duties  throughout  the  excursion,  and  when  this  important 
function  was  completed,  the  Aran  Islands  were  alread}'  close  at  hand, 
and  the  bare  grey  fields,  the  whitewashed  cottages,  and  innumerable 
stone  walls  furnished  a  quaint  and  characteristic  scene.     A  heaving  tide- 
run  off   the    shore    of    Aranmore  proved  disastrous   to    some  of  the 
naturalists,  but  they  speedily  recovered  as  the  steamer  dropped  anchor  at 
Portmurvy,  and  was  immediately  surrounded  with  a  crowd  of  stalwart 
islanders  in  their  strange  canvas  curraghs.      The  disembarkation  was 
promptly  effected  in  the  ship's  boats,  while  some  preferred  the  novel 
experience  of  the  curragh.     The  vSecretary  now  announced  alternative 
routes,  those  who  were  prepared  for  a  long  walk  to  go  west  to  Dun 
Aengus  and  thence  to  Kilronan,  while  those  who  wished  less  exertion 
would  proceed  to  Kilronan  by  a  more  direct  route.    The  members  who 
visited  Dun  Aengus — the  larger  portion  of  the  party— were  amply  repaid 
for  their  exertion.    This  splendid  example  of  pre-historic  architecture — 
the  finest  structure  of  its  kind  in  Europe — perched  on  the  edge  of  an 
;  overhanging  cliff,  300  feet  in  height,  was  examined  with  the  keenest 
'    interest  and  wonder.     Floating  on  the  Atlantic  swell  far  below,  a  keen- 
eyed  member  descried  a  fine  specimen  of  the  Great  Sun-fish,  which  con- 
siderately remained  in  full  view  for  a  length  of  time.     On  the  vegetation 
here  and  elsewhere  many  observers  noted  the  great  abundance  of  the 
handsome  rose-beetle  (Cf/^wm  a«ra/a).    The  presence  of  this  species — so 
rare  on  the  Irish  mainland — was  a  great  surprise  to  the  entomologists. 
A  small  flower-beetle  {Meligethes  rufipcs)  new  to  Ireland,  was  found,  as  well 
as  a  minute  spider  (^Micariosomia  fesiivwn),  also  apparently  new  to  the 
Irish  list.    A  striking  feature  was  the  great  abundance  of  the  springtail 
Machilis  polypoda,  which  occurred  in  multitudes  under  every  stone.     The 
party  made  their  way  along  the  edge  of  the  cliff,  which  was  fringed  with 

TEAMPUL  BENAX,  ARAN:M0RE.  [F.  'A.  Dixon,  Photo. 


/•"    A.   Dixon.   Photo. 

Gahi'ay  Field  Club  Confereyice.  231 

Sampliire  and  Sea  Lavender,  to  where  an  islander  sat  fishing.  By  his 
side  was  a  basket  well  filled  with  fine  Bream.  He  sat  on  the  overhang' 
ing  edge  of  the  cliff,  his  feet  dangling  over  the  abyss,  and  his  line  descend- 
ing vertically  into  the  ocean  some  200  feet  below.  Fishing  of  this  kind 
is  carried  on  along  the  whole  western  side  of  the  island.  The  "  Worm 
Hole  "  was  next  visited,  a  large  square  natural  tank  in  the  rock  at  some 
distance  from  the  sea,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  a  large  underground 
passage,  as  shown  by  the  prompt  response  of  its  waters  to  the  ocean 
swell  outside.  Near  the  hamlet  of  Gortnacopple  the  Maidenhair  was 
seen  in  very  great  abundance  and  luxuriance,  growing  as  usual  in  the 
vertical  fissures  of  the  limestone  ;  it  is  abundantly  distributed  through- 
out the  island.  Another  well-known  plant  of  Aran  that  was  seen  here 
abundantly  was  the  large  leek,  AU'min  Babingtonii.  The  main  road  being 
reached,  the  party  followed  the  first  section  to  Kilronan,  visiting  on  the 
way  some  of  the  best  of  the  many  antiquities  of  Aran,  including  the 
ancient  church  of  St.  Kieran,  and  the  adjoining  holed  stone  and  early 
crosses,  and  viewing  with  interest  the  curious  wayside  monuments.  The 
geologists  of  the  party  were  much  interested  in  the  extensive  exposures 
of  bare  jointed  limestone,  and  its  curious  weathering,  and  in  the 
numerous  erratics  from  Connemara  scattered  over  its  surface,  while  the 
entomologists  literally  "  left  no  stone  unturned"  in  their  search  for 

On  the  beach  at  Kilronan,  INIiss  Gardiner  had  a  sumptuous  tea  pre- 
pared, to  which  the  members  did  ample  justice";  after  which,  undeterred 
by  frequent  showers  which  now  began  to  fall,  a  numerous  party  started 
southward  to  visit  the  primitive  church  of  St.  Eany  with  its  many  accom- 
pan5nng  antiquities,  Teampul  Benan,  &c.,  and  to  attempt  further  dis- 
coveries among  the  fauna  and  flora.  The  botanists  were  well  pleased  to 
find,  at  the  last  moment,  that  very  rare  Irish  grass,  the  Wood  Rush,  in 
one  of  the  two  Aran  stations  given  by  Mr.  H.  C.  Hart  in  his  paper  on 
the  botany  of  the  islands;  and  in  the  fading  light  a  hasty  return  was 
made  to  the  steamer,  which  left  at  8  o'clock  punctually,  and  the  hotel 
in  Galway  was  once  more  reached  at  ii.o. 

During  this  day's  excursion,  which  was  in  every  way  successful,  the 
members  derived  much  local  information  and  assistance  from  the  parish 
priest.  Rev.  P.  Colgan,  and  his  curate,  and  from  Mr.  P.  0'P\  Johnson,  the 
local  magistrate,  all  of  whom  did  their  best  to  assist  the  party  in  every  way. 


At  9  o'clock  a  special  train  conveyed  the  members  and  local  friends 
to  Oughterard,  where  Mr.  Dominick  Burke  had  brakes  and  cars  in 
readiness,  and  an  immediate  start  was  made  northward  along  the  shores 
of  Lough  Corrib,  a  party  of  geologists  remaining  behind  for  an  hour 
to  examine  the  sections  exposed  in  adjacent  new  railway  cuttings 
under  the  guidance  of  Mr.  R.  J.  Kirwan,  B.E.  The  route  lay  through 
hilly  ground,  with  alternating  patches  of  bog,  wood,  and  cultivation. 
Eastward  stretched  the  vast  lake  of  Corrib,  diversified  with  islands 
great  and  small ;  westward  rose  theMaam  Turk  mountains,  still  clothed 

22,2  The  h'ish  Naturalist, 

in  dark  vapour,  and  sending  an  occasional  splash  of  rain  over  the 
plain  below.  Presently  the  ground  grew  rougher,  till  it  blazed  with 
purple  heather,  among  which  hung  abundantly  the  large  bells  of  St. 
Dabeoc's  Heath.  Passing  through  a  pine  wood  the  vehicles  halted 
beside  a  mountain  stream,  whose  banks  were  fringed  with  Royal  Fern 
growing  six  feet  high.  This  was  the  rendezvous  for  the  day.  To  the 
left  the  lake  narrowed  among  steep  wooded  hills,  and  a  glorious  valley 
stretched  away  for  miles,  overhung  by  high  mountains  on  each  side. 
Behind  rose  the  purple  slopes  of  Carn  Seefin,  and  in  front  lay  the 
shining  waters  of  the  lake.  It  was  an  ideal  spot  for  naturalists,  and  in 
a  few  minutes  the  party  was  scattered  far  and  wide  in  eager  search. 
The  botanists  rejoiced  to  find  here  the  characteristic  flora  of  Conne- 
jnara— London  Pride,  Pipe-wort,  Lobelia,  St.  Dabeoc's  Heath,  &;c.  The 
rare  Bog  Orchis  was  found  sparingly.  The  geologists  found  congenial 
ground  in  the  spoil-bank  of  an  old  copper  mine  on  the  hill-side.  A  new 
Irish  beetle,  Chilocuis  bipustulatus,  and  the  rare  northern  ground-beetles 
Pelophila  borealis  and  Caralms  daihratus  delighted  the  entomologists  ;  while 
under  the  stones  on  the  margin  of  the  lake  were  found  numerous 
examples  of  a  rare  southern  jumping  spider,  Attus  floricola. 

Lunch  occasioned  but  a  short  lull  in  the  business  of  exploration, 
which  was  continued  energetically  until  the  repeated  blasts  of  the 
Secretary's  whistle  recalled  the  wanderers,  and  the  return  was  effected 
in  time  to  catch  the  special  train  at  6  o'clock  for  Galway. 

After  dinner  a  formal  Conference  on  Field  Club  work  was  held.  The 
chair  was  occupied  by  G.  H.  Carpenter,  B.Sc,  President,  Dublin 
Naturalists'  Field  Club. 

The  Chairman  said  that  the  duty  of  taking  the  chair  that  evening 
devolved  on  him  since  the  President  of  the  senior  Club  (Belfast)  was  not 
present.  He  referred  to  the  origin  of  the  Field  Club  Union,  an  outcome 
of  the  formation  of  which  they  saw  in  the  present  successful  excursion, 
and  pointed  out  the  great  desirability  and  usefulness  of  such  an  organiza. 
lion,  and  the  good  work  which  during  its  short  existence  it  had  already 
accomplished.  This  evening  representatives  of  all  the  Irish  Field  Clubs 
and  of  several  similar  English  Societies  met  together  in  friendly  con- 
ference, and  he  called  for  remarks  and  suggestions  on  matters  relating 
to  Field  Club  interests. 

Wm.  Gray,  M.R.I. A.,  as  an  old  member  and  ex-President  of  the 
Belfast  Club,  referred  to  the  benefits  resulting  from  an  interchange  of 
ideas  in  the  field,  as  was  accomplished  on  an  expedition  such  as  this. 
He  congratulated  the  Clubs  on  the  number  of  lady  members  present,  and 
on  the  presence  of  representatives  of  science  from  England.  The  forma- 
tion of  the  Irish  Field  Club  Union  was  already  justified  by  its  results. 

Prof.  T.  Johnson,  D.Sc,  Treasurer,  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club, 
said  that  at  a  meeting  of  this  kind  the  members  reaped  benefits  of  the 
same  nature  as  accrued  to  the  meetings  of  the  British  Association.  They 
learned  that  there  was  a  brotherhood  in  science,  and  that  assistance  and 
encouragement  were  ready  on  every  hand.  He  thought  that  if  possible 
a  meeting  of  this  kind  should  be  arranged  annually. 


Galway  Field  Cliih  Conference,  233 

J.  J.  WoivFE,  as  representing  the  Cork  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  re- 
gretted that  so  few  members  of  his  Society  had  been  able  to  avail  them- 
selves of  the  Galway  excursion ;  he  thought  the  Cork  Club  was  already 
deriving  substantial  benefit  from  the  formation  of  the  Union, 

Francis  Neale,  Secretary,  Limerick  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  also 
referred  to  the  advantages  which  the  smaller  Clubs  were  reaping  from 
the  operations  of  the  Union.  He  hoped  that  on  the  next  Galway  excur- 
sion they  would  assemble  on  the  invitation  of  a  future  Galway  Field 
Club.  He  recommended  the  consideration  of  some  more  systematic 
means  of  recording  scientific  "  finds"  made  by  Field  Club  members. 

H.  E.  Brothers,  member  of  Committee  North  Staffordshire  Naturalists' 
Field  Club,  desired  to  thank  the  Irish  Clubs  on  behalf  of  his  members 
for  their  invitation  to  join  in  the  present  excursion.  He  was  glad  that  a 
number  of  the  members  of  his  Club  had  availed  themselves  of  the 
invitation,  and  thought  that  they  would  carry  home  with  them  many 
useful  hints  from  this  meeting  of  the  Irish  Clubs.  He  also  spoke  of 
the  duty  that  rested  with  Field  Clubs  everywhere  to  check  by  every 
means  in  their  power  the  unnecessary  destruction  of  animal  and 
vegetable  life. 

R.  Standen,  Curator  of  the  Conchological  Society  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland,  mentioned  some  of  the  more  interesting  points  noted  on  the 
excursion  in  connection  with  his  own  particular  group — the  land  and 
fresh- water  mollusca. 

Prof.  J.  W.  Carr,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  President,  Nottingham  Naturalists' 
Society,  expressed  his  warm  congratulations  on  the  success  of  this  first 
general  meeting  of  the  Irish  Field  Clubs,  and  on  the  zeal  and  energy  dis- 
played by  the  members  in  scientific  research.  He  doubted  if  such  an 
active  week's  field  work  could  have  been  organized  and  carried  out  by 
any  English  Scientific  Society.  After  speaking  of  the  aims  of  Natural 
History  Societies,  Professor  Carr  expressed  the  hope  that  the  ultimate 
result  of  such  combined  effort  would  be  the  production  of  a  series  of 
monographs  on  Irish  Natural  history. 

WiiviviAM  Gray  interposed  to  give  his  hearty  support  to  the  remarks 
of  Mr.  Brothers  in  regard  to  the  destruction  of  animals  and  plants.  The 
Field  Clubs  could  do  good  work  by  discountenancing  the  sale  of  fern 
roots,  &c,,  and  the  wearing  of  birds'  feathers. 

Professor  G.  F.  Fitzgerai^d,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.  (Dublin  University), 
wished  to  know  if  a  resolution  recommending  botany  as  a  subject  of 
study  for  boys  under  the  Intermediate  Education  Scheme  would  be  in 
order  at  the  present  meeting. 

The  Chairman  said  that  such  a  resolution  would  certainly  be  in  order ; 
zoology  also  might  well  be  included  in  the  resolution. 

Professor  Johnson  stated  that  he  would  with  pleasure  support  any 
such  resolution. 

Mann  Harbison  (Belfast)  suggested  that  the  subject  of  geology 
should  be  included  in  the  motion. 

While  Professor  Fitzgerald  was  preparing  his  resolution 

234  The  Irish  Naturalist 

Hon.  R.  B.  Dili^on  (Galway)  referred  to  the  local  interest  which  the 
visit  of  the  Field  Clubs  to  Galway  had  excited,  and  which  he  trusted 
would  have  a  lasting  effect  in  the  way  of  stimulating  scientific  research 
in  that  part  of  the  country.  On  behalf  of  those  of  the  party  who  were 
not  members  of  any  of  the  Clubs,  but  were  there  as  visitors,  he  wished 
to  express  the  great  pleasure  and  interest  which  they  had  derived  from 
the  excursion. 

Prof.  FiTZGERAI^D  then  moved:— That  the  United  Naturalists* 
Field  Clubs  of  Ireland  press  upon  the  Board  of  Intermediate  Education 
in  Ireland  the  importance  to  education  and  to  the  country  of  introducing 
Natural  Science  as  a  subject  to  be  encouraged  in  Intermediate  Schools 
in  Ireland. 

Prof.  B.  J.  M'Weenfy,  M.D.,  (Dublin),  had  pleasure  in  seconding 
the  resolution,  and  referred  to  the  advantages  which  the  teaching  of 
natural  science  would  give.  Before  sitting  down,  he  referred  to  the  very 
great  kindness  shown  to  the  party  during  their  visit  by  many  inhabitants 
of  Galwa}^  Bspecially  were  the  thanks  of  the  party  due  to  the  Presi- 
dent  of  Queen's  College,  to  Sir  Valentine  Blake,  to  Captain  Henley,  to  Mr. 
P.  O'F.  Johnston,  J.P.,  to  the  Hon.  R.  B.  Dillon,  to  Mr.  R.J.  Kirwan,  B.E., 
to  the  Committee  of  the  Royal  Galway  Boat  Club,  and  to  the  officials  of 
the  Midland  Great  Western  Railway,  and  of  the  Galway  Bay  Steamboat 
Company.  He  would  like  to  move  a  vote  of  thanks  to  these  gentle- 

The  Chairman  put  Professor  Fitzgerald's  resolution  to  the  meeting, 
and  it  was  passed  unanimously. 

Adam  SpeerS,  B.Sc,  (Belfast),  seconded  the  vote  of  thanks  to  those 
who  had  so  cordially  assisted  the  success  of  the  excursion.  Referring 
for  a  moment  to  the  resolution  which  had  just  been  passed,  he  wished 
as  the  head  of  an  Intermediate  School,  to  express  his  gratification  that 
such  a  resolution  had  met  with  the  unanimous  favour  of  this  meeting 
of  practical  scientists. 

Hon.  R.  B.  Diiyi^ON  responded  on  behalf  of  those  named  in  Dr. 
M'Weeney's  resolution.  He  assured  the  members  that  the  visit  of  the 
Field  Clubs  had  been  a  most  welcome  event  in  Galway. 

F.  J.  Bigger,  M.R.I.A.,  Secretary,  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club, 
wished  to  express  the  deep  obligation  of  the  members  to  Miss  Gardiner, 
of  Leinster-street,  Dublin,  for  the  remarkably  prompt  and  able  manner 
in  which  she  had  managed  the  catering  on  the  daily  expeditions— a  very 
important  matter  on  these  long  and  fatiguing  excursions  (hear,  hear). 
Speaking  of  the  Field  Club  Union,  he  predicted  how  its  increasing 
strength  would  more  and  more  bind  the  Clubs  together,  so  that  at  length 
they  would  have  in  Ireland  one  Field  Club,  with  a  common  membership 
for  all,  and  one  official  mouth-piece — the  Irish  Nahiralist. 

Prof.  Johnson  remarked  that  the  conference  would  not  be  complete 
without  some  remarks  from  the  organizer  of  the  excursion. 

R.  Li^OYD  Praeger,  B.E.,  Secretary  Field  Club  Union  and  Dublin 
Naturalists'  Field  Club,  in  reply  said  he  had  only  to  repeat  the  thanks  that 
he  had  expressed  that  evening  after  dinner  for  the  unfailing  promptness 

Galway  Field  Club  ConfereJice.  235 

with  which  members  had  carried  out  the  requests  of  the  conductor 
throughout  the  excursion,  and  the  great  assistance  they  had  given.  The 
unqualified  success  of  this,  the  most  elaborate  Field  Club  excursion  ever 
carried  out  in  Ireland,  was  in  itself  the  best  thanks  that  the  organizer 
could  have. 

•  The  Chairman  reminded  members  that  specialists  had  been  appointed 
to  prepare  reports  on  each  group  of  the  fauna  and  flora,  and  requested 
that  all  notes  and  specimens  should  be  shown  to  them.  Having  refer- 
red to  the  advisability  of  having  Irish  finds  recorded  in  Ireland,  and 
drawn  attention  to  the  wonderful  mixture  of  characteristic  northern 
and  southern  forms  of  life  which  the  naturalists  had  observed  in  this 
western  district,  he  declared  the  conference  concluded. 

WKDNESDAY,  JUI.Y  17TH,  &c. 
On  this  morning  the  party  broke  up.  While  the  majority  of  members 
left  for  home,  others  proceeded  to  extend  the  investigations  commenced 
on  the  excursion.  R.  Standen,  E.  Collier  and  R.  Welch  spent  two  days 
in  collecting  recent  and  subfossil  shells  and  foraminifera  at  Roundstone. 
Miss  Knowles  botanized  at  Oughterard.  J.  A.  Audley  and  R.  Lloyd 
Praeger  had  a  day  at  Roundstone,  where  they  collected  Erica  Mackaii  and 
Naias  flexilis  in  their  recorded  stations ;  the  latter  then  sailed  to  Aran- 
more,  where  three  days  were  spent  in  botanizing  with  the  assistance  of 
Prof.  Fitzgerald,  the  return  being  made  in  his  company,  via  Lisdoon- 
varna  and  Ballyvaughan.  The  work  done  on  these  further  days  being  a 
direct  continuation  of  that  accomplished  on  the  excursion,  the  results 
obtained  are  embodied  in  the  reports  which  follow. 



The  magnificent  scenery  of  the  district  comprised  between  Galway  Bay, 
the  Atlantic,  and  Lough  Corrib  demonstrates  what  metamorphism  can 
do  in  the  way  of  earth -building.  The  grand  quartzite  group  of  the 
Twelve  Bens,  with  their  bare  scarred  peaks  rising  abruptly  from  the  vast 
flat  plain  that  stretches  westward  to  the  Atlantic,  display  earth-folding 
on  a  magnificent  scale.  The  age  of  these  quartzites  and  the  schists  that 
occur  with  them  is  somewhat  obscure ;  the  latter  were  at  one  time 
supposed  to  be  metamorphosed  sedimentary  rocks,  but  modern  investiga- 
tions have  changed  these  opinions,  and  they  are  now  considered  to  be 
altered  igneous  rocks. ^  A  very  interesting  section  through  these  schists 
was  visited  on  the  railway  near  Oughterard  under  the  guidance  of  Mr. 
Kirwan,  whose  able  paper  in  the  Irish  Naturalist-  shows  an  ilhistration 

^vSee  Report  of  the  Director-General  of  the  Geol.  Survey,  40M  Report 
Dept.  of  Science  and  Art  (1893),  p.  266,  and  41J/  Report  (1S94),  p.  270. 
'June,  1895,  vol.  iv.,  p.  151. 

236  The  hish  NaUiralist, 

of  this  section,  in  which  quartzites,  hornblende  schists,  and  intrusive 
granites  occurring  in  veins,  dykes,  and  in  mass  are  seen,  with 
Carboniferous  limestone  which  has  been  subsequently  laid  down,  and 
which  is  undisturbed.  This  cutting  is  quite  near  to  the  station,  and 
forms  an  interesting  and  instructive  diagram  of  faults,  contortions,  and 
intrusions.  Many  specimens  were  obtained,  including  some  of  quartzite 
and  white  quartz  with  beautiful  cross-veins  of  red  intrusive  granite. 
Some  concretions  of  calcite,  prettily  stained  with  orange  and  black,  were 
found  amongst  the  fragments  on  the  line.  On  the  day  when  Ben 
Lettery  was  ascended,  very  fine  crystals  of  quartz  were  obtained  from 
crevices  on  the  summit  of  Ben  Gower,  and  from  weathered  blocks. 

Some  lead  and  copper  mines  near  Carn  Seefin,  above  the  north- 
western shores  of  Lough  Corrib,  were  subsequently  visited.  Although 
not  worked  at  present,  some  samples  were  obtained  from  the  '*  tip." 
One  block  contained  galena,  copper  pyrites,  iron  pyrites,  calcite,  felspar, 
and  quartz  as  concretions  in  the  hornblende  schists  in  which  the  mineral 
lodes  occur.  Pure  massive  epidote  and  fluorspar  were  also  obtained, 
and  specimens  of  an  intrusive  rock  in  this  neighbourhood  almost 
entirely  formed  of  sheared  pinkish-brown  garnets  were  obtained  with 
difficulty,  owing  to  its  extreme  hardness. 

The  celebrated  Connemara  "  marble"  at  Recess  is  now  being  worked 
in  only  one  quarry  by  about  a  dozen  men,  employed  by  an  American, 
who  is  at  present  executing  an  order  for  twenty  pillars,  each  to  consist 
of  five  blocks  measuring  about  four  feet  by  three  in  diameter.  To  gauge 
the  quality  of  the  stone  a  long  section  has  been  made  in  the  side  of  the 
quarry  by  a  wire  saw.  This  section  well  displays  the  contorted  green 
bands  with  grey  layers  at  either  side.  The  so-called  "marble"  is  a 
serpentine  formed  by  the  alteration  of  olivine  introduced  in  the  crystalline 
bands  of  primitive  limestone  by  igneous  action.  Similar  results  occur 
in  limestones  around  Mount  Vesuvius.  These  serpentine  bands  do  not 
average  more  than  two  feet  in  thickness,  and  have  been  much  sheared 
and  contorted,  showing  the  "  eozoonal  "  structure.  This  was  formerly 
believed  to  be  a  gigantic  foraminifer  when  discovered  in  the  Laurentian 
rocks  of  Canada,  and  named  Eozoon  Canadense,  biit  its  organic  nature  is 
now  practically  disproved  by  the  recent  discovery  of  a  similar  substance 
in  limestone  blocks  ejected  from  Vesuvius.^ 

But  few  fossils  were  obtained  from  the  Carboniferous  limestone  so  fully 
developed  in  the  district,  the  rock  being  so  hard  as  to  preclude  the  ex- 
traction of  its  organic  remains  in  the  limited  time  available  for  the 
geologists  on  a  mixed  excursion.  The  usual  characteristic  fossils  were 
observed  in  abundance,  and  some  specimens  obtained  in  Ballj^vaughan 
from  the  Burren  Limestone,  and  in  the  Aran  Islands.  The  shale-beds  in 
Aran  would  probably  repay  a  fuller  examination  than  was  possible  on  the 
excursion.  Blow  holes  and  the  *'  Worm  Hole,"  a  curious  natural  tank 
are  amongst  the  curiosities  of  the  Aran  limestones. 

* Johnston-Lavis  and  Gregory — "Eozoonal  Structure  of  the  ejected 
Blocks  of  Monte  Somma."    Scu  Trans,  R,D,S.  (2)  vol.  v.,  1894. 






_^  • 



, ^ 











»— ( 








































t— 1 








Gatway  Excursion. — Geology.  237 

^he  marble  quarries  at  Menlough  were  also  visited,  where  an  excellent 
jet-black  marble  is  obtained,  ornamented  with  white  s^zWows  oi  Producttis 
and  corals.  It  seems  a  pity  that  this  marble  and  the  serpentine  are  not 
more  fully  worked,  as  facilities  for  transport  are  all  that  can  be  desired. 

On  the  shores  of  the  lake  near  Clare-Galway  Abbey  the  limestone  is 
curiously  bored  by  holes,  varying  from  half  to  one-and-a-half  inches  in 
diameter,  and  sometimes  extending  downwards  for  six  or  eight  inches. ' 
Their  origin  is  as  yet  uncertain,  the  alternative  suggestions  being  either 
the  action  of  carbonic  acid  from  vegetation,  etc.,  or  the  burrowing  of 
land  snails  or  of  marine  animals  such  as  Pholas.  Travellers  on  the  line 
to  Clifden  will  see,  on  the  right  hand  side,  soon  after  leaving  Galway, 
some  of  the  curious  "  mushroom"  rocks,  produced  by  softer  inferior  layers 
weathering  away  more  rapidly  than  harder  superior  layers. 

The  glacial  geology  of  the  district  is  very  interesting,  the  hard,  white 
quartzite  of  the  Bens  being  splendidly  glaciated ;  and  capital  ice-worn 
surfaces  were  seen  close  to  Recess  station,  and  also  on  the  way  to  Ben 
Lettery,  the  rock  being  finely  smoothed  and  polished,  with  deep  ice- 
groovings.  The  drift  sections  at  Gentian  Hill  yielded  many  erratics. 
The  grey  clay  is  excessively  hard  and  compact,  forming  a  cliff  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  long  and  about  thirty  feet  high,  with  large  and  small  erratics 
projecting  from  the  surface,  the  retentiveness  of  the  matrix  being  evi* 
denced  by  the  great  masses  that  stand  out  in  all  directions ;  similar  sec- 
tions occur  on  islands  and  on  the  coast  about  this  locality.  Many 
boulders  are  of  black  Carboniferous  limestone  with  bands  of  white  Pro- 
ductus  about  three  inches  deep,  the  whole  surface  being  exquisitely 
polished  and  striated,  others  are  Connemara  granites,  including  the 
typical  Galway  variety,  remarkable  for  the  scarcity  of  mica,  and  the 
handsome  crystals  of  pink  orthoclase  felspar,  recalling  the  famous  Shap 
granite ;  specimens  of  serpentine  also  occur  as  erratics. 

On  the  Aran  Islands,  in  Galway  Bay,  many  of  these  rocks  occur  as 
erratics.  Also  there  are  found  specimens  of  a  fine-grained  red  quartzite 
said  not  to  occur  now  anywhere  in  situ.  It  would  be  impossible  to  con- 
clude without  a  reference  to  the  remarkable  cliflf-scenery  of  these 
islands,  where  the  slightly-dipping  limestones  have  been  undercut  by  the 
sea  into  mighty  shelves,  over  which  the  Atlantic  waves  play  ceaselessly, 
whilst  upper  terraces  are  tenanted  by  myriads  of  sea-birds,  and  the  top 
of  the  cliffs  between  50  and  100  feet  above  the  sea  are  swept  bare  at  the 
edges,  huge  piles  of  stones  forming  a  rampart  many  yards  inland,  de- 
monstrating what  the  force  of  the  surges  must  be,  when  their  spray  can 
do  such  mighty  work.  Here  and  there,  in  the  face  of  these  grand  cliffs, 
a  bed  of  shale  gives  rise  to  a  water-spring,  falling  in  delicate  veils  of 
spray  into  the  ocean,  an  exquisite  rainbow  perpetually  spanning  the 
abyss.  The  causes  that  result  in  such  beautiful  effects  are  full  of  geo- 
logical interest,  and  the  whole  excursion  was  replete  with  such  oppor« 
tunitiee  for  the  geologists  o|  the  party. 

238  The  Irish  Naturalist. 



BY  E.  J.   M'WKENEV,    M.A.,    M.D. 


This  Order,  which  comprises  the  most  highly  organized  and  largest 
Fungi  was  but  sparsely  represented,  owing  no  doubt  partly  to  the  dry- 
ness of  the  early  summer  season,  but  chiefly  to  the  fact  that  a  great  deal 
of  the  ground  traversed — stony  and  boggy,  mountainous  and  maritime 
regions— is  'of  a  character  notoriously  unfavourable  to  the  growth  of 
agarics  and  their  allies.  Besides,  their  season  of  fructification  had  as 
yet  hardly  commenced.  In  the  patches  of  wood  (chiefly  fir)  by  the  lake 
sides  at  Recess  on  the  12th  Jul}',  and  Lough  Corrib  on  the  i6th,  the 
ordinary  species  oi  Bolettts  generally  met  with  in  such  places,  were  taken 
together  with  a  few  of  the  manure-frequenting  agarics  belonging  to  the 
genera  Panaohis,  Stropharia  and  Coprinus.  We  also  found  a  very  fine 
Mycena  filopes,  and  one  Marasmius  androsaceus,  an  uncommon  species  in 
my  experience.  The  heaths  at  Recess  yielded  a  large  mouse-coloured 
pink-spored  Agaric  [Entoloma  helodcs,  Fr.),  in  abundance,  and  large  forms 
of  Galera  hypnoriim  and  its  var.  Sphagnorinn^  were  met  with  in  the  swamps 
at  Lough  Corrib.  The  only  form  at  all  peculiar  or  unusual  was  a 
pale-yellow-capped  white-gilled  Canthardlus  {albidtis)  which  we  came 
across  in  some  abundance  on  the  heath-covered  slopes  at  Recess  and 
also  near  Lough  Corrib.  No  agaric  save  the  Common  Mushroom 
seems  to  have  been  collected  on  Aran. 

Agraricus  (lYIyccna)  fi lopes,  Bull. — Wood  at  Lough  Corrib. 

A.  (WI.)  stylotoatcs,  Pers. — Lake-side  near  Recess. 

A.  (Entoloma)  helodes,  Fr. — Abundant  on  heaths,  Recess,  &c, 

A.  (Calera)  hypnorum,  Batsch. — Frequent  in  the  bogs.  Recess,  &c. 

var.  Sphagnorum,  Fr. — Swamps  by  Lough  Corrib. 

A.    (Psalllota)   campestrls    Linn,    (the  Common  Mushroom). — 
Frequent  in  nearly  every  suitable  locality,  including  Aran . 

A.  (Stropharia)    semigloli^atusy    Batsch— Lough    Corrib    and 
Recess,  frequent. 

Anellarla  flmlputrls,  Karsten— Lough  Corrib. 

PanOBOlus  phalaenarum,  Fr.— Lough  Corrib. 

Coprinus  cphcmcrus,  Fr.— Lough  Corrib. 

Cantharellus  albldus,  Fr.— On  heaths  at  Recess  and  L.  Corrib. 

Marasmius  androsaceus,  Fr.— Lough  Corrib. 

Boletus  luteus,  Linn.— Lough  Corrib. 

B.  flavus,  With.— Lough  Corrib. 

B.  larlclnus,  Berk.— Recess  Wood,  and  Lough  Corrib. 
Fomes  varlegatus,  Seer.— Burren. 
TremcHa  mesenteflca,  Retz.— Lough  Corrib. 

Galway  Exairsion — Fungi.  239 


The  Only  Peziza  of  any  size— a  fawn  coloured  species  (probably  P.plairota, 
Phil.),  collected  by  Mr.  M'Ardle,  and  placed  in  a  tube — was  unfortunately 
lost,  together  with  the  tube  and  its  remaining  contents,  which  comprised 
a  Saprolegnia  or  Achlya  sp.  on  a  dead  fl}',  and  Dr.  FitzGerald's  specimen  of 
Claviceps  on  grass.  Another  specimen  which  I  took  on  a  superficial 
inspection  to  be  a  discomycete  parasitic  on  some  frondose  hepatic  proved 
to  be  a  Lichen,  Solorina  saccaia,  L.,  stated  to  be  rather  rare,  but  already 
recorded  from  Brandon  in  Kerry,  and  Ben  Bulben  in  Sligo  by  Mr. 
J.  T.  Mackay,  and  from  Cushendall,  Co.  Antrim,  by  Dr.  Moore.  I  had 
confined  my  examination  to  the  apothecia,  and  had  therefore  become 
acquainted  only  with  the  fungal  element  in  the  compound  organism 
of  the  Lichen.  Each  ascus  contains  four  uniseptate  brown  .spores.  Struck 
by  these  peculiarities,  I  thought  I  should  have  no  difficulty  in 
identifying  the  specimen ;  but  here  I  was  disappointed,  and  not  being 
able  to  find  a  place  for  it,  I  sent  it  to  Mr.  Phillips  of  Shrewsbury,  the 
well-known  authority  on  Discomycetes,  and  to  his  kindness  I  am  indebted 
for  the  establishment  of  the  true  nature  of  this  specimen.  Moral — 
always  examine  the  substratum  /  The  poverty  of  this  region  in  Discomy- 
cetes is  very  remarkable. 

Lachnea  stercorea,  Gill.    >  ^  -,         t       1.  rv      -i, 

'  L  On  cowdung,  Lough  Comb. 

Humaria  g^ranulata,  Sacc.  y 

Dasyscypha  virglnea,  Fekl.— Frequent,  Recess,  Lough  Corrib,  &.C. 
Phialea  virgultorum,  Sacc— Recess,  lake-side. 
IVIoIlisla  clnerea,  Karst. — Lough  Corrib. 
WI.  melaleuca,  Sacc. — Lough  Corrib. 


The  most  important  species  found  was  Claviceps  purpurea  (Ergot),  taken 
at  Burren  by  Dr.  FitzGerald  on  some  grass  not  now  certainly  recogniz- 
able,    Only  a  few  fruits  were  ergotized. 

Claviceps  purpurea,  Fr. — 0\\  grass,  Burren  (Prof.  FitzGerald). 

Eplchloe  typhina,  Pers.— On  Dadylis glomerata.  Gentian  Hill  wood. 

Polystigma  ruttrum,  Pers.— Burren,  on  Black-thorn. 

Cladosporluin  herbarum,  L.  R.— (The  conidial  stage  of  some 
Pyrenomycete)  on  Quaking-grass,  Aran,  Prof  FitzGerald. 

Hypocopra  flmlcola  (Rob.),  Sacc— On  rabbit-dung,  Lough  Corrib. 


When  industriously  sought  for,  members  of  the  first-named  class  are 
fairly  abundant  in  the  region  examined*  The  only  smut  we  found  was 
Ustilago  scgetum  on  oats,  Aran  (Dr.  FitzGerald).  I  was  much  struck  with 
the  slight  degree  of  development  attained  by  these  parasitic  forms  on 

^40  ^^ic  hish  Naturalist, 

that  island.  Piiccinia  pnlvcrtilciita,  Grev.,  formed  a  striking  exception.  It 
grew  most  luxuriantly  on  a  patch  of  Willow-herb  near  Mr.  Johnson's 
house  at  Kilmurvy,  the  entire  under-surface  of  some  of  the  leaves  being 
covered  with  the  cluster-cups,  whilst  large  confluent  sori  of  teleuto- 
spores  occurred  on  neighbouring  plants.  This  partial  separation  of  the 
two  stages— dioecisra — is  worthy  of  note.  The  commonest  wild 
Umbellifer,  Angelica  sylvesiris,  was  infested  with  a  rust,  P.  ptmpinel/cr,  Sirsiuss, 
whilst  the  only  specimen  I  saw  of  the  local  Phnpinella  magna  was  covered 
with  the  Urcdo-s^o\.^  of  a  somewhat  larger-spored  rust  which  may 
possibly  prove  distinct.  The  only  other  species  worthy  of  remark 
are  the  Phragmidium  on  the  Lesser  Burnet,  and  the  rust  on  clover,  both 
found  on  Aran,  and  neither  frequent,  so  far  as  my  experience  goes,  on  the 
east  side  of  Ireland. 

Pucclnla  prlmulae,  DC— Wood  near  base  of  Gentian  Hill. 

P.  centaurese,  Mart.— Gentian  Hill. 

P.  vlolae,  Schum.— Gentian  Hill.  ^    ;' 

P.  pulvcrulcnta,  Grev.— On  ^//^^/w;« /5i>j«/«w,  Aran«  >    '"^ 

P.  variabilis,  Grev.— Gentian  Hill. 

P.  taraxacl,  Plow.— Gentian  Hill. 

P.  hleracil,  Schum. — Uredo  on  Cardtms  lanceolattiSy  Aran. 

P.  pimpinellsef  Strauss.— On  Angelica  sylvestris  and  Pimpinelta ma^na, 

Uromyces  anthyllidis,  Grev. — On  A.vulneraria^  Aran. 

U.  trifoliiy  Alb.  and  Schw — On  T. pratense,  Aran. 

Triphragmium  ulmariae,  Schum. — Uredo  only,  near  Gentian  Hill. 

Phragmlciium  frag^ariastri,  DC. — Aran. 

P.  sangulsorbae,  DC, — On  Poteriiim  Sanguisorba,  Aran. 

P,  Vlolaceuirif  Schultz. — On  Rubusfmticosus,  Aran  and  elsewhere. 

P.  subcortlcatutrif  Schrank. — On  Rosa  spinosissima,  Aran  and  else- 
lYIelampsora  Ilnl,  Pers.— Abundant  on  Aran  and  elsewhere. 
M.  f ar I nosa,  Pers,— Heaths  near  Recess.  !^ 

WI.  hyper Icorum,  DC— On  Tutsan  at  L.  Corrib.  ,y' 

Coleosporlum  seneclonis,  Pers.— Aran.    Prof.  FitzGerald. 
C»  cu phrasias,  Schum.— Aran  and  elsewhere,  on  Rhinanthiis, 
Ustllago  segetum.  Bull.— Aran,  Prof.  FitzGerald. 
Urocystis  Vloiae,  Sow.— Near  Gentian  Hill. 

In  conclusion  I  have  to  express  my  deep  sense  of  obligation  to  Prof.  G. 
1^.  FitzGerald,  F.R.S.,  to  whose  quick  observation  and  skill  in  collecting 
I  owe  many  of  the  most  interesting  fungal  specimens  taken  during  this 
enjoyable  excursion. 


[      241      1 

The  Galway  excursion  afforded  several  excellent  opportunities  for  sliore- 
coUecting.     It  is  to  be  regretted  that  so  few  took  advantage  of  tliem. 

I  would  suggest  that,  on  our  next  Field  Club  Union  excursion  members, 
on  joining  the  meeting,  be  invited  to  act  as  collectors  in  some  special 
group  of  plants  or  animals.  On  the  first  day,  during  the  preparation  of 
lunch  on  Gentian  Hill,  one  of  us  searched  the  somewhat  muddy  shore  on 
the  western  side  of  the  hill,  gathered  a  number  of  shells  attacked  by 
the  perforating  algse,  and  found  Zostera  nana,  which  is  referred  to  else- 
where. Sea- weeds  were  collected  at  Gleninagh,  Co.  Clare,  the  low  rocky 
shore  affording  some  good  rock-pools,  the  coralline  Lithothamnioti 
polyfnorphuvi  lining  some  of  them.  Here  was  found  the  common  green 
Codiion  tomentosiim  infested  by  the  brown  alga  Strcblonema  simplex,  hitherto 
only  once  recorded  for  Ireland,  by  one  of  us;  another  species,  S. 
fasciadatum,  growing  on  Mesogla:a  vermiailata,  is  new  to  Ireland.  Sporochmis 
pedunculatus  was  found  washed  ashore.  It  would  be  out  of  place  to  give 
here  a  full  list  of  the  species  noticed  or  gathered.  It  maybe  of  interest  to 
state  that  Holmes  and  Batters  make  a  preliminary  attempt  to  indicate  the 
distribution  of  sea- weeds  in  their  "  Revised  L^ist  of  the  British  Marine 
Algse"  (^Annals  of  Botany,  vol.  v.,  1890).  For  this  purpose  the  coast  of 
the  United  Kingdom  is  divided  into  fourteen  districts,  in  which  Ireland 
is  represented  by  districts  10-14,  Galway  Bay  being  included  in  district 

II  (Slyue  Head  to  Crow  Head).  It  would  be  comparatively  easy  for  us 
to  make  out  a  list  of  species  found,  not  recorded  in  the  above-mentioned 
list  for  district  ir.  Such  a  proceeding  would  be  out  of  place,  as  there 
are  many  species,  in  collections  made  by  earlier  workers,  known  to  us, 
not  recorded.     The  following  are  some  of  the  interesting  finds  : — 

Delesserla,  all  (6)  species  except  D.  angustissima. 

Phyllophora  rubens,  infested  with  Acthiococcus. 

Champla  parvula,  with  cystocarps. 

Ceramlum  tenulsslmum. 

Rhodophyllis  bifida,  with  cystocarps. 

Dudresnaia  cocclnea,  with  antherrdia,  procarps  and  cystocarps. 
This  beautiful  and  rare  red  alga  is  one  in  which  one  act  of  fertilisation 
results  in  the  formation  of  a  number  of  cystocarp  fruits. 

Coralllna  rubens. 
Ca  squamata. 
Choreonema  Thurctf. 
Melobesla  cortlclformls. 

Ascocyclus  orbicularis,  on  Zostcm,  new  to  Ireland. 
Castagnea  zosterse. 

Species  of  Cystosclra,  Ctadostephus,  Ectocarpus,  Urospora, 
Monostroma,  Euteromorpha,  Cladophora. 
Hyella  cdespltosa, 


242  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

IVIastlgrocoIeus  testarum. 

Picctonema  terebrans. 

Comontia  polyrhiza. 

Conchocells  rosea,  new  to  West  of  Ireland. 
V     Tellamia? 

Aranmore.— Low  water  was  caught  at  Killeany  Bay  (Kilroiiau)  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Island,  and  in  addition  some  scraps  of  sea- weeds  were 
gathered  on  the  west  side,  a  little  east  of  the  fort  Dun  Aengus.    Ordinary 
shore-collecting   is  almost  impossible  on  the  west  side,  owing  to  the 
precipitous  cliffs,  and  ocean  swell,  even  on  a  comparatively  cahn  day. 
Several  interesting  weeds  were  obtained  on  the  west  side,  indicative  of  a 
rich  harvest  after  a  westerly  gale  or  by  dredging.    Killeany  Bay  proved  a 
splendid  locality  for  the  perforating  algje  (all  the  species  recorded  in  Miss 
Hensman's  recent  paper  in  the  Irish  Naturalist  being  found  here),  and 
iox  \.\).^  Sqtiamariacccv,  a  group  of  red  sea- weeds,  coating  stones,  &c.,  and 
of  which  Pdrocelis  and  Pcyssonndia  are  examples.      This  group  is  at  its 
best  in  the  winter.     In  the  quiet  pools,  with  the  abundant  disintegrat- 
ing   mollusc  shells,    and    the  stone-coating  Squamariaccic:,  were    found 
quantities  of  Stilophora  rhizodcs,  and  several  species  of  Cystoscira,  including 
the  iridescent  C.  ericoides  infested  with  Myriadis  ptilvinata.    The  meeting  of 
the  southern  and  northern  types,  noticed  in  the  fauna  of  the  district  was 
illustrated  in  several  ways ;  thus  Plumarici  degans,  a  southern  form,  and 
Ptilota plumosa,  a  northern  closely  allied  form,  were  both  found;    Pycno- 
phycus  tubcrcidatus,  a  brown  alga  which  is  erroneously  supposed  to  reach 
its  northern  limits  in  Galway  Bay,  was  also  found. 

Of  the  less-known  forms  may  be  mentioned — 

Conimophyllum    BulftiamI     on    Nitophyllum  laceratu7n\  new    to 
Dermocarpa  prasfna  ]      Latter  new  to,  and  former  not  recorded 
D.  Schousbdet  >  for  Ireland. 

Growing  on  a  rock  exposed  at  half-tide  was  a  form  of  Codium^  not  un- 
like the  Codium  amphibiwn  of  Harvey's  "  Phycologia  Britanuica."  Some 
time  must  elapse  before  all  the  material  collected  has  been  examined, 
many  of  the  rarest  weeds  being  microscopic  and  time-absorbing  in  their 
determination.  Our  thanks  are  due  to  Miss  Sydney  Thompson  of 
Belfast  for  a  collection  of  attacked  shells,  to  Miss  Kelsall  for  some 
Kilronan  weeds,  and  to  Mr.  R.  J.  Mitchell,  whose  health  has  prevented 
him  from  taking  part  in  the  determination  of  the  weeds  he  helped  to 

[     243     ] 

BY  D.  m'ardl:^. 


The  appended  lists  of  these  plants  which  were  collected  by  me  on  the 
Galway  excursion  are  provisional  only.  It  will  be  observed  that  the  list 
of  mosses  is  very  short,  17  species  only,  excluding  a  few  species  not  yet 
determined.  The  entire  district  we  visited  in  Aran  was  very  scanty  in 
moss  vegetation ;  even  the  commonest  rock  moss,  Ptychomittium,  which 
clothes  such  formations  in  almost  every  county  in  Ireland,  was  not  met 
with,  and  very  few  grow  on  or  amongst  the  bare  rocks.  The  summit  of 
the  mountain  from  Cappanawalla  to  Ballyvaughan,  where  I  went  in  search 
of  rare  flowering  plants,  produced  very  few  mosses;  it  is  one  vast  *•  stone 
field  "  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach.  We  met  with  no  mountain  stream  ; 
on  the  banks  and  rotting  timber  in  such  places  mosses  luxuriate  in  the 
shade,  heat,  and  moisture.  On  the  lower  slopes  of  the  Burren,  as  at 
Ballyvaughan,  and  on  Carn  Seefin  a  good  representative  list  of  mosses 
could  be  made  would  time  permit. 

The  total  number  of  liverworts  collected  is  forty-seven.  Of  these 
twenty-three  are  not  reported  from  the  counties  we  visited  in  Dr.  D. 
IMoore's  work  on  the  Irish  Hepaticae,  and  two  are  additional  species  to 
the  list  in  that  important  publication.  Out  of  fourteen  species  ot 
Lejeunea  known  to  grow  in  Ireland  I  collected  eight ;  four  of  these  are 
additions  to  the  Galway  list.  The  rare  Lejeunea  Mackaii  occurs  sparingly 
on  the  north  island  of  Aran  on  damp  rocks.  It  is  remarkable  amongst 
Lejeunea  in  having  large  undivided  obcordate  folioles  or  stipules  by  which 
it  is  easily  known  from  all  others.  It  is  the  Irish  representative  of  four 
species  included  by  Dr.  Spruce  in  the  genus  Homalo- Lejeunea,  natives  of 
the  Peruvian  Andes  and  Brazil.  Scapania  aspera,  Mull.,  was  first  detected 
by  me  in  the  Co.  Cavan  in  1893,  and  now  it  has  turned  up  in  both  Clare 
and  Galway ;  it  may  lurk  in  herbaria  under  the  name  of  Scapania 
neviorosa ;  its  place  is  between  that  species  and  S,  aqtiiloba ;  possibly  it 
belongs  to  the  latter. 

Plagiochila  interrupta  I  have  not  found  before.  I  am  not  aware  that  it 
has  been  published  as  Irish,  and  may  have  been  overlooked  for  Saccogyna 
or  Chiloscyphus,  which  it  resembles ;  the  plants  collected  by  me  are 
identical  with  those  gathered  by  Dr.  Carrington  in  Bolton  Woods,  York- 
shire, specimens  of  which  are  included  in  the  excellent  Fasc.  Hepatic^t 
No,  86,  of  Carrington  and  Pearson,  kindly  placed  at  my  disposal  by  Mr. 
F.  W.  Moore,  A.L.S. 

Campylopus  sctlfollus,  Wils.— Carn  Seefin. 
Tortula  tortuosa,  Hedwig.—Kilronan. 
Tortula  rural  is,  Linn.— Rocks,  Kilronan. 
Tortula  fallax,  Hedwig.— Aran. 
Tortula  murallSt  Timm.— Aran,  Gentian  Hill. 
Orthotrlchum  afflne*  Schrad.^ Ballyvaughan. 

244  The  Irish  Naturalist 

Enthostodon  TempletonI,  Schwaegr— Side  of  a  stream,  Carn 

SplachnuiYi  ampullaceum,  Liiiu.  —  Cappanawalla  Mountain 
(Professor  T.  Johnson).  Amongst  Sphagnum,  shore  of  Lough  Corrib 
(Professor  Fitzgerald). 

Bryum  capillare,  Hedwig.— On  walls,  Bally vaughan. 

Leucodon  sciuroldes,  Schwaegr.— Ballyvaughan,  Mr.  O'Kelly. 

Neckera  crispa,  Dill.-Gentian  Hill,  Ballyvaughan,  Island  of 

Hypnum  coiYimutatum,  Dill.,  van— Aran. 

Hypnum  purum,  Linn.— Gentian  Hill,  Aran,  common. 

Hypnum  unclnatum,  Hedw.— Near  Kilronan. 

Hypnum  loreum,  Dill.— Ballyvaughan. 

Homalothecium  serlceum,  Linn. — Near  Kilronan. 

Fissldens  adfantoldes,  Hedwig. —Ballyvaughan.  Amongst  rocks, 


*  Denotes  a  species  not  previously  reported  from  the  County, 

FruIIania  dilatata,  (L.)  Dum.— On  the  trunks  of  trees,  side  of  a 
stream,  Carn  Seefin ;    Gleninagh,  and  Ballyvaughan. 

FruIIania  tamarlsci,  (L.)  Dum.— Gentian  Hill,  Carn  Seefin, 
Cappanawalla  Mountain,  common 

*FruIIanIa  gcrmana,  Taylor.— Carn  Seefin,  rare. 

*LeJcunca  minutissima,  Smith.  —On  trees  at  Gentian  Hill  ; 
Gleninagh,  Co.  Clare. 

*LeJunea  microscopica,  Tayl.— On  Plagiockila,  Carn  Seefin,  rare. 

*Lejunca  hamatifolia,  (Hook.)  Dum.--*Gleninagh;  Carn  Seefin;  a 
rare  species. 

*Lejeunea  ovata,  (Tayl.)  Dicks.— On  moss  and  decayed  wood,  side 
of  a  stream,  Carn  Seefin,  plentiful;  a  rare  species. 

Lejeunea  serpyllifolla,  Dicks.— On  the  trunks  of  trees,  shores  of 
Lough  Corrib  near  Carn  Seefin. 

*Lcjeunea  flava,  var. — Carn  Seefin  ;  a  rare  species. 

*LeJeunea  patens,  Lindberg.— On  FruIIania,  Carn  Seefin;  Gentian 

*Lcjeunea  Mackail,  (Hooker)  Dum.— On  rocks  on  the  North  Island 
of  Aran  (Kilmurv}'),  rare. 

Radula  complanata,  (L)  Dum.— On  rocks.  Gentian  Hill. 

*PorcIIa  platyphylla,  (L.)  Lindberg.— Island  of  Aran. 

Pleurozia  cochlcarlformis. — Gentian  Hill. 

Kantia  trichomanes,  Dicks.— Gentian  Hill,  Carn  Seefin,  common. 

*Kant!a  arguta^  Nees. — On  a  damp  bank,  Carn  Seefin  (Professor  T. 
Johnson).  Side  of  a  stream  near  the  shore  of  Lough  Corrib  ;  a  very  rare 

Lepldozia  setacea,  Web.— Carn  Seefin,  frequent. 

*CephaIozIa  eaten u lata,  Huben. — On  damp  peat,  Carn  Seefin; 
♦Ballyvaughan,  very  fine ;  a  rare  species. 

Cephaloziablcuspldata,  Linn.— Carn  Seefin. 

Galway  Excursion. — Mosses  and  Liverworts,        '^  245 

Cephalozia  Lammersiana,  Hub.— Cam  Seefin. 

Cephalozia  sphagn!,  Dicks  (Spruce).— Carn  Seefin. 

"^Cephalozia  divarlcata,  Sm.— Carn  Seefin. 

"^Cephalozia  divarlcata,   var.  Starkll,  Spruce— Ball3rvaughan  ; 
Carn  Seefin  ;  a  rare  species. 

"^Scapanla  aequIloDa,  (Schw.),  Dum.—Cappanawalla  Mountain. 

*ScapanIa  netnorosa,  (L.)  Dum.— Carn  Seefin,  *Bally\-aughan. 

*Scapanla  aspera.  Mull.— Salthill,  near  Galway;   Ballyvaughan, 
very  fine  on  Cappanawalla  Mountain  ;  new  to  these  districts. 

Dlplophyllum  albicans,   (Iv.)  Dum.— Carn  Seefin,   Gentian  Hill, 
Gleninagh,  and  Ballyvaughan. 

Plagriochlla  asplenioides,  (L.)  Dum.— Carn  Seefin. 

*PIagIochlIa   Interrupta,    (N.)  Dum.— Ballyvaughan.     Not  pre- 
viously published  as  Irish.t 

Plaglochllasplnulosa, (Dicks.),  Dum. — Carn  vSeefin,  shore  of  Lough 

*Juni:ermania  (Aplozia)  riparia,  (Tayl.),  Dum.— Moist  bank  near 

vlungrermanla  ventrlcosa,   Dicks.— Side  of  a  stream,  shore  of 
Lough  Corrib. 

Saccogryna  vltlculosa,  L- — Carn  Seefin. 

Nardia  etnarg:inata,  Ehrh.— Gentian  Hill;  on  moist  rocks,  Carn 
Seefin ;  common. 

Nardia  scalaris,  (Schr.)  Gr.— Carn  Seefin;  shores  of  Lough  Corrib 

Nardia  crenulata,  (Smith),  Lindberg.— Ballyvaughan,  Gentian  Hill 

*NardIa  obovata,  Nees. — Carn  Seefin. 

Pellia   epiphylla,    Linn.— Moist  places,    Carn    Seefin;    near   Kil 

*Penia  calyclna,  Nees. — Damp  bank  side  of  a  stream,  Carn  Seefin 
a  rare  species. 

lYIetzgrerla   furcata,   Linn.— On  trees.  Gentian  Hill;  Gleninagh; 
shores  of  Lough  Corrib. 

*IVIctzgrcria  conjugata,  Lindberg.— Carn  Seefin  ;  rare. 

RIccardia  multifida,  (Dill.),  Linn.— Carn  Seefin. 

Riccardia  pinguis,  (L.)  B.Gr.— Damp,  boggy  place,  Carn  Seefin. 

IVIarchantia  polymorpha,  Linn.— Ballyvaughan. 

*Re)fc)ouIia  hemisphaerica,  Raddi.— In  the  crevices  of  moist  rocks, 

Fagatella  conica,  (L.)  Corda.— Moist  bank  near  Kilronan. 

t  This  may  be  the  type  of  the  plant  described  by  Dr.  Moore  und^r 
the  name  01  Fedinophylhim pyrenaicwn^  Spruce.  A'.  /.  A.  Proc.  (2)  vol.  ii., 
p.  629. 

246  The  Irish  Naturalist, 


BY  R.  I.I,OYD  PKAE;GER,  B.E.,  AND  PROF.  J.  W.  CARR,  M.A.,  F.I^S. 

The  remarkable  flora  of  the  districts  lying  aroiiiid  Galway  has  long  been 
famous,  and  has  by  this  time  been  tolerably  well  worked  out.  Conne- 
mara,  with  its  interesting  southern  species,  has  attracted  many  botanists, 
whose  observations  are  brought  together  in  Cybele  Hibernica ;  and  since 
the  appearance  of  that  work,  further  contributions  to  our  knowledge  of 
that  flora  have  been  made,  the  most  important  paper  being  that  of  H.  C. 
Hart.""  The  limestone  district  of  Burren  has  likewise  been  well  examined, 
as  is  witnessed  by  the  papers  of  F.  J.  Foot,^  T.  H.  Corry,^  H.  C.  Ivevinge,^ 
and  others.  The  interesting  flora  of  the  Aran  Islands  (which  are 
botanically  a  part  of  Clare,  not  of  Galway)  has  also  been  carefully 
investigated.  So  that,  while  close  and  systematic  search  would,  no 
doubt,  yield  a  number  of  additions  to  the  floras  of  these  districts,  but 
little  in  this  direction  could  result  from  the  necessarily  hurried  and 
superficial  work  of  the  Field  Club  excursion ;  and  indeed,  the  time  of 
members  was  devoted  to  securing  examples  of  well-known  botanical 
treasures,  rather  than  to  working  out  the  distribution  of  less  interesting 
species,  or  the  determination  of  critical  plants.  But  that  the  excursion 
was  by  no  means  barren  of  results  as  regards  the  flowering  plants,  the 
records  which  are  appended  will  show. 

Our  notes  can  be  conveniently  arranged  in  three  geographical  groups  : 
—I.  West  Galway  (District  8  of  Cyhclc  Hibernica)  ;  II.  East  Galway  and 
Clare  (District  6  of  Cybele)  ;  III.  Aran  Islands  (District  6  of  Cybele). 

I.  West  Gai^way  (District  8).— Plants  were  collected  chiefly  in  three 
places— Gentian  Hill,  Carn  Seefin  on  Lough  Corrib,  and  about  Recess. 
Gentian  Hill,  a  promontory  of  drift  on  the  shore  three  miles  west  of 
Galway,  is  interesting  as  yielding  a  group  of  limestone  plants  not  found 
elsewhere  in  West  Galway ;  this  drift  has  come  from  the  east  or  south, 
and  is  largely  composed  of  limestone.  Here,  within  50  feet  of  sea-level, 
were  gathered  Dryas  odopeiala^  Aspertda  cy7ianchica,  Chlora  perfoliata,  Gentiana 
verna.  Orchis  pyratnidalisy  Sesleria  ccenilea. 

At  Carn  Seefin  and  Recess  the  typical  Connemara  flora  reigns  supreme. 
In  both  localities  grew  abundance  of  Drosera  anglicn,  D.  intermedia,  Hyperi- 
cum elodeSy  Saxifraga  wnbrosa.  Lobelia  DorOnanna,  Dabeocia  polifoliay  Utricularia 
intermedia,  Eriocatdon  septangulare,  Rhynchospora  alba,  Osmunda  regalis, 

^  H.  C.  Hart.— Notes  on  the  Flora  of  the  Mayo  and  Galway  Mountains, 
Proc.  R.LA.,  Ser.  II.,  Vol.  3,  No.  10,  1883. 

2  F.  J.  Foot.— On  the  Distribution  of  Plants  in  Burren,  Clare.  Trans. 
RJ.A.y  Vol.  24,  1862. 

8T.  H.  Corry.— Notes  on  a  Botanical  Ramble  in  the  County  of  Clare. 
Proc.  Belfast  Nat,  Hist,  and  Phil.  Sac,  1879-80. 

•*  H.  C.  Levinge.— iV^c^/mra  intacta  in  County  Clare.  Journ.  Bot.^  vol.  30, 
p.  194.     1892. 

Galway  Excnrsion. — Phanerogams,  &c.  247 

The  following  notes  are  selected  for  publication  :— 1 
Thallctrum  col  11  n um,  Wallr.—Lakeshore  below  Carn  Seefin. 
SiiK>uIarIa  aquatlca,  L.— Glendalough  Lake. 
Lotus  pllosus,  Beeke.— Oughterard,  Miss  Knowles. 
Dryas  octopctala,  L.— Lisoughter  Hill  behind  Recess,  Carr. 
Saxlfra^ra  opposltlfolla,  Iv— Lisoughter  Hill,  Carr. 
IVIyriophyllum  verticil  latum,  Iv.— Lake-shore  below  Carn  Seefin. 
GEnanthe  Lachenalll,  Gmel. —Gentian  Hill. 

Card u us    pratensfs,   Huds.— Oughterard,   Miss    Knowles  ;    Carn 

Hieracium  angrlicum,  Fr.— Lisoughter  above  Recess,  Carr. 

Arctostaphylos  Uva-ursI,  Spr.— Near  summit  of  Ben  Lettery. 

lYIelaitipyrutn    pratense,    L.  var.    montanum,   Johnst— Carn 

Scrophularia  aquatica,  L.— Gentian  Hill ;  Oughterard. 

Scutellaria  minor,  L.— Gentian  Hill ;  base  of  Carn  Seefin. 

Plngruicula  lusitanlca,  L.— Carn  Seefin,  Miss  Knowles. 

Habenaria  chlorantha,  Bab. — Carn  Seefin,  J.  A.  Audley. 

IVIalaxis  paludosa,  Sw.— Base  of  Garn  Seefin,  J.  A.  Audley. 

Sparganlum  simplex,  Huds. — Oughterard,  Miss  Knowles. 

S.  minimum,  Fr. — Oughterard,  Miss  Knowles. 

Zostera  nana.  Roth. — Prof.  Johnson  supplies  the  following  interest- 
ing note : — While  waiting  for  lunch  on  the  day  of  our  arrival,  Miss 
Hensman  and  I  collected  Algce  on  the  muddy  shore  on  the  west  side  of 
Gentian  Hill,  and  found  several  beds  of  Zostera  nana  in  fruit.  The  only 
Irish  record  for  this  plant  hitherto  published  {vide  Cybele  Hibernica)  is  a 
station  near  Baldoyle  (Co.  Dublin),  discovered  by  the  late  A.  G.  More. 
When  recently  looking  through  Mr.  H.  C.  Hart's  collections  in  the 
Herbarium  of  the  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin,  specimens  of  Z. 
nana,  gathered  by  this  botanist  in  Co.  Donegal  several  years  ago, 
were  noticed.  The  publication  of  the  record  awaits  Mr.  Hart's  general 
*'  Flora  of  Donegal."  Hence  the  Galway  locality  is  the  third  in  Ireland 
for  Zostera  nana. 

Cladlum  IVIarlscus,  R.  Br. — Galway,  Oughterard,  Recess,  abundant. 

Rhynchospora  f  usca,  Sm. — Abundant  in  several  places  between 
Oughterard  and  Carn  Seefin. 

Eleocharis  multlcaulls,  Sm. — Carn  Seefin,  Praeger. 

Sclrpus  TatternaemontanI,  Gm. — Near  Gentian  Hill. 

Carcx  disticha,  Huds. — Gentian  Hill,  Miss  Knowles;  River  Corrib 
above  Galway. 

C.  stricta,  Good. — River  Corrib  abov^  Galway,  Praeger. 

C.  pallescens,  L. — Carn  Seefin. 

C.  limosa,  L. — Abundant  about  Recess. 

C.  cxtensa,  Good.— Near  Gentian  Hill. 

C.  fiilformls,  L.— Oughterard,  Miss  Knowles;  River  Corrib  above 

Lastrea  Orcoptcrls,  Presl. — Carn  Seefin. 

L.  aemula.  Brack.— Near  the  summit  of  Ben  Lettery. 

»  In  the  following  notes,  the  finder's  name  is  added  wherever  a  plant 
was  reported  by  one  member  only;  when  found  by  more  than  one 
member,  names  are  omitted. 

248  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

Asplenium  vlridCi  Huds.—Lisoughter  Hill  behind  Recess,  Carr. 
Hymenophyllum  WllsonI,  Hook.— Ben  Lettery. 

H.  tunbridgrense*  Sm. — Damp  crevice  near  summit  of  Ben  Lettery, 

Isoetes  lacustrlSf  L.— Glendalough  Lake. 

Pllularia  globullfera,  L.— Gathered  abundantly  in  the  station 
(west  end  of  Glendalough  Lake),  recorded  by  Praeger  in  /.A^.,  1895. 

II.  Kast  Gateway  and  Ci.are  (District  6).— In  boggy  ground  at 
Menlo'  Castle  near  Galway  were  gathered  Myriophyllum  veriidllatuniy 
Cladimn  Mariscus,  Carcx  Pseudo-cypems^  Osmunda  yrgalis. 

In  the  day  spent  at  Ballyvaughan  and  Gleninagh,  the  peculiar  Burren 
flora  was  seen  to  full  advantage.  On  the  shelves  and  crevices  on  the 
limestone  hills  grew  in  profusion  Aradis  hirsuia,  Arenaria  verna, 
Cerastium  arvense.  Geranium  sanguineuMy  G.  lucidwn,  Poterium  Sangtiisorbay 
Dryas  odopetala,  Rubus  saxatilis,  Asperula  cynanchica,  Galium  sylvestre^ 
Rubia  peregrina,  Carlina  vulgaris,  Arctostaphylos  Uva-ursi,  Gentiana  verna, 
Epipactis  atrorubens,  Sesleria  ccsrulea,  Poly siic hum  aculeattuny  Cystopteris 

Under  the  guidance  of  Mr.  O'Kelly,  Rhamnus  catharticus  and  Potentilla 
fruiicosa  were  seen  in  the  stations  given  in  Mr.  Foot's  paper';  Ophrys  apifera 
and  Botrychium  Lunaria  were  pointed  out  near  Ballyvaughan,  and  Pyrola 
media  high  up  on  the  mountain  above  Gleninagh.  Some  members 
who  drove  to  Black  Head  brought  back  Thalictrtwt  collinum,  Saxifj-aga 
Sternbergii,  and  Adiantum  Capillus-  Veneris  :  these  have  been  recorded  from 
here  in  Mr.  Levinge's  paper. 

Papaver  Rhdeas»  L. ) 

P.  hybrldum,  L.        >  Fields  at  Gleninagh. 
P.  dublum,  L.  ) 

Futnaria  pallidlflora,jord.— Gleninagh. 

SInapIs  alba,  L. — Fields  near  Gleninagh. 

S.  nliri*a,  L. — Gleninagh,  MissKnowles. 

Hypericum  dublum,  Leers. — Common  about  Gleninagh. 

Geranium  rotund  If  oil  um,  L.)      Pointed  out  by  Mr.   O'Kelly  to 

G.  columblnum,  L.  >  Prof.     Fitzgerald      and     Praeger 

growing  in  stony  limestone  ground  near  Ballyvaughan.  G,  rotundifolium 
is  an  extremely  rare  plant  in  Ireland. 

Scandix  Pecten-Vencrls,  L.— Gleninagh,  J.  A.  Audley. 

Centaurea  Cyan  us,  L. — Among  oats,  Gleninagh. 

Verbena  officinalis,  L.— Ballyvaughan,  D.  M'Ardle. 

Neotlnea  Intacta,  Reich. —Pointed  out  in  fruit  near  Ballyvaughan 
by  Mr.  O'Kelly,  and  subsequently  observed  in  many  fields  in  that  neigh- 
bourhood by  Prof.  Fitzgerald  and  Praeger. 

Carex  pallescens,  L.— Gleninagh. 

Adiantum  CapIIIus-Venerls,  L— Found  a  mile  north-west  of 
Ballyvaughan,  by  Mrs.  Fitt. 

III.  Great  Isi^and  of  Aran  (District  6).— The  Aran  Islands  have 
been  so  thoroughly  explored  by  botanists  that  it  was  not  to  be  expected 
that  the  few  hours  spent  by  the  members  on  the  North  Island  would 
yield  much  in  the  way  of  novelty,  though  they  teemed  with  interest; 
and  indeed,  the  only  find  reported  that  merits  publication  (though  it  is 

Galway  Excursion,— Phanerogams^  &pc,  249 

not  a  novelty)  is  the  rediscovery  of  that  rarest  of  Irish  grasses,  Calama* 
grostis  Epigejos,  in  one  of  the  stations  (Killeany)  assigned  to  it  by  Mr. 
Hart.  The  members  were,  however,  quite  satisfied  with  finding,  often  in 
abundance,  the  plants,  in  many  cases  rare  elsewhere,  which  characterize 
the  Aran  flora,  such  as  Arenaria  verna,  Cerastium  arvense,  Geranium  satt' 
gtiineumt  Rubus  saxatilis,  R,  ccsshis,  Poierium  Sanguisorha^  Sedum  Rhodiola,  Saxi' 
fraga  Sternbergii,  Pimpinella  magna,  Crithmrim  maritimtim,  Cornus  sanguinea^ 
Rubia  peregrina,  Asperula  cynanchica,  Galium  sylveslre,  Carlina  vulgaris,  Ccntau- 
rea  Scabiosa,  Senecio  Jacobcea  var.  flosculosus,  Geniiana  verna,  Statice  occidentalism 
Allium  Babinglonii,  Adiantum  Capillus-  Veneris.  The  three  days  subsequently 
spent  on  the  island  by  Praeger,  afforded  time  for  sj'stematic  work,  and 
yielded  satisfactory  results ;  he  sends  in  the  following  notes  as  the 
result  of  his  observations  : — 



The  flora  of  the  Aran  Islands  has  already  been  carefully  investigated. 
The  first  attempt  at  a  complete  list  of  plants  was  that  of  Dr.  E.  P. 
Wright',  whose  paper  notices  159  species  as  growing  on  the  islands.  In 
1875  Mr.  H.  C.  Hart  followed  with  a  much  more  elaborate  paper^,  em- 
bodying the  results  of  a  fortnight's  botanizing  in  August,  1869,  and  the 
additional  observations  of  previous  botanical  visitors.  He  gives  the 
flora  of  the  group  as  372,  of  which  34S  are  definitely  assigned  a  place 
in  the  flora  of  the  North  Island.  In  Wxo.  Journal  of  Botany  for  June,  1892, 
Messrs.  Nowers  and  Wells  published  a  list  of  plants  additional  to  Mr. 
Hart's  list,  found  by  them  during  a  fortnight's  visit  in  June,  1890.  They  add 
41  species  to  the  flora  of  the  group,  of  which  40  were  found  on  the 
North  Island,  thus  bringing  up  the  flora  of  Aranmore  to  388.  The  one 
day  spent  on  the  island  by  the  Field  Club  party  gave  of  course  little 
opportunity  for  detailed  examination,  though  most  of  the  characteristic 
species  were  observed ;  but  the  three  days  which  I  spent  there  during 
the  ensuing  week  yielded  some  additions  to  the  flora,  and  some  new 
localities  for  rarer  Aran  species.  Especially  on  the  third  daj'  of  my  visit, 
I  was  much  assisted  by  Prof.  G.  F.  Fitzgerald,  the  keenness  of  whose  eye 
made  me  regret  that  botany  was  not  his  chosen  profession.  In  the 
appended  notes.  A  signifies  an  addition  to  the  flora  of  the  Aran  Islands  ; 
a  an  addition  to  the  flora  of  the  North  Island. 

Crambe  marltlma,  L. — In  the  greatest  abundance  on  the  beach 
below  the  Seven  Churches.  Not  found,  though  well  searched  for,  in  Mr. 
Hart's  only  station,  "shore  near  Kilronan,"  and  apparently  extinct 

Thiaspl  arvense,  L. — Field  by  roadside  a  mile  east  of  Portmurvy. 

Arabis  clllata,  R.  Br. — Dry  banks  near  the  roadside  half  a  mile 
from  Portmurvy  pier  towards  the  Seven  Churches.  One  of  the  rarest  of 
Irish  plants.  Found  by  Mr.  Hart  on  sandhills  near  Killeany,  six  miles  to 
the  eastward. 

"•  Proceedings  Dub.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc,  Dec.  6,  1S66. 

2  A  List  of  Plants  found  in  the  Islands  of  Aran,  Galway  Bay.     Dublin  : 
Hodges,  Foster,  and  Co.,  1875. 

250  The  Irish  Nahiralist, 

Arabfs  hirsuta,  R.  Br.— South-west  of  the  old  lighthouse. 

a.  Barbarca  vuli:ai*!s,  R.Br.— Between  Kilronan  and  Kilmurvy; 
recorded  by  Mr.  Hart  from  the  South  Island. 

Senebiera  dfdyma,    Pers.- Abundant  everywhere,   as  noted  by 
Messrs.  Nowers  and  Wells. 

a.  Alllarla  ofTlc! nails,  Andrzj.— A  little  south  of  the  old  lighthouse, 
and  in  the  rectory  grounds  at  Kilronan  (Prof.  Fitzgerald) ;  recor- 
ded by  Mr.  Hart  from  the  Middle  Island. 

SInaplsalba,  L.— Kilronan,  Portmurvy,  and  at  the  Seven  Churches. 

A.  Stnapls  arvcnsis,  L.— Fields  west  of  Kilronan,  and  elsewhere. 

Reseda  lutea,  L. — Field  at  Portmurvy. 

Viola  hirta,  L.— South  of  the  old  lighthouse,  near  Oghill,  and  near 
the  Seven  Churches. 

A.   Viola  arvensis,  INIurr.— Near  Kilronan  and  Kilmurvy. 

A.  Cerastlum  tetrandrum,  Curt.— On  the  cliffs  behind  Killeany, 
and  at  Dun  Aengus. 

A.  Leplgonum  salinum,  Kindb.— On  the  clififs  near  Dun  Aengus. 

Malvarotundlfolla,  L. — Kilmurvy,  Seven  Churches,  and  thence 
to  Bungowla. 

Geranium  Robertlanum,  L.—With  white  flowers  at  the  Seven 

Ulex  Callii,    Planch.— Seen  in  two  places  near  the  centre  of  the 
island.     Apparently  not  found  since  noted  by  Prof.  Balfour  in  1S52. 

A.  Ulex  cu ropaeus,  L. — Thicket  on  the  edge  of  a  field  between 
Portmurvy  and  the  Seven  Churches. 

lYIedicagro  sativa,  ly. — Abundant  in  cultivated  land  east  of  Killeany, 

evidently  sown. 
Astragalus  Hypoglottis,  ly.- Dry  bank  on  the  edge  of  the  cliff 

west  of  Dun  Aengus. 

A.  Potentllla  fr  agar  last  rum,  Ehrh.— Near  Oghill. 

A.  Epilobium    obscurum,   Schreb. — Common.     I  saw  no  trace  of 
E.   tetragonwHy  given  in  Mr.   Hart's   list   as  occurring  on  all  the 
Hlppuris  vulgaris,  L. — Still  in  the  marsh  at  Lough  Atalia,  though 
not  found  there  by  Messrs.  Nowers  and  Wells. 

Wlyriophyllum,  sp. — Still  grows  in  Lough  Atalia,  though  not  seen 

by  Messrs.  Nowers  and  Wells.      Out  of  flower  at  the  time  of  my 

Saxifraga  tridactylltes,  L.— On  the  ruins  of  the  Seven  Churches, 

and   on    rocks   further    westward.       Apparently   only  previously 

observed  by  D.  Oliver  in  1850. 
/Ethusa  Cynapium,  L. — Seven  Churches. 
Viburnum  Opulus,  L.— Lough  Atalia. 
A.  Scablosa  arvensis,  L.— Near  Kilronan  and  Kilmurvy. 
Carduus  tenuiflorus,  Curt.— Kilronan. 
Sen  eel o  Jacobaea,   L.— The  normal  form  is  not  now  so  rare  as 

stated  by  Mr.  Hart,  though  the  rayless  form  {ysLY.Jlosculosus,  Jord.) 

is  the  prevailing  one. 
A.  Thrincia    lilrta,     DC— Sandy    fields   north    of    Kilronan,    and 

pastures  between  Kilronan  and  Killeany. 
A.  Clchorlum  I ntybus,  L.— Field  east  of  Killeany. 

Menyanthes  trifollata,  L.— Recorded  by  Mr.  Hart  from  Lough 

Atalia.     Messrs.  Nowers  and  Wells  say  it  was  certainly  not  there 

at  the  time  of  their  visit.    It  has  re-appeared  there  now. 

Gatway  Excursion. — Phanerogams,  6*r.  251 

Cuscuta  Epithymum,  Murr.— Still  abundant  on  sandy  fields  east 
of  Killeany  and  at  Portmurvy,  where  the  stems  colour  the  pasture 
with  brilliant  patches  of  dark  red,  pink,  and  straw  yellow. 

Lit  h  OS  per  mum  officinale,  L.— Near  Kilronan,  and  at  the  Seven 


a.  Pcdicularis  palustris,  L.— In  several  spots  on  the  North  Island; 
noted  with  doubt  in  Mr.  Hart's  list. 

A.  Veronica  Buxbaumil,  Ten.— Near  Killeany,  west  of  Kil- 
ronan, &c. 

A.  Veronica  polfta,  Fr.— Roadsides  between  Kilronan  and  Port- 

Calami ntha  officinalis,  Moench.— Abundant  about  the  Seven 
Churches,  and  thence  to  Bungowla. 

a.  IVIarrublum  vulgare,  L.— Abundant  about  the  Seven  Churches; 
recorded  by  Mr.  Hart  from  the  Middle  Island  only. 

A.  Chenopodlum  rwyyruxvi,  L. — In  great  abundance  on  the  muddy 
margins  of  the  brackish  lake  at  Port  Cowrugli.  A  very  rare  plant 
in  Ireland,  and  usually  near  houses  or  on  disturbed  ground,  so  that 
it  is  of  interest  to  find  a  station  M-liere  it  is  abundant  and  evidently 
native.  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  it  has  not  been  found  in  the  West  of 
Ireland  before. 

A.  Atriplex  hastata,  ly. — Shores  in  several  places. 
A.  Rumcx  crispus,  L. — In  several  places. 

A.  Rumex  sangruineus,  L.  var.  viridls  (Sibth). — Roadsides  in 
several  parts  of  the  island. 

Sallx  repens,  L. — Portmurvy.  Var.  argentea  Avas  gathered  by  Prof. 
Fitzgerald  between  Portraurv}^  and  the  Seven  Churches. 

Junlperus  nana,  Willd. — In  several  places.  The  Aran  Juniper  is 
certainlyy.  nana  (which  was  recorded  by  Prof.  Balfour  in  1852)  and 
noty.  cojiiniunis. 

a.  Iris  Pseud-acorus,  Iv. — Seen  in  several  places;  Mr.  Hart  gives 
Middle  Island  only. 

(I.  Juncus  cffusus,  L.— In  several  places;  previously  recorded  from 
Middle  Island  only. 

A.  Luzuia  multlflora,  Lej.— West  of  Kilronan. 

Potamogeton  polygon Ifolius,  Pourr. — At  Lough  Atalia.  Icould 
not  find  there  P.  natans,  given  by  Mr.  Hart. 

A.  Eleocharis   palustris,    R.    Br.— Brackish   lake  on  the  shore  at 
Port  Cowrugh. 
Carex  glauca,  Scop. — Grows  remarkably  tall  on  Aran.    The  leaves 
are  commonly  2  to  3  feet  high,  and  the  stems  3  to  4  feet. 

a,    Carex  f  lava,  L.— Near  Oghill. 

A.  Brlza  media,  L.— Rocks  east  of  Portmurvy. 

a.  Phragmltes  communis,  Trin.— Marked  in  my  list  as  observed, 
but  locality  not  noted,  as  I  only  subsequently  noticed  that  it  is 
recorded  from  the  South  Island  only. 
Calamagrostis  Epigejos,  Roth.— This  rare  grass,  elsewhere  in 
Ireland  known  in  Co.  Derry  only,  was  discovered  by  Mr.  Hart 
near  Killeany,  and  on  the  "  inland"  side  of  the  road  near  Oghill. 
It  was  not  seen  on  the  island  bv  Messrs.  Nowers  and  Wells,  and 
Miss  Knowles'  re-discovery  of  It  in  Mr.  Hart's  first  station  is 
therefore  satisfactory.  During  my  stay  I  was  well  pleased  to  meet 
with  it  in  several  places  near  the  sea  not  far  from  Port  Cowrugh, 
and  to  find  that  it  grows  in  some  abundance  among  rocks  near 
the  sea  a  little  north  of  Portmurvy  Fier,  and  thence  at  frequent 
intervals  all  the  way  to  the  Seven  Churches. 


252  The  Irish  Nahiralist 

A.  Fcstuca  elatlor,  L.~Lakelet  west  ofBungowla. 

A.  Equlsetum  arvense,  L.— Near  Lough  Alalia. 

A.  Equisetum  variegratum,  vSchleich,  var.  majus,  Syme.— Among 

stones  at  Lough  Atalia.     This  is  the  plant  recorded  doubtfully  by 

Mr.  Hart  as  E.  hyemale. 

a.   Polystlchum  annulare,  Newm.— Fine  specimens  about  Oghill; 
Mr.  Hart  quotes  Middle  Island  only. 

Lastrea  Flllx-mas,  Presl. — In  a  number  of  places. 
A  number  of  rarer  Aran  plants  were  seen  growing  in  the  stations 
already  recorded  for  them  by  Mr.  Hart — such  were  Sinapis  niora^ 
Helianthemum  ^a««/«  (abundant  in  many  places)  AV5aw;«/j  cathartictts,  Orohanche 
Jiedera  (several  places),  Stachys  ai-vensis,  &c.  The  rarest  Aran  plants  not 
seen  were  Matthiola  simiaia,  Cardials  nutans,  and  Ajuga  pyramidalis,  but 
time  did  not  permit  of  a  visit  to  Straw  Island,  the  former  home  of  the 

In  conclusion,  we  have  to  express  our  obligations  to  the  various 
botanists  of  the  party  who  favoured  us  with  notes  and  specimens,  and  to 
Messrs.  Arthur  Bennett,  H.  and  J.  Groves,  and  Rev.  E.  F.  Linton,  for 
kindly  naming  some  critical  plants. 




Th^  following  list  of  Foraminifera  must  not  be  looked  as  complete. 
From  several  packets  of  shore-sand  taken  from  the  vicinity  of  Dog's 
Bay  near  Roundstone,  and  given  to  me  by  my  friend  Mr.  Robert  Welch 
of  Belfast,  I  regret  to  say  that  from  want  of  time  only  a  portion  of  one  of 
them  has  been  examined,  with  the  result  given  below.  I  hope  at  an 
early  date  to  go  through  the  remainder  of  the  stuff.  It  is  interesting  to 
note  that  the  shore-sand  at  this  locality  is  almost  entirely  made  up  of 
small  shells  and  Foraminifera.  Miliolina  secans  and  Truncatulina  lobatula 
occur  in  the  greatest  profusion,  whilst  Discorhina  globulariSf  Miliolina 
suhrotunda  and  M.  circularis  are  also  in  great  numbers. 

Bllocullna    Irregularis,    d'Orb.— Rather    rare,    specimens    very 

B.  depressa,  d'Orb.— Rather  rare. 

Miliolina  olblonira  (Mont.) — Rather  rare. 

IVI.  semlnulum  (Linn.) — Frequent. 

Hi.  auberlana  (d'Orb,) — Rare. 

IVI.  subrotunda  (Mont.) — Very  common. 

Galway  Excursion. — Forammijera,  253 

IVIillollna   circularls  (Born.)— Very  common. 

WI,  semlnuda,Rss.— Common. 

IW.  secans  (d'Orb.)— Most  abundant,  specimens  large. 

var.  obliqulstrlata  (Halkyard)— Very  rare. 
IW.   Ferussacli  (d'Orb.)— Rather  rare. 
WI.  blcornls  (W.  &  J.)— Frequent. 

HaplophrairiTiIum  canarlense  (d'Orb.)— Very  rare. 

Textularla  grramen,   d'Orb.— Frequent. 

T,  concava  (Kar.)— Frequent. 

Bulimlna  fuslformis.  Will.— Very  rare. 

B.  marglnata,  d'Orb.— Rather  rare. 

Bollvlna  punctata,  d'Orb.— Very  rare. 
CasslduIIna  laevlg^ata,  d'Orb.— Rather  rare. 

Lag'ena  glolsosa  (Mont.)— Rare. 

L.  laevls  var.  clavata,  d'Orb.— Rare. 

L.  11  neata  (Will.)— Rare. 

L.  sulcata  (W.  &J.) — Common. 

L.  Wllllamsoni  (Alcock)— Common. 

L.  costata  (Will.)— Very  rare. 

L.  sctnlstrlata,  Will.— Rare. 

L.  squamosa  (Mont.) — Common. 

L.  hcxagona  (Will.)— Frequent. 

L.  orblgnyana  (Seg.)— Frequent. 

L.  auadricostulata,  Rss. — Rare. 

Nodosarla  (Clandullna)  rotundata,  Rss.— Rare. 

Cristcllarla  rotu lata  (Lamk.)— One  very  small  specimen. 

C.  crepldula  (F.  &  M.)— Rare,  specimens  large. 

Polymorplilna  lactca  (W.  &  J.)— Common. 

var.  oblonga,  Will.— Rare. 
P.  compressa,  d'Orb.— Common. 
P.  problema,  d'Orb.— Common. 
P.  sororia,  Rss.— Very  rare. 
p.  rotundata  (Born).— Rare. 
P.  myristlformls,  Will.— Rare. 
Uvlgerlna  angulosa,  Will. -Rather  rare. 
Cloblgerlna  bulloldes,  d'Orb.— Common. 

C.  Inflata,  d'Orb.— Rather  rare,  specimens  very  smaL. 
Orbuima  unlversa,  d'Orb.— Frequent. 
Dlscorblna  glotoularls  (d'Orb.)— Very  common. 

D.  orbicularis  (Terq.)— Rare. 
D.   nitlda  (Will.)— Very  rare. 

PlanorUullna  Medlterranensis,  (d'Orb.)— Frequent. 

Truncatullna  lotoatula  (W.  &  J.)-Most  abundant 

I  ruiiucxi,  ^^^  variabilis,  d'Orb.— Frequent 

Pulvlnullna  auricula  (F.  &  M.)— Common. 
Cypslna  Inhaercns  (Sch.)— Rare. 
Nonlonlna  deprcssula  (W.  &  J.)— Rare. 
Poiystomella  crispa  (Linn.) -Frequent. 
P?8trlato.punctata  (F.  &  M.)-Rather  rare. 

:254  ^'^^^  Irish  Naturalist. 


(Collected  for  the  R.  I.A.  Flora  and  Fauna  Committee). 

The;  district  visited  by  tlie  Field  Club  Conference  was  almost  virgin  soil 
as  regards  Arachnids.  Mr.  T.  Workman's  valuable  list  of  Irish  Spiders^ 
deals  mainly  with  northern  localities.  Mr.  D.  W.  Freeman  has  collected 
industriously  for  several  years  in  the  Dublin  district,  and  a  large  number 
of  specimens  from  various  parts  of  Ireland  have  been  kindly  sent  to  me 
by  various  correspondents,  so  that  material  is  accumulating  for  a  new 
list  which  I  hope  to  issue  before  long.  The  summer  is  not  the  time  of 
5*ear  when  one  finds  the  small  Theridiidce  which  form  the  bulk  of  our 
spider  fauna,  adult;  but  our  collecting  in  the  Gal  way  district  was  rewarded 
by  several  Lycosidit  and  Attidce  of  great  interest.  Of  the  forty-four  species 
of  spiders  enumerated  below,  eleven  do  not  appear  in  Mr.  Workman's 
list.  My  best  thanks  are  due  to  several  members  of  the  party  who  kindly 
helped  me  in  collecting  spiders  as  well  as  insects. 

The  most  remarkable  finds  were  Lycosa  leopardiis  on  Lough  Corrib  shore, 
Pardosa  piirbeckensis  (a  species  only  described  this  year)  at  Gentian  Hill, 
Hahnia  nwntana  on  Ben  Lettery,  and  the  four  species  of  Ailidic  which 
conclude  the  list.  The  spiders  of  this  family  are  very  scarce  in  Ireland  ; 
I  have  as  yet  noted  only  seven  species.  The  discovery  of  such  a  rare 
species  as  Athis  floricola  was,  therefore,  very  welcome,  while  the  presence 
of  no  less  than  three  attids  on  Aranmore  is  a  remarkable  feature  in  the 
fauna  of  that  island. 

Dysdera  crocota,  C.  Koch — Mr,  R.  Welch  fovmd  an  immature  male 
Dysdera  on  M'Dara's  Island,  Roundstone,  which  must  in  all  probability 
be  referred  to  this  species.  Local  in  the  south  of  England,  this  spider 
is  generally  distributed  and  not  scarce  in  Ireland ;  its  presence  in  this 
remote  western  isle  is  of  some  interest. 

Segestria  senoculata,  L. — Immature  specimens  observed  in  most 
of  the  localities  visited,  including  Aranmore. 

Drassus  cupreus,  Bl. — From  an  examination  of  Irish Z>mj-5z,  kindly 
made  by  Rev.  F.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  this  species  appears  to  be  far  more 
plentiful  in  Ireland  than  the  nearly  allied  D.  lapidosjts,  Wick,  Adult 
females  with  colonies  of  3-oung  just  hatched,  were  found  at  Ballyvaughan, 
on  Lough  Corrib  shore,  and  on  Aranmore. 

ProsthesiiYia  Petiverii,  Scop.  (Cb.)— Ballyvaughan  and  Aranmore. 
The  nearly  allied  P.  Latreillci,  which  is  not  rare  in  the  south  and  east  of 
Ireland,  was  not  observed. 

P.  nigrita,  I'ab.— I  did  not  find  this  species,  but  Dr.  ScharfFtook  it 
on  Aranmore  in  September,  1S91. 

lYIIcarlosoma  festlvum,  C.  Koch — An  immature  male  on  Aran- 
more.    Not  previously  recorded  as  Irish. 

Clublona  phragmltis,  C.  Koch— Lough  Corrib  shore,  under  stones. 

C.  rcclusa,  Cb. — Recess;  Ballyvaughan;  Lough  Corrib  shore  in  the 
wood,  female  with  nest  beneath  frond  of  Polypodium.  This  seems  the 
commonest  of  the  Irish  ClubioncP. 

DIctyna  ai*uncllnacea,  CI.— Immature  males  and  females  on  L. 
Corrib  shore.  

■•  Entomologist,  vol.  xiii,,  1880,  p.  125. 

Galway  Excursion. — Arachnida.  ^55 

Tcxtrix  dentlculata,  Oliv.— Everywhere  under  stones,  including 

Ai:elena  labyrinthica,  CI.— Mr.  Wolfe  found  two  females  of  this 
fine  spider  at  Ballyvaughan.  It  is  common  in  the  south-west  of  Ireland, 
but  unknown  or  verj''  scarce  in  the  east. 

Hahnia  montana,  Bl.— Adults  on  the  summit  of  Ben  Lettery. 
This  is  its  first  record  as  an  Irish  species.  Rev.  W.  F.  Johnson  took  a 
specimen  at  Portrush  last  year. 

Therldlon  lineatum,  CI.— Abundant  in  most  places.  Not 
observed  on  Aranmore,  but  Mr.  Welch  took  it  on  M'Dara's  Island  and 
on  Inchangoil. 

Pedanostethus  IIvicIus,Bl.— On  the  slope  of  Ben  Lettery. 

Llnyphia  triangularis,  CI.— Observed  in  most  localities;  not  on 

Leptyphantes  tenuis,  Bl.— Gentian  Hill,  L.  Corrib  shore,  in 
the  wood. 

Erigrone  atra,  Bl.— Gentian  Hill. 

^  E.  longripalpls,  Sund.— Shore  of  Galway  Bay,  among  seaweed  at 

IVIaso  Sundevalll,  Westr.— A  single  female  in  the  wood  on  L.  Corrib 
shore  with  egg-cocoon  beneath  a  dried  oak  leaf. 

Pachygnatha  Degeerii,  vSund.— In  most  localities.  M'Dara's 
Island,  but  not  observed  on  Aranmore. 

Tctragnatha  extensa,  L. — Recess  ;  L.  Corrib  shore. 

Meta  segmentata,  CI.— Immature  individuals  everywhere  on  the 
mainland;  but  not  observed  on  Aranmore  or  M'Dara's  Island. 

M.  merlanse,  Scop.— Recess. 

Zllla  x-notata,  CI.— In  most  localities.  Abundant  on  Aranmore, 
making  its  web  in  the  clefts  of  the  limestone  rocks. 

2.  atrica,  C.  Koch. — Recess. 

Epeira  diademata,  CI.— Everywhere,  common.  Males  and  females 
were  already  adult :  rather  an  early  date  for  this  species.  The  colour 
of  specimens  varied  from  bright  red  to  blackish  Inown. 

E,  cornuta,  CI.— Recess;  L.  Corrib  shore;  M'Dara's  Island.  Like 
the  last  species,  showing  great  colour  variation. 

Xystlcus  cr  I  status,  CL— Observed  in  most  localities,  but  not  on' 

Oxyptila  trux,  Bl.— Aranmore.— This  species  is  not  in  Mr.  Work- 
man's list ;  I  have  examples  from  several  Irish  localities. 

Dolomedes  flmbriatus,  Wick.— Recess  ;  Lough  Corrib  shore. 
This  fine  spider,  perhaps  our  largest  British  species,  has  been  found  at 
various  points  in  western  Ireland  from  Co.  Roscommon  to  Killarney. 
M'e  observed  adult  females  carrying  their  egg-bags  and  young  in  nearly, 
all  stages  of  growth,  from  the  newly-hatched  colonies,  dwelling  in  the 
web  spun  (according  to  Blackwell)  by  the  mother  spider,  over  plants  of 
Myrica  Gale. 

Lycosa  plcta,  Hahn.— Aranmore,  on  sand-hills. 

L.  leopardus,  Sund.— Lough  Corrib  shore,  including  Inchangoil. 
This  fine  spider  has  not  been  recorded  as  Irish,  though  I  took  it  in  1893 
at  Castletownbere,  Co.  Cork. 

Li  terrlcola,  Thor.— Common  everywhere,  including  Aranmore. 

L.  ruricola,  DG.— Lough  Corrib  shore;  Inchangoil. 

L.  pulverulenta,  CI.— Slopes  of  Ben  Lettery. 


256  The  Irish  Naturalist 

Pardosa  amentata,  CI.— Ballyvaughan. 

P.  pullata,  CI. — livery  where  common,  including  Aranmore. 

P.  nlgrrlceps,  Tlior. — Ballyvaughan  ;  Aranmore. 

P.  monticola,  C.  Koch.— Gentian  Hill;  M'Dara's  Island.  This 
spider,  not  previously  recorded  as  Irish,  has  lately  been  taken  by  Mr. 
Halbert  at  Portmarnock,  Co.  Dublin.  The  nearly-allied  P.  -pahcstyis,  L., 
common  in  eastern  Ireland,  was,  curiously  enough,  not  observed  in  this 

P.  purbeckensis,  F.  Cb.— A  single  female  taken  at  Gentian  Hill 
must  be  referred  to  this  species,  lately  described""  by  Rev.  F.  O.  P. 
Cambridge  from  the  Isle  of  Purbeck  and  the  shores  of  the  Solway.  An 
interesting  addition  to  our  fauna. 

Euophrys  erratlcus,  Walck,— Dr.  Scharff  found  this  spider  on 
Aranmore,  September,  1891,  but  it  has  not  been  recorded  as  Irish 

E.  frontalis,  Walck. — Aranmore.  Immature  females  under  stones. 
This  species  (which  Mr.  H.  L.  Jameson  has  brought  me  from  Co.  Sligo) 
has  not  been  recorded  as  Irish. 

Helioptianus  cupreus,  Wick. — Aranmore;  immature  males 
abundant  under  stones.  Probably  a  widely-distributed  spider  in 

Attus  floricola,  C.  Koch — This  interesting  species,  whose  only 
recorded  British  locality  is  Brighton,  Sussex,  was  abundant  under  stones 
on  the  margin  of  L.  Corrib.  Adults  of  both  sexes  and  immature 
individuals  were  obtained.  The  nest,  of  beautiful  white  silk,  was  found 
in  a  cavity  of  the  stone. 


None  of  the  four  species  recorded  below  are  worthy  of  special  remark. 

Llobunum    rotundum,    Latr.  |     Bvery  where,  including  Aranmore 
Phalangium  opilio,  L.  ^^^  M'Dara's  Island.     ^ 

Olig^olophus  morio,  I^b.  ; 

O.  trldenSi  C.  Koch.— L.  Corrib  shore. 


(Collected  for  the  R.I.A.  Flora  and  Fauna  Committee.) 

BY  gkorge;  h.  carpente:r, 

The  few  Myriapods  which  I  was  able  to  collect  add  but  little  to  our 
knowledge  of  the  Irish  species  as  set  forth  by  Mr.  Pocock  (^I.N,,  1893, 
p.  309).  Lithopiiis  variegahis  was  common  almost  everywhere.  L.  melanops 
and  Linotania  maritima  were  found  at  Ballyvaughan.  At  the  same  place 
I  took  lulus  luscus,  which  Mr.  Welch  found  on  M'Dara's  Island.  I  did 
not  observe  any  Myriapod  on  Aranmore. 

At  Gentian  Hill  I  found  Scolopendrella  ivimaculata,  Leach,  an  obscure 
white  creature,  which  belongs  to  the  interesting  group  Symphyla,  and 
is  not  included  in  Mr.  Pocock's  list.  I  have  taken  this  species  at  several 
localities  around  Dublin,  and  it  is  probably  generally  distributed  in  the 
country.  _ 

^  Ann.  Mag.  N.  H.  (6)  vol.  xv.,  1895,  p.  ^2. 

[     257     ] 

(Collected  for  the  R.I. A.  Flora  and  Fauna  Committee.) 


The  first  volume  of  the  Trans.  Ent.  Sac,  Lond.  (1836)  contains  a  paper 
by  Templeton  on  the  Irish  species  of  these  lowly  but  most  interesting 
insects.  I  have,  for  some  time,  been  collecting  material  for  a  revision 
of  this  list,  and  I  obtained  a  fair  number  of  species  around  Galway. 


Smynthurus  fuscus,  Iv. — Oughterard. 

Tomocerus  plumbeus,  Iv.  (Jongicomis,  Mull.). — Galway;  Ough- 
terard. This  species  is  apparently  common  in  Ireland,  though  not 
mentioned  by  Templeton. 

T.  trldcntlferus,  TuUb.  (J>lumbeus,  Tempi.,  Lubb.).— Oughterard. 

Orchesella  cincta,  L. — Oughterard. 

Anurlda  marltlina,  Guer.— Aran,  at  Kilronan  between  tide-marks. 
Not  in  Templeton's  list,  but  recorded  as  from  Kinsale  by  Ivubbock,  and 
probably  common  all  round  the  coast. 


IVIachllls  polypodia,  L. — Everywhere,  including  Aranmore  and 
M'Dara's  Island.  According  to  Templeton  this  is  a  very  common  species 
in  Ireland,  an  observation  which  I  can  abundantly  confirm.  From 
Lubbock's  statement  it  seems  to  be  quite  a  rarity  in  the  south-east  of 
England.  On  Aranmore  it  occurs  in  myriads,  every  stone  one  overturns 
disclosing  a  large  colony.  The  insects  agree  closely  with  the  stone  in 
colour  and  markings. 

M.  marltlma,  Leach. — Gentian  Hill. 

Campodea  staphyllnus,  Westw. — Ballyvaughan.  This  obscure, 
but  probably  common,  insect  was  described  subsequently  to  Templeton's 
paper.     Dr.  ScharfF  has  taken  it  near  Dublin. 



The  only  family  of  Hymenoptera  to  which  we  were  able  to  pay  attention 
were  the  Ants,  of  which  the  following  species  were  taken  : 

Laslus  nlger,  L. — Oughterard;  Ballyvaughan. 

L.  flavus,  D.G.— Gentian  Hill. 

Leptothorax  accrvorum,  Fb. — A  small  colony  in  a  felled  fir-trunk 
in  the  wood  above  L.  Corrib  shore.  This  species  has  only  been  recorded 
as  Irish  from  Carlingford  (Rev.  W.  F.  Johnson). 

IVIyrnnIca  rubra,  L.  (races  ruginodis  and  scabrinodis)—Q\!i^\.^xQ,x^. 


258  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

Such  Orthoptera  as  came  in  our  way  were  noted  or  collected.  The 
following  five  species  only  were  found,  but  one  of  these  (^Mecostethus 
grossus)  was  one  of  the  best  insects  taken  on  the  excursion. 

Forflcula  aurlcularla,  L. — Common  everywhere,  including  Aran- 

Wlccostethus  grossus,  L. — Abundant  near  Oughterard,  at  Recess, 
and  on  the  slopes  of  Ben  Lettery.  This  fine  grasshopper  attracted  much 
attention.  According  to  Mr.  E.  Shaw  {Etit.  Mo.  Mag.  vol.  xxv.,  1889,  p. 
412)  there  are  but  two  recent  British  captures  of  the  species  on  record, 
one  in  the  fens  of  Norfolk  and  one  in  Co.  Kerry.  Mr.  iil\\\&x{Entom.  vol. 
xxii.,  1889,  p.  196)  expresses  a  doubt  if  it  is  really  a  native  insect. 
Stephens  remarked  that  in  his  time  it  was  not  rare  in  marshes,  and 
there  are  several  Irish  specimens  in  the  Haliday  collection.  Dr.  Scharff 
has  taken  it  at  Killarney.     It  is  a  northern  and  central  European  species. 

Stenobothrus  vlrldulus,  L.— Common  everywhere  except  on 
Aranmore,  where  no  grasshopper  was  seen. 

S.  bicolor,  Sharp. — Oughterard  and  Recess. 

Acrldlum  blpunctatum,  Iv.— Gentian  Hill ;  Oughterard.  Mr.  Kane 
has  taken  this  species  at  Kenmare,  and  Mr.  F.  Neale  has  found  it  at 
Limerick  as  well  as  A.  szibulatum,  L. 

The  only  Neuroptera  observed  were  Lepletrum  qiiadrhnaculatiim  and 
Orihetrum  cceriilesccns  at  Recess,  and  Calopteryx  virgo  at  Oughterard. 


BY  J.    N.    HAI^BERT. 

The  following  species  of  Heteroptera  were  collected.      None  are  rare, 
so  they  do  not  call  for  special  remark. 

Scolopostcthus  neg^Iectus,  Edw.— Ballyvaughan. 

Piesma  quadrata,  Fieb. — Ballyvaughan,  under  stones  on  shore. 

Dictyonota  crasslcornis.    Fall — Ballyvaughan  under   stones  ou 
shore ;  also  common  on  Aranmore,  in  a  sandy  place  near  Kilronan. 

Dcrcphysia    follacea,   Fall.— Aranmore,  one  specimen  near   Kil- 

VcIIacurrcns,  Fab. — Common. 

Nabts     flavomai-glnatus,     Scholtz.— Recess,    etc.,   frequent    by 

Salda  littoral  Is,  Linn.— Lake  shores,  common. 

Temnostethus  puslllus,  H.  Schff.— Oughterard,  sweeping. 

Anthocorls  sylvcstris,  Linn.— Abundant. 

Pithanus  maerkcll,  H.S.— Frequent. 

IVIegaloceroea  ruflcornis,  Fall.— Common  near  Galway. 

Leptopterna  fcrrugata,  Fall.  "| 

Calocorisroseomaculatus,    De  G.  I  common. 

C.  tolpunctatus,  Fab.  j 

Lygus  patoulinus,  Linn.  J 

Campyloneuravirgula,  H.  Schf.— Oughterard. 

Archotylus  marginalls,  Rent— Common. 

Phylus  coryll,  Linn.— Oughterard. 

Psallas  varlans,  H.  Schif. 

Plagiognathus  artoustorum,  Fab.  ] 

P.  vlrlduIus,Fall.  Common. 

Asclodema  obsolctum,  D.  6c  b.      ; 

[     259     ] 

BY  J.   N.    HAI^BKRT. 

The  facilities  offered  on  the  recent  Field  Club  trip  for  visiting  promis- 
ing and  in  most  cases  unworked  districts  were  so  exceptional,  that  I 
gladly  availed  myself  of  the  opportunity  to  collect  on  that  occasion. 
The  results  prove  to  be  very  satisfactory  considering  the  time  of  the 
year  (not  the  best  for  beetles),  and  the  difficulty  of  making  the  most  of 
a  few  hours  when  in  a  strange  locality.  In  the  spring  of  1880  Mr.  J.  J.  Walker, 
R.N.,  made  some  valuable  captures  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Gal  way, 
and  with  this  exception  I  cannot  find  that  the  district  has  been  examined 
by  any  coleopterist.  This  factwill  excuse  theinclusion  of  so  many 
common  species  in  the  following  list,  and  it  must  be  remembered,  that 
it  is  more  satisfactory  to  have  the  records  of  such  when  a  general  list 
comes  to  be  compiled  than  the  conjecture  that  ih.Qy  probably  occur  there 
as  elsewhere  in  Ireland. 

Of  the  species  collected  at  least  four  are  new  records  for  Ireland,  and 
some  others  are  rare  or  of  interest  in  their  distribution.  I  must 
acknowledge  my  indebtedness  to  those  members  who  so  kindly 
assisted  me  in  collecting,and  may  mention  that  Mr.  G.  H. 
Carpenter  was  not  so  deeply  engrossed  over  spider-hunting  as  to  allow 
the  rare  Leisttis  montanus  to  escape  when  working  Ben  Lettery.  Mr. 
Frank  Neale  also  became  a  coleopterist  specially  for  the  occasion,  and 
by  his  exertions  considerably  extended  the  list. 

Clclndela  campestrls,  h- — Recess,  and  locally  common. 

Carabus  catenulatus,  Scop. — A  few  examples  at  inland  localities. 

C.  clathratus,  L. — Slopes  of  Carn  Seefin;  no  living  specimens  were 
found,  but  numerous  wing  cases  proved  its  existence.  A  northern 
species  which  occurs  throughout  Scotland,  and  is  widely  distributed  in 

C.  granulatus,  L.  ) 

Notlophllus  biguttatus,  F.    J  Frequent. 
N.  aquatlcus,  L.  ) 

Leistus  montanus,  Steph. — Top  of  Ben  Lettery.  This  northern  and 
mountain  species  is  new  to  the  Co.  Galway,  but  has  been  recorded  from 
Croagh  Patrick  and  Mangerton,  and  ther€  is  an  example  in  Mr.  Haliday's 
collection  from  I^ugnaquilla,  it  probably  occurs  on  most  of  our  high 

Nebria  brcvlcoIIIs,  F.— Common. 

Pelophlla  borealls,  Payk.— Shore  of  Lough  Corrib  near  Oughter- 
ard.  One  of  our  most  interesting  beetles,  an  inhabitant  of  high  conti- 
nental latitudes,  its  British  distribution  being  the  Orkney  Islands  and 
Ireland,  where  it  occurs  as  far  south  as  Killarney.  It  is  perhaps  the  most 
remarkable  instance  of  the  southern  extension  in  Ireland  of  a  character- 
istically arctic  animal. 

Elaphrus  cuprcus,  Daft.  ) 

Lorlccra  plllcornls,  F.     [  Lake  shores,  common. 

Cllvlna  fossor,  L.  ) 

C    2 

26o  The  Irish  Naha-alist. 

Dyschlrlus  aeneus,    Dy.— Banks    of   River  Corrib    near  Galway. 
D.  griobosus,  Herbst. — Common. 

Broscus  cephalotes,   L.— Shore  at  Gentian  Hill;  also  on  sandy 
beach  near  Kilmnrvy,  Aranmore. 

Badlster  bipustulatus,  F.  \ 

Harpalus  seneus,  F.  \  ^ 

H.  latus,  L  I  Common  on  sea-shore  under 

H.  ruflcornis,  F.  f     stones,  etc. 

DIchlrotrichus  pubescens,  Payk.  ) 

Pterostlchus  tnadidus,  F."| 
P.  vulgaris,  Iv-  i 

P.  nigrlta,  F.  (Common.      P.    madidus,    F.,    occurred 

P.  strcnuus,  Panz.  j      on  Aranmore. 

P.  vcrnalls,  Gyll.  J 

P.  strlola,  F.  J 

Calathus  cistcloides,  Panz.— Shore  at  Gentian  Hill.    Aranmore. 

C.  melanoccphalus,  L.— Common,  also  on  Aranmore.  Some  ex- 
amples clearly  referable  to  the  type  have  the  thorax  slightly  infuscate, 
approaching  the  var.  v7tl>igena,^a\.  The  latter  form  was  taken  on  Aran- 
more  by  Mr.  J.  M.  Browne. 

Taphrla  nivalis,  Panz. — Shore  at  Bally vaughan. 

r  ^rr^r„"^tls,' L."''-  "■}  C— on  ;  also  ou  Aranmore. 

a:  SfdulTs'^Pa".'?"*""'''-  )  Lough  corrib  shore  near  Oughterara. 

Bembidiuin  minimum,  F.— Ballyvaughan,  under  stones  on  the 
shore.  Previously  recorded  from  Belfast,  but  there  is  no  recent  record 
from  any  Irish  locality. 

B.  lam  pros,  Herbst. — Common  ;  also  on  Aranmore. 

b!  m?iraTe"^.'  ^^'''''''}  ^"^""^^  °^'^^''  ^^  ^""^^^^  ^'^^- 
Trechus  minutus,  F.,  var.  obtusus,  Er.— Common  ;  also  on  Aran- 

Pogonus  chalccus,  Marsh. — Shore  near  Gentian  Hill. 
Dromius  quadrinotatus,  Panz. — Recess,  beaten  from  oaks. 

Hydroporus  obscurus,  Sturm.  )  t  ^   ^t,  r^^    -^     i. 

Agabus  bipustulatus,  i.  }  ^^^-^  ^^'''^^  ^^^^  common. 

Orectochilus  vlllosus,   Mull. — Lough   Corrib,    in  small  colonies 
under  stones  along  shore. 
Anacaena  globulus,  Payk.— Local.    Ballyvaughan,  etc. 

Phllydrus  maritlmus,  Thoms. — Aranmore.  Abundant  in  a  small 
salt-marsh  near  Kilronan. 

Chaetartliria  seminulum,  Herbst.— River  Corrib,  near  Galway. 

Hclophorus  aenclpennis,  Thoms. — Glendalough  near  Recess. 

H.  brcvlpalpis,  Bedel.— Common. 

Ccrcyon  littoral  is,  Gyll.— Gentian  Hill;  also  on  Aranmore,  near 

Alcochara  lanuginosa,  Grav. — Common  everywhere. 

A.  moesta,  Grav.— Oughterard,  on  lake  shore. 

A.  obscurclla,  Er. — Aranmore  sandy  beach  near  Kilmnrvy.  This 
species  has  hitherto  been  recorded  from  the  Dublin  coast  and  the  Great 
Blasket  Island. 

Galway  Excu>sio7i,—Coleoptera.  261 

Astilbus  canallculatus,  F.— Common. 

Homalota  volans,  Scrib.— Common  on  lake  shores,  etc. 

H,  vcstlta,  Grav.     )  Abundant  under  seaweed,    etc.,  near  Gentian 
H.  trinotata,  Kr.    \      Hill. 

Tachyporus  obtusus,  I^.,  van  nitidicollis,  Steph.— Locally  com- 
mon, by  sweeping. 

Quedius  fullgrlnosus,  Grav.  \  Gentian    Hill,    common    on  sea 

Q.  tristis,  Grav.  /  .  shore  under  stones,  etc. ;  the  var. 

Q.  tnolochinus,  Grav.  i  of  molochimcs   w^ith   dark  elytrse 

Q-  ruflpes,  Grav.  /  was  fairly  numerous. 

Creophilus  maxlllosus,  L. — Aranmore. 

Staphyllnus  csesarius,  Cider. — Recess,  etc.,  frequent. 

Ocypus  olens,  Mull.    )  ^ 

O.  cupreus,  Rossi.        \  Common. 

O.  atcr,  Grav.— Abundant  along  shore  near  Gentian  Hill. 

O.  morlo,  Grav. — Frequent;  also  on  Aranmore, 

Phllonthus  aeneus,  Rossi. — Sea  shore  at  Gentian  Hill. 

P.  sordidus,  Grav. — Ballyvaughan,  under  stones  on  sea  shore. 

P.  Qulsquillarlus,  Gyll. — River  Corrib  bank  between  Galway  and 
Menlough.  A  southern  species  in  Britain,  not  recorded  from  north  of 

Caflus  fuclcola.  Curt.— This  local  species  occurred  abundantly 
under  sea  weed  on  the  shore  near  Gentian  Hill.  Previously  recorded 
from  Greenore. 

C.  xantholoma,  Grav. — Common  in  same  situation  as  former.  A 
larva  which  appears  to  belong  to  this  beetle  was  found  at  the  same  place. 

Xanthollnus  punctulatus,  Payk. — Recess,  etc.,  common. 

X.  tricolor,  F. — Frequent  both  inland  and  on  the  coast ;  also  on 

Lath  rob  I  um  longulum,  Grav.  —  lyougli  Corrib  shore,  near 

Stenusbuphthalmus,  Grav.  ]  RiverCorribbank,near  Galwaj'.  The 

\      latter  has  not  been  previously  re- 

S.  melanopus.  Marsh.  )      corded  as  Irish. 

S.  declaratus,  Er. — Recess,  &c.,  sweeping. 

S.  brunnlpes,  Steph.  ] 

S.  Impressus,  Germ.    [Common,  by  sweeping. 
S.  simills,  Herbst.         J 

S.  pubescens,  Steph.— River  Corrib,  several  off  sedges. 
S.  tarsal  Is,  Lynn. — Recess,  sweeping  herbage. 

Sllpha  atrata,  L.,  var.  s u b rot un data,  Steph.— Common  in  most 
Cocclnella  hieroglyphica,  L.— Recess,  sweeping  amongst  Heath. 

Halyzla  xvl -guttata,  L.  \  ^^^^  Qughterard,  beaten  from  Alder. 
H.  conglobata,  L.  i  t>  ' 

Chllocorls  bipustulatus,  111.— Near  Oughterard,  off  Birch.    Does 
not  seem  to  have  been  previously  recorded  from  Ireland. 

Rhizoblus  litura,  F.— Found  on  the  shore  near  Ballyvaughan.    The 
occurrence  of  certain  species  (usually  taken  by  sweeping  their  food  plants) 
under  stones  on  the  coast,  seems  to  be  pretty  frequent  in  the  west, 
amongst  others  I  have  taken  Gastroidca  polygoni^  L. ,  in  this  way. 

Meligethes  ruflpes,  Gyll.— Aranmore,  one  specimen  by  sweeping. 
Does  not  seem  to  have  been  previously  recorded  from  Ireland. 

262  The  Irish  Nahiralist. 

Byturus  tomentosus,  F.— Ballyvaughan,  several  by  sweeping. 

Byrrtius  pi  I  u  la,  L.— Bally  vaugliau,  under  stones. 

Parnus  prollfericornis,  F.— Common  on  lake  shores. 

Aphodius  lapponuiYi,  Gyll,— On  Ben  Lettery.  A  northern  species; 
probably  occurs  in  all  our  upland  districts. 

Ceotrupes  stcrcorarlus,  L.— Common;  also  on  Aranmore. 

G.  sylvaticus,  Panz.— Common. 

Scrica  brunnea,  L.— Gentian  Hill,  etc.,  off  bushes. 

Phyllopcrtha  hortlcola,  L. — Coast  near  Galway. 

Cetonia  aurata,  L. — Aranmore,  common  on  the  flowers  of  Riibus, 
GaliuDi,  Senecio,  etc.  The  occurrence  of  the  Rose-beetle  in  such  abundance 
on  Aran  was  unexpected,  as  it  is  rare  or  local  on  the  mainland.  Has 
been  only  definitely  recorded  from  near  Belfast.  Mr,  W.  F.  de  V.  Kane 
has  observed  it  locally  on  the  Cork  littoral  and  in  the  Glengariff  dis- 
trict, and  I  have  lately  seen  specimens  taken  by  Mr.  A.  Neale  at  Tramore, 
near  Waterford.  It  is  a  common  insect  in  the  south  of  England,  and 
seems  a  striking  example  of  the  tendency  of  southern  insects  to  have  a 
western  range  in  Ireland. 

Lacon  murinus,  I^. — Aranmore,  under  stones  near  Kilronan. 

Cyphon  nitfdulus,  Thorns,  "j 

C.  variabilis,  Thumb.  | 

Telcphorus  bicolor,  F.  )•  Frequent,  by  sweeping. 

T.  thoracicus,  M.  | 

Rhagronycha  fulva,  Scap.  J 

Chrysomela  Staphylea,   Iv.)    xTear  Galwav    ^weenbicr 
Gastroidea  polygoni,  I^.      |  ^^^^  Galway,  sweepmg. 

LochiTidea  suturalis,  Thoms. — Recess,  etc.,  common  on  heath. 

Long:itarsus  holsaticus,  L. — Near  Galway,  sweeping. 

L.  luridus,  Scop. — A  slightly  immature  specimen  taken  near  Recess, 
is  probably  referable  to  this  species. 

L.  pellucid  us,  Foudr. — Ballyvaughan  and  Oughterard.  A  few 
examples  of  this  local  and  southern  species  occurred  by  sweeping.  Has 
been  recorded  from  Bundoran. 

L.  Jacobaeae,  Wat. — Common. 

Cassida  nobi  I  Is,  L.— Ballyvaughan,  in  numbers  on  shore  clinging 
to  stones  amongst  a  growth  of  Honckeneya  peploides^  on  which  plant  it  was 
observed  by  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Johnson  at  Greenore. 

Apion  carduorum.  Kirby. — Near  Galway,  common. 

Otiorrhynchus  blandus,  Gyll,— Gentian  Hill,  under  stones  on 
coast ;  also  on  Aranmore.  Sub-alpine,  and  common  in  Scotland,  but  has 
not  occurred  in  England. 

O.  lig^neus,  Ol.— Ballyvaughan  and  Gentian  Hill,  frequent  on  shore. 

O.  PJciPes,  Fb.^c^^^^^^^ 
O.  sulcatus,  F.  \ 

O.  ruglfrons,  Gyll.— Gentian  Hill  and  Ball5^vauglian;  also  in  Aran- 
more.   Seems  to  be  much  more  common  on  the  west  than  on  the  east  coast. 
Barynotus  Schbnhcrri,  Lett.— Gentian  Hill. 

Orchcstcs  fagi,  L. — Common 

O.  salicis,  Iv. — Recess,  swept  off  Willow. 

lYIiaris  campanulae,  L.— Ballyvaughan.  Several  on  the  hill-side  in 
the  flowers  of  Cavipamila  rotundifolia,  L.~Not  previously  recorded  from 

Ccellodes  quercus,  F.— Recess,  beaten  from  Oak. 

Ceuthorrhynchus  ericae,  Gyll.— Common  everywhere  on  Heath. 

C.  erysiml,  F.— Aranmore,  sweeping  near  Kilmurvy. 

[     263     ] 


Opportunity  was  taken  to  secure  some  specimens  of  this  order  of  insects, 
which  since  Haliday's  time  have  been  almost  neglected  in  Ireland. 
Their  distribution  over  the  country  is  so  little  known,  that  I  make  no 
apology  for  giving  a  list  of  all  the  species  which  I  have  been  able  to 
identify,  though  most  of  them  appear  to  be  common  and  widespread. 

Tfpula  macullpennls,  Mg.— Lough  Corrib. 

Haematopa  pluvlalis,  L.— Recess  ;  Lough  Corrib. 

Chrysopa  rellctus,  Mg.— Recess. 

Therloplectes  tropicus,  L.— Recess. 

Microchrysa  pollta,  L.— Recess. 

Nemotelus  pantherlnusp  L — Gentian  Hill. 

Leptis  lineola,  Fb. — Recess. 

Em  pis  stercorea,  L. — Recess,  Lough  Corrib. 

Hybos  g^rosslpes,  L.  )  t        t,  r^..^^\u 

Dollchopus  signatus,  Mg.|  ^^^^'^  ^^^^^^- 

Serlcomyia  lappona,  L. — Summit  of  Ben  Lettery. 

Pyrophaenaocyml,  Fb. — Galway,  Aranmore. 

Sphaerophoria  nltldlcollis,  Zett.— Lough  Corrib. 

Echlnoinyia  fera,  L.         \ 

E.  grossa,  L.  [  Lough  Corrib. 

Ollvieria  lateralis,  Fb.  ) 

Hylemyla  variata,  Fall. — Galway. 

Hyetodesia  flaveola,  Fb. — Gentian  Hill. 

IVIydaea  urbana,  Mg. — Lough  Corrib. 

Orygma  luctuorum,  Mg.    ?      On    seashore     at   Gentian    Hill  Otl 

Fucomyla  friglda,  Fb.        J  Fuais,  at  tide- mark.. 

Tephritls  leontodontis,  D.G.— Gentian  Hill;  Lough  Corrib. 

Urophora  solstltlalls,  L,  )  Ballyvaughan. 

Tctanoccra  punctulata,  Scop.)  ^       ^ 

Lauxanlaaenea,  Fall.— Lough  Corrib. 


BY  W.   F.    DE   V.    KANE,   M.A.,    F.E-S. 

On  the  excursion  to  ReceSvS  the  captures  most  worthy  of  note  were  as 
follows.  I  took  a  large  number  of  larvai  oi  Acronycta  vienyanihidis  feeding 
on  Myrica  gale  and  one  on  Menyanthes  trifoliata^  some  of  them  within  a 
fortnight  of  pupation.  Larvte  oi  Hadena  pisi  \i^r^  also  very  numerous 
on  various  food  plants.  An  imago  of  Agrotis  lucernea  was  taken  by  the 
party  who  ascended  Ben  Lettery,  an  interesting  locality  for  this  coast- 
loving  species.  Mr.  Wolfe  of  Skibbereeu  was  fortunate  in  securing  a 
nice  specimen  of  the  rare  and  local  Selidosetna  ericetaria.  I  collected  some 
very  striking  forms  of  Camptogramma  bilineata  on  the  heather  very  similar 
to  some  in  my  cabinet  from  the  Killeries. 

264  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

The  following  lepidoptera  also  were  in  evidence— ia/j/rwj  semcle  and 
Epinephile  hyperanthes  abundantly,  a  specimen  also  of  Argynnis  aglaia  and 
Tanagra  atrata. 

At  Bai,i,yvauGhan,  Co.  Clare,  the  stony  district  traversed  was  not  such 
as  to  reward  a  flying  visit  in  search  of  lepidoptera.  A  few  Argynnis  aglaia 
and  Satyrus  semele  were  noticed.  Larvae  oi  DiantJuvcia  ciicnbali  and  probably 
some  of  D.  capsophila  were  found  in  Silene  maritinia  and  ^.  inflata.  A  few 
very  pale  Larentia  cxsiata  were  observed  conformable  to  the  tint  of  the 
grey  limestone,  and  one  Gnophos  obscuraria  too  worn  to  distinguish  its 
character;  Herbula  cespitaUs  abounded  in  the  short  herbage,  and  a  few 
Anaitts  plagiata.  The  most  interesting  .species  taken  were  one  Anticlea 
cucullata  by  myself  on  the  wall  of  Gleninagh  Castle,  where  the  party 
gathered  for  lunch,  an  insect  almost  unrecorded  hitherto  in  Ireland ;  and 
one  of  Phothedes  captiuncula  by  Mr.  Carpenter,  which  was  remarkable  for 
its  dark  and  strongly  marked  delineation,  differing  thus  from  the  English 
form,  but  not  so  brightly  coloured  as  those  occurring  near  the  town,  and 
elsewhere  in  the  County  of  Galway. 

At  InishmorE  (Island  of  Aran)  a  pupa  of  Dianihcecia  capsophila  was 
found.  Satyrus  semele  and  Argynnis  aglaia  turned  up  abundantly,  as  well  as 
Cainptogramma  bilineata,  which  is  here  of  a  very  pale  and  inconspicuous 
type,  a  protective  character  already  noted  in  the  Larentia  coesiata  of 

At  OuGHTKRARD,  Mr.  Wolfe  found  larvae  of  Thccla  rubi  feeding  on 
Erica  Teiralix,  an  unusual  food-plant  for  the  species. 


BY   R.    STANDEN, 
Hon.  Curator,  Conchological  Society  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 

Marine  Moi.i,usca. 
The  subjoined  catalogue  of  112  marine  species  collected  by  Messrs. 
A.  R.  Nichols,  R.  Welch,  Fred.  Bigger,  E.  Collier,  Miss  Kelsall,  and  my- 
self, embraces  the  usual  common  littoral  forms  found  living  everywhere 
in  the  district,  together  with  a  number  of  scarcer  species  from  shore 
drift  at  Dog's  Bay,  Connemara.  This  drift,  of  which  Mr.  Welch  and  I 
brought  home  a  large  quantity,  has  proved  most  prolific,  and  we  are 
indebted  to  Dr.  Chaster,  of  Southport,  for  much  valuable  aid  in  sorting 
material,  and  in  determination  of  minute  species.  It  contains,  in  addition 
to  adult  examples,  a  vast  number  of  embryonic  specimens  in  beautiful 
condition.  Ovciun  glabrum  with  spiral  attached  is  common,  and  separate 
spirals  are  plentiful.  Patella  vulgata,  Helcion  pelhicidiim,  and  Tectura  virginea 
with  embryo  spiral  cap  are  all  common.  Most  of  the  bivalves  are  represen- 
ted only  by  valves,  but  the  univalves  are,  as  a  whole,  in  good  condition 
and  abundant  in  individuals— /'/<?«w<c7wa  and  Rissoa  especially  so. 

Galway  Excursioyi. — Mollusca. 


The  most  important  record  from  Dog's  Bay  is  undoubtedly  the 
occurrence  oi Lepton  Sykesii,  Chaster,  in  the  shore  drift.  For  original  des- 
cription see  Ann.  and  Mag.  Nat.  Hist,  for  March,  1895,  p.  248  ;  and  Journal 
of  Malacology,  June,  1895,  p.  36,  for  further  notes  by  J.  T.  Marshall.  Both 
record  it  only  from  Guernsey. 

Mr.  Nichols  took  Modiolaria  marmorata,  Cardhun  tiojvegicum,  Venus  casina, 
and  Chiton  7?iarginatus  at  Gleninagh — the  latter  species  being  also  found 
by  Miss  Kelsall  at  Aranmore.  I  found  Rissoa  violacea  and  R.  parva  in 
abundance  near  Kilronan,  and  under  stones  at  low  water  near  Killeany, 
B.  undatum  var.  littoralis  occurred — a  pretty  little  form  exactly  agreeing 
with  West  of  Scotland  examples. 

The  late  Dr.  Alcock  gives  a  list  of  about  fifty  species  from  Dog's  Bay  in 
Trans.  Lit.  and  Phil.  Soc.  Manchester,  1866,  including  several  species  not 
taken  by  us,  but  the  following  catalogue  contains  many  additional  species, 
and  amply  indicates  the  rich  field  which  exists  here  for  some  systematic 
dredging  with  modern  appliances. 

Anomia  ephipjnum,  Iv. 
Ostrea  edulis,  ly. 
Pecten  varius,  Iv. 
P.  maximus,  I<. 
Limasuhauriculata,  Mont- 
L,  Mans,  Gm. 
Mytilus  edulis,  L. 
Modiolaria    marmoratay 

Pectunculiis  glycimeris,  Iv. 
Area  tetragona,  Poli. 
Lepton  nitidum,  Turt. 
L.  Clarkiob,  CI. 
L.  Sykesii,  Chaster. 
Montacuta       hidentata, 

M.  ferniginosa,  Mont. 
Lascea  rubra,  Mont. 
Cyamium  ininiimim.  Fab. 
Cardium  echinatwn,  I^. 
C.  edide,  L. 
C.  norvegicum,  Speng. 
Venus  lincta,  Pult. 
V.  casina,  Iv. 
V.  gallina,  L. 
Tapes  decussatus,  Iv. 
Te/lina  halthica,  L. 
T.  tenuis,  Da  C. 
T.  donacina,  ly. 
Donax  vittatus,  Da  C. 
Mactra  solida,  Iv. 
Lutraria  elliptica.  Lam. 
Scrohicularia  alba.  Wood. 
Ceratisolen  legutnen,  L/. 
Solen  ensis,  L. 
S.  siliqua,  'Li. 
S.  vagina,  L,. 
Corbula  gibba,  Oliv. 
Saxicava  rugosa,  L. 
Teredo  norvegica,  Speng. 

Dentalium  entalis,  Lt. 
Chiton  marginatus,  Penn. 
Patella  vulgata,  L. 
Helcion  pellucidum,  ly. 
Tectura  virginea,  Mlill. 
Trochus  helicinus.  Fab. 
T.  magus,  L. 
T.  cinerarius,  L/. 
T.  umhilicatus,  Mont. 
T.  lineatus.  Da  C. 
T.  exasperatus,  Penn. 
T.  zizyphinus,  ly. 
Phasianella  pulla,  L. 
Lacuna  divaricata.  Fab. 
L.  puteolus,  Turt. 
L.  pallidula.  Da  C. 
Littorina  obtusata,  Iv. 
L.  neritoides,  I/. 
Z.  rudis,  Maton. 
L.  littorea,  Iv. 
Rissoa  punctura,  Mont. 
R.  costata,  Ad. 
R.  parva,  Da  C. 
R.  viembranacea.  Ad. 
R.  violacea,  Deshn. 
R.  striata,  Ad. 
R.fulgida,  Ad. 
R.  solnta,  Phil. 
R.  cingillus,  Mont. 
Hydrobia  ulvce,  Penn. 
Barleeia  rubra,  CI. 
Skenea  planorbis.  Fab. 
Honialogyra  atomus,  Jeff. 
B.  rota,  F.  &  H. 
Ccecum  glabrum,  Mont. 
Turritella  terebra,  L. 
Scalaria  communis,  Lam. 
S.  Trevelyana,  Leach. 
IS.  clathratula.  Ad. 
Aclis  unica,  Mont. 

Odostomia  minima,  Jeff. 
0.  nivosa,  Mont. 
0.  rissoides,  Han. 
0.  turrita,  Han. 
0.  diaphana,  Jeff. 
0.  lactea,  L. 
0.  nitidissima,  Mont. 
lanthina       rotundata. 

Eidima  distorta,  Desh. 
Natica  Alderi,  Forbes. 
Lamellaria  perspicua,  L. 
Aporrhais  pes-pelicani,  L. 
Cerithium     reticulatum, 


C.  perversum,   L. 
Cerithiopsis    tubercularis, 

Puipura  lapillus,  L. 
Puccinum  undatum,  L. 
Trophon  truncatus,  Str. 
Fusus  antiquus,  L. 
Nassa  reticulata,  I,. 
N.  incrassata,  Str. 
Defrancia  linearis,  Mont. 

D.  purpurea,  Mont. 
Plewotoma  costata,  Don. 
P.  nebula,  Mont. 

P.  IcBvigata,  Phil. 
P.  rufa,  Mont. 
P.  turricula,  Mont. 
CyprcEa  europcea,  Mont. 
Cylichna       cylindracea, 

Utriculus      truncatulus, 

Philine  punctata,  CI. 
A]>ly.sia  punctata,  Cuv. 
Spirialis        retroversus^ 


266  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

I^AND  AND  Freshwater  Moi.IvUSCA. 

The  number  of  members  particularly  interested  in  the  investigation  of 
the  land  and  freshwater  moUusca  of  the  district  covered  by  the 
excursion  was  practically  limited  to  myself,  and  Messrs.  Welch  and 
Collier,  but  several  others  so  far  interested  themselves  as  to  pick  up  such 
specimens  as  they  came  across  whilst  engaged  in  their  own  special 
pursuits,  and  handed  them  to  me.  In  this  way  much  valuable 
assistance  was  rendered,  for  which  I  would  here  take  the  opportunity 
of  thanking  one  and  all. 

From  the  diversified  character  of  the  ground  over  which  our  researches 
extended,  a  good  list  was  hoped  for,  but,  with  the  exception  of  Lough 
Corrib,  the  various  sheets  of  water  proved  rather  unproductive.  The 
failure  to  find  the  rare  Vertigo  Moulinsiana  was  a  grievous  disappointment, 
but  .circumstances  prohibited  any  lengthy  search  in  its  recorded 
localities,  to  which  moreover  we  had  no  precise  clue. 

On  the  occasion  of  our  trip  to  Oughterard  the  courtesy  of  a  local 
gentleman,  Mr.  Henry  Hodgson,  J. P.,  of  Currarevagh,  in  kindly 
placing  a  couple  of  boats  at  our  disposal,  enabled  Messrs.  F.  J. 
Bigger,  R.  Welch,  E.  Collier,  and  myself  to  cross  over  to  Inchangoil, 
and  he  otherwise  extended  his  hospitality.  This  visit  was  especially 
interesting,  both  from  the  historic  associations  connected  with  the  place 
and  from  the  fact  that  it  was  very  probably  the  first  time  a  conchologist 
had  ever  set  foot  on  this  beautiful  islet,  which  proved  a  good  collecting 

On  the  breaking  up  of  the  party,  eight  of  us  spent  a  few  days  at 
Roundstone,  and  whilst  some  visited  Inis  MacDara,  and  other  places, 
the  rest  investigated  the  shores  and  sandhills  of  Dog's  Bay.  (For 
particulars  of  the  interesting  deposit  of  semi-fossil  land  shells  found 
there  see  note  at  end  of  list.)  On  the  return  journey  a  break  was  made 
at  Athlone,  where  the  night  was  spent,  and  next  day  the  party  visited 
Clonmacnois.  The  many  interesting  finds  made  during  this  "  extension 
trip"  are  included  in  the  subjoined  list— in  which  I  have  chiefly  followed 
the  nomenclature  and  classification  used  by  Dr.  Scharff  in  his  "  List  of 
Irish  Mollusca."  In  all  cases  where  a  particular  species  was  only  taken 
by  one  individual  his  name  follows  in  brackets. 

Vitrlna  pelluclda,  Mull.— Gentian  Hill,  near  Galway  ;  Aran  ;  Inch- 
angoil  ;  and  Inis  McDara.  As  is  generally  the  case  during  the  summer 
months  only  dead  specimens  were  obtained. 

Hyallnia  cellaria,  Mull. — Common  everywhere. 

Hy.  draparnaldl,  Beck.— Very  fine  near  Kilronan,  Aran;  and 
Clare-Galway  Abbey. 

Hy.  alliarla,  Miller.— Clare-Galway  Abbey;  Inis  McDara;  and 
near  Athlone.    Uncommon. 

Hy.  nitidula,  Drap.— Common  at  Clare-Galway;  Inchangoil;  Innis 
McDara ;  and  Clonmacnois. 

Hy.  pura,  Alder.— On  Inchangoil,  the  only  locality  noted,  the  brown 
variety  is  fairly  plentiful  under  moss-covered  stones  in  the  graveyard. 

Hy.  radlatula,  Alder.— Several  fine  specimens  under  stones  on 
shore  of  Lough  Corrib,  between  the  Abbey  and  Castle  at  Annaghdown. 

Hy.  crystalllna,  Mull.— A  small  compact  form  at  Gentian  Hill; 
Ballyvaughan  ;  and  Inchangoil.     Not  plentiful. 

Galway  Excursion. — Mollusca.  267 

Hy.  fulva,  Miill. — Very  large  uuder  stoues  on  shore  of  Lough  Corrib, 
at  Annaghdown ;  and  several  of  a  smaller  type  amongst  moss  on 

Hy.  nitlcla»  Miill.— At  Annaghdown,  and  on  Inchangoil  this  local 
species  occurs  in  considerable  numbers,  close  to  the  water's  edge. 

Hy.  excavata,  Bean. — One  specimen  at  Gentian  Hill  (Kane).  Pro- 
bably not  uncommon  there,  as,  although  a  local  species,  it  is  generally 
plentiful  w^here  it  occurs. 

Arlon  ater,  ly. — Abundant  everywhere,  and  variable  in  colour  ;  van 
brimnea,  Rbk.,  was  noted  at  Gentian  Hill ;  var.  bicolor,  Rbk.,  under  old 
coffin  boards  in  Clare-Galway  Abbey  ;  and  var.  albolateralis,  Rbk.,  at  Aran. 

A.  subf  uscus,  Drap. — Common  in  Clare-Galway  Abbey,  along  with 
its  variety,  aurantiaca,  Loc. 

A.  hortensis,  Fer. — Not  uncommon  at  Gentian  Hill,  and  Clou- 
macnois,  where  var.  nigra,  Moq.,  was  the  prevalent  form. 

A.  clrcumscrlptus,  Johnst. — Two  specimens  at  Clonmacnois,  and 
one  near  Roundstone. 

LImax  tnaxlmus,  L. — One  specimen  of  var.  cinerea,  Moq.,  at  Bally- 
vaughan . 

L.  margrlnatus,  Miill.  (=Z.  arhoreum,  B.-Ch.).— Gentian  Hill  ;  Bally- 
vaughan  ;  and  woods  in  Mr.  Hodgson's  demesne  on  shore  of  Lough 
Corrib.     Not  uncommon. 

AgTloIfmax  agrestls,  L. — Common.  At  Clare-Galway  most  of  the 
specimens  seen  were  the  creamy-white  var.  albida,  Pic.  On  Aranmore  a 
very  dark  form  is  common — probably  var.  nigra,  Morelet- 

Amalla  grag'ates,  Drap. — One  specimen  of  the  dark  lead-coloured 
\2S.  phiuibca,  Moq.,  taken  at  Inis  McDara  by  Mr.  R.  Welch. 

A.  Sowcrbyl,  F^r. — vSeveral  in  graveyard  at  Clare-Galway  Abbey. 

Helix  pygrtnaea,  Drap. — Several  amongst  moss  at  Inchangoil;  and 
in  rejectamenta  of  River  Shannon  at  Athlone. 

H.  rotundata,  Miill. — Common  everywhere,  except  in  the  Bally- 
vaughan  district,  where  it  is  remarkably  scarce.  The  var.  Tur/oniy'Flem.., 
occurs  in  Clare-Galway  Abbey. 

H.  rupcstr Is,  Miill. — Plentiful  on  rocks  and  walls  at  Ballyvaughan 
and  Aranmore.  On  the  roadside  limestone  walls  between  Athlone  and 
Clonmacnois  it  swarms,  and  is  there  unusuall}^  large. 

H .  aculeata,  Miill. — vSome  pretty  light-coloured  examples  under  dead 
branches  at  Inchangoil  (Standen). 

H.  pulchellaf  Miill.— Fairly  plentiful  at  Annaghdown  ;  Inchangoil  ; 
and  in  rejectamenta  of  River  vShannon  at  Athlone.  None  of  the  ribbed 
variety  {If.  costata,  Miill.)  were  observed. 

H.  hlsplda,  L. — Type,  and  var.  concinna,  Jeff.,  are  common  every- 

H.  rufesccns,  Penn.— Common  at  Clare-Galway  ;  near  Athlone;  and 
at  Clonmacnois,  where  a  small  compact  "form  of  var.  rubens,  Moq.,  is 
plentiful  along  with  the  type. 

H.  vlrgata,  Da  Costa. — Very  abundant  on  Aranmore.  Mostly  typical 
in  colour  and  markings ;  var.  subalbida,  Poir.,  and  var.  albicans,  Grat., 
being  the  only  variations  noticed. 

H.  cricctorum,  Miill. — Common  in  nearly  every  locality  visited. 
It  is  especially  plentiful  at  Ballyvaughan,  in  and  around  the  small  hay- 
fields,  and  is  extremelj^  fine  and  variable.  Specimens  of  var.  instabilis, 
Zgl.,  are  plentifiil  near  Gleninagh.  On  Aranmore  a  small  dark  form  of 
var.  hiuozona,  Moq.,  is  abundant ;  and  some  from  Inis  Mc  Dara  are  almost 
black;  others  from  Roundstone  are  the  var.  hyalozonata,  Chll.,  and  every 
conceivable  intermediate  form  between  the  type  and  above-named 
varieties  may  be  collected. 

268  I  he  Irish  Naturalist. 

H.  acuta,  Miill.— Abundant,  along  with  var.  stiigala,  Menke.,  and  var. 
articulata.  Lam.,  on  Aranmore,  between  Kilronan  and  Killeany.  02curs 
sparingly  on  the  sandhills  at  Dog's  Biy,  and  on  the  fortifications  at 

H.  nemoralis,  Miill. — The  extreme  beauty  in  colour  and  variability 
of  banding  exhibited  by  this  common  species  deservedly  make  it  a  prime 
favourite  with  collectors,  and  nowhere  in  the  United  Kingdom  can  such 
lovely  examples  be  obtained  as  in  the  West  of  Ireland.  At  Gentian 
Hill,  numerous  pretty  forms  were  secured,  including  vars.  albolabiata,  V. 
Mart.,  rubella,  Moq.,  castanea,  Moq.,  and  lihdlula,  Risso.  At  Ballyvauglian 
it  attains  to  great  perfection,  and  many  fine  examples  were  taken  from 
the  walls  surrounding  the  small  fields,  but  when  the  weather  is  dry  they 
retreat  far  amongst  the  stones,  and  require  careful  search.  The  shells 
are  of  exceptional  size  and  beauty  in  this  locality,  some  being  remark- 
ably thin  and  fragile,  which  at  first  seems  rather  strange,  considering 
that  the  district  is  on  the  limestone,  and  therefore  a  suitable  habitat  for 
snails  ;  but  nearly  all  the  little  meadows  are  formed  by  covering  up  the 
limestone  pavement  with  boggy  earth  brought  from  a  distance,  and  it  is 
a  well-known  fact  that  snails  do  not  love  bogs.  This  may  account  for 
the  thinness  of  the  shells,  but  will  not  for  their  large  size.  The  varieties 
obtained  were  roseolabiaia,  Taylor,  albolabiata,  V.  Mart.,  rubella,  Moq., 
libellida,  Risso.,  castanea,  Moq.,  hyalozonata,  Taylor,  and  innumerable  other 
intermediate  forms  of  colour  and  banding.  A  full  account  of  all  the 
forms  obtained  here  during  a  four  days'  visit  last  year  is  given  in  a  paper 
by  Mr.  Ed.  Collier,  in  The  Journal  of  Conchology,  for  April,  1895.  The 
greater  part  of  the  day  on  Aranmore  was  quite  unproductive,  concho- 
logically,  but  the  heavy  rain  which  fell  towards  evening  caused  the  snails 
to  leave  their  snug  retreats  in  the  fern-filled  crevices  of  the  limestone 
terraces,  and  a  number  of  fine  specimens  were  secured  before  the  steamer 
started.  In  their  general  characteristics  the  Aranmore  specimens  do  not 
differ  greatly  from  those  [at  Ball}- vaughan,  except  in  the  remarkable 
preponderance  of  white  and  rosy-lipped  forms.  Some  large  semi-fossil 
specimens  from  a  drift  near  the  priest's  house  at  Kilronan  closely  re- 
semble those  from  Dog's  Bay.  In  the  ancient  grave3'ard  at  Clonmacnois 
some  pretty  forms  occur,  notably  one  in  which  the  bands  are  all  coalescent, 
and,  but  for  a  minute  white  sutural  line,  the  shell  would  be  perfectly 
black.     It  occurs  on  Inchangoil. 

H.  aspersa,  Miill. — Common  throughout,  and  remarkable  mainly 
for  its  extreme  uniformity  of  marking.  A  few  specimens  of  var. 
undulata,  Moq.,  were  noticed,  and  five  good  examples  of  the  pale  yellow 
variety  exalbida,  Menke,  were  taken  on  the  terraces  and  walls  between 
Kilronan  and  Killeany,  Aranmore. 

Bullmlnus  ofascurus,  Miill. — Very  fine  under  stones  on  roadside 
between  Athlone  and  Clonmacnois  (Standen). 

Cochllcopa  lubrlca,  Miill. — Abundant,  with  its  vars.  lubricoides,V^r., 
ovata,  Jeff.,  and  hyalina,  Jeff. 

Pupa  cyllndracea,  Da  Costa  (=P.  wnbilkata,  Drap.) — Common. 
On  Inis  McDara,  var.  curta,  Westl.,  occurs  (Welch). 

Pupa  muscorum,  Miill. — A  few  at  Ballyvaughan  ;  Aranmore;  Inis 
McDara ;  and  Roundstone. 

Vertigo  pygriTidsa,  Drap. — Common  under  stones  at  Aunaghdown, 
on  shore  of  Lough  Corrib. 

V.  antivertlgo,  Drap. — Several  in  rejectamenta  of  River  Black- 
adder,  at  Ballynahinch. 

Balea  perversa,  L. — Inis  McDara  (Welch). 

Clausilfa  bldentata,  Strom.  (=C/.  rugosa,  Drap.).~Commou  in 
most  localities. 

Galway  Excursio7i.-'  Mollusca,  269 

Succlnea  putris,  L.— Banks  of  river  at  Clare-Galway ;  shore  01 
Lough  Corrib  near  Oughterard;  and  on  Inchangoil.     Common. 

S.  eleg^ans,  Risso. — Some  pretty  examples  of  var.  ochracea,  Betta,  on 
shore  of  Lough  Corrib,  in  Mr,  Hodgson's  demesne. 

Carychlum  minimum,  Mull. — Common  at  Annaghdown. 

Alexia  dentlculata,  Mont. — Common  and  very  fine  near  Gentian 
Hill  (Kane). 

Limnaea  stag-nails,  L.— Abounds  in  the  Victoj-ia  ?r^2^  tank  at  the 
Botanic  Gardens,  Glasnevin.  Common  in  Lough  Corrib  at  Annaghdown. 
On  the  shore  of  Inchangoil  a  curious  little  obese  form  is  very  plentiful, 
which  agrees  exactly  with  specimens  of  var.  fossarina  in  my  cabinet  from 
Lough  Erne. 

L.  peregra,  Mull. — Common  in  all  the  loughs  and  streams  ;  variable 
in  form,  but  small  in  size. 

L.  palustrls,  Mull. — Gentian  Hill  (Kane).  Common  in  Lough 
Corrib,  of  a  small  obese  form — var.  odesa,  Taylor.  In  River  Shannon 
rejectamenta  a  few  small  specimens  occurred.  ' 

L.  truncatula,  Mull. — River  Shannon,  and  river  at  Ballynahinch  ; 
occurs  in  rejectamenta.     Plentiful  at  Annaghdown. 

Planorbis  marginatus,  Drap.— Plentiful  at  Annaghdown  ;  Inchan- 
goil ;  and  in  Lough  Corrib  generally. 

P.  spirorbis,  L. — Common  in  swampy  places  in  Lough  Corrib. 
P.  contortus,  L.— A  few  cast  up  on  the  shore  at  Inchangoil. 
P.  a! bus,  Mull. — Plentiful  at  Inchangoil. 
P.  crista,  L. — Several  specimens  on  caddis-cases  at  Annaghdown. 

Ancylus  fluviatilis,  Mull. — Plentiful  in  Lough  Corrib,  especially 
at  Inchangoil,  where  the  stones  are  thickly  studded  with  a  small  form  of 
var.  gibbosa,  Bourg.  Dead  shells  abundant  on  caddis-cases  in  the  rejecta- 
menta of  River  at  Ballynahinch. 

A.  lacustris,  L. — Three  specimens  from  dead  stems  of  Eqtnsetuin^ 
River  Shannon. 

Bythinia  tentaculata,  L.— In  Ballynahinch  River  rejectamenta  ; 
common  in  Lough  Corrib  everywhere. 

Valvata  plscinalis.  Mull. — Common  at  Annaghdown  and  Inchan- 

Sphaerlum  corncum,  L. — A  small  form  is  common  in  all  the 
loughs  examined. 

Pisidium  pulchellum,  Jenyns. — Lough  Corrib,  at  Annaghdown. 

P.  milium,  Held.  (=  P,  r^5«/w,  Jeff.)— The  only  mollusc  found  in  a 
small  pond  on  Aranmore,  about  a  mile  from  Kilmurvy  (Standen). 

P.  pusiilum,  Gmel. — Common  in  Lough  Corrib,  and  occurred  in 
rejectamenta  of  the  Shannon  at  Athlone. 

Anodonta  cygnea,  L. — Probably  common  in  some  of  the  quiet 
parts  of  Lough  Corrib.     A  broken  valve  was  found  at  Annaghdown. 

The  semi-fossil  land  shells  of  Dog's  Bay,  Connemara,  possess  a  peculiar 
interest,  and  the  large  H.  ncmoralis  obtained  there  are  well  known  to 
most  conchologists.  In  the  Journal  of  Conchology  for  April,  1S85,  Mr.  R. 
D.  Darbishire  has  a  short  paper  on  this  remarkable  shell-deposit  as 
observed  by  him  in  1865.  He  describes  them  as  occurring  in  an  old  sward 
which  appeared  as  a  black  band,  about  two  inches  deep  in  the  face  of  a 
small  cliff  or  section  of  sandhill  closing  the  bay  to  the  eastward.  Our 
stay  at  Roundstone  afforded  an  opportunity  of  personally  investigating 
the  deposit,  of  which  we  availed  ourselves  to  the  full.  The  features  of 
the  isthmus  between  Dog's  Bay  and  Gorteen  Bay  appear  to  have  altered 

270  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

considerably  since  Mr.  Darbistire's  visit,  and  no  *'  black  band  "  answer- 
ing to  his  description  could  be  found.  But,  in  several  places  where  the 
wind  had  cut  a  clean  section  through  the  sand-dunes,  the  old  land 
surface  was  exposed  and  showed  plainly  as  an  earthy  layer  about  a  foot 
deep,  quite  distinguishable  from  the  blown  sands  above  and  below,  and 
this  was  full  of  land  shells  in  good  preservation,  all  the  species  men- 
tioned by  Mr.  Darbishire  being  obtained,  together  with  several  additional 
ones.  The  H.  7iemoralis  found  in  this  earthy  layer  are  of  ordinary  char- 
acter, and  comparatively  recent,  most  of  them  still  retaining  traces  of 
colour.  The  large  and  massive  specimens,  which  undoubtedly  belong 
to  an  earlier  epoch,  all  occur  in  the  stratum  below,  which  is  from  three 
to  four  feet  deep,  and  composed  of  clean  sand,  foraminifera,  and  finely 
comminuted  shells.  As  the  shells  from  these  separate  layers  are 
weather  out,  they  are  blown  about  the  sandhills  and  accumulate  in 
the  hollows,  where  they  lie  by  hundreds  intermingled  together,  but 
specimens  belonging  to  the  two  epochs  may  be  determined  at  a 
glance  by  their  comparative  size,  and  by  the  nature  of  the  material  with 
which  they  are  filled.  The  older  shells  are  not  only  remarkable  for 
weight  and  solidity,  but  also  for  their  dimensions.  Some  specimens 
measure  28  mills,  in  breadth,  by  18  mills,  in  height,  but  the  elevation  of 
spire  varies  considerably,  some  examples  being  very  depressed.  Some 
specimens  are  umbilicated,  others  have  a  thick,  heavy,  curiously  constric- 
ted lip,  folding  inwards  near  the  suture,  and  forming  a  tooth-like  pro- 
tuberance. Variously  banded  forms  occur,  but  they  are  mostly  bleached 
pure  white,  and  as  a  rule  are  very  perfect,  except  that  in  some  cases  a 
narrow  triangular  portion  of  the  lip  near  the  suture  is  broken  out,  but  this 
is  probably  owing  to  the  action  of  frost.  The  substance  of  these  massive 
shells  is  not  calcareous  as  in  recent  examples,  but  more  of  the  nature 
of  arragonite,  and  the  deposition  of  the  material  in  layers  is  well  shown 
by  making  a  section  of  the  shell.  The  following  is  a  full  list  of  the  species 
found  in  the  deposit: — Vitruia  pelhccida,  Hyalinia  cellaria,  H.  nitidida,  H. 
pura,  H.  crystallina,  H.  ftdva.  Helix  aciilcata,  H.  neinoralis,  II.  riifescens,  H. 
hispida,  H.  concinna^  H.  virgata,  H.  capcrata,  H.  ericetorum,  H.  pygmaa,  H. 
aspersa,  H.  pukhella,  II  aaita,  Pupa  inuscortim,  Vertigo  angnstior,  V.  pygmcea, 
V.  substriata,  Clausilia  bidentata,  Cochlicopa  lubrica,  Carychiiim  mininnu7i,  Acme 
lineata.  Careful  search  in  the  immediate  vicinity  for  living  examples  of 
above  only  yielded  H.  aspersa,  H.  acuta,  H.  ericetorum,  and  P.  vtuscorum. 
Some  specimens  of  H.  nemoralis  of  ordinary  character  were,  howeven 
found  living  on  the  road  to  Roundstone. 




[      271       ] 


Hon.  Sec.   b.n.f.c. 

The  following  were  some  of  the  antiquities  examined  by  the  members 
during  the  excursion. 

GAI.WAY.— The  most  interesting  of  the  many  objects  of  antiquarian 
study  in  Galway  was  the  old  Collegiate  Church  of  S.  Nicholas,  now  the 
Parish  Church.  Almost  all  the  members  examined  this  structure,  which 
presents  so  many  distinctive  features  to  the  ecclesiologist,  carefully  con- 
served, with  none  of  its  historic  features  obliterated.  It  presents  a 
model  of  what  many  of  our  at  present  dilapidated  churches  might  be 
made  in  usefulness  and  beauty.  The  Lynch  and  Joyce  monuments  are 
fine,  whilst  the  old  square  carved  font  is  particularly  so.  A  fine  peal  of 
bells  occupies  the  tower ;  one  of  them  bears  date  1631 ;  whilst  all  around 
the  roof  there  is  an  extensive  display  of  the  most  grotesque  gargoyles. 
In  the  north  aisle  a  curious  stone  structure,  with  pillars  supporting  a 
canopy,  is  built  against  the  wall ;  it  would  be  a  solution  of  a  disputed 
point  if  this  were  found  to  have  been  a  street  pulpit. 

Portions  of  the  old  town  walls  still  remain,  with  a  gateway  at  the 
quay,  and  portions  of  a  tower  in  Francis  Street.  The  quaint  old  Lynch 
mansion,  with  its  square-headed  windows,  attracted  much  attention  on 
account  of  the  weird  history  connected  with  its  mayoral  occupant. 

The  Claddagh  settlement  was  also  visited,  and  the  primitive  homes 
and  habits  of  the  people,  now  fast  assimilating  with  the  townsfolk,  duly 

BALI.YVAUGHAN.— At  Ballyvaughan  a  very  perfect  medieval  castle  of 
the  O'Loghlins  was  made  the  rendezvous  of  a  lunching  party,  such 
as  had  not  been  seen  within  its  shade  for  many  generations,  whilst  the 
cross-crowned  holy  well  close  by  had  not  more  visitors  at  a  "pattern.'' 
Near  at  hand  the  little  church  of  13th  or  14th  century  date  still  handed 
down  some  curious  customs.  Here,  on  the  stone  altar,  and  in  a  hollow 
beneath,  and  in  the  sills  of  windows  and  other  places,  human  skulls 
were  exposed  in  quite  a  common-place  way. 

Aran  Isi^ands. — The  visit  to  these  islands  was  certainly  the  big 
day  for  the  antiquarians,  affording  more  to  see  than  could  be 
seen  in  one  day.  Crosses,  churches,  -and  forts  were  visited  in 
rapid  succession,  scarcely  affording  the  photographers  time  to  "do" 
them  all ;  nevertheless  little  was  missed,  from  the  great  Cyclopean 
fort  of  Dun  Aengus  to  the  primitive  little  stone  church  of  Teampull 
Benan,  with  its  accommodation  for  about  one  worshipper. 

CIvARE-Gai.\vay.— Many  members  visited  this  celebrated  Franciscan 
Abbey,  founded  in  1290  by  John  de  Cogan.  The  tall  central  tower  is  its 
most  distinctive  feature,  springing  from  arches  to  a  height  far  above 
the  average  of  such  towers.  In  the  choir  is  a  beautifully-carved  altar 
tomb  of  a  De  Burgo.  The  lofty  east  window  might  well  be  restored,  all 
the  interlacing  being  forthcoming.  On  the  side  of  the  road  facing  the 
Abbey  stands  a  Clanrickarde  castle,  lofty  and  perfect. 

272  The  Irish  Nahwalist. 

Annaghdown. — Beautifully  situated  on  the  shores  of  Lough  Corrib 
stands  the  graceful  Norman  castle,  large  and  almost  perfect.  Here  was 
an  ancient  religious  settlement,  as  attested  by  the  many  ecclesiastical 
ruins  scattered  around ;  one  of  the  most  beautiful  Hiberno-Romanesque 
windows  in  existence  is  built  into  a  modern  church,  whilst  the  corres- 
ponding door  is  well  preserved,  with  other  features  of  almost  equal  value. 

InchanguoiIvE. — To  a  few  were  given  the  pleasure  of  visiting  this 
most  remarkable  island  in  Lough  Corrib,  through  the  great  kindness  of 
Mr.  Henry  Hodgson,  J. P.,  who  lent  his  boats,  and  otherwise  hospitably 
entertained  the  visitors.  Here  are  two  of  the  earliest  churches  with 
deeply  sculptured  doors,  Teampul  Phaidrig  and  Teampul-na-Neave,  both 
carefully  conserved  by  Lord  Ardilaun.  In  the  graveyard  is  a  little  rude 
cross-carved  pillar,  with  perhaps  the  most  ancient  Christian  inscription 
in  Ireland,  to  the  memory  of  Lugnaedon,  son  of  Limenueh,  the  sister  of 
S.  Patrick, 

Inis  Mac  Dara. — This  little  island  out  in  the  Atlantic  off  Roundstone 
(the  latter  a  place  that  no  one  should  miss  visiting)  is  very  seldom  visited, 
so  it  was  with  great  delight  a  small  party  chartered  a  lumbering  hooker 
to  make  the  voyage  to  the  Church  of  Saint  Sinach  Mac  Dara,  and  well 
were  they  repaid  by  a  sight  of  the  6th  or  7tli  century  stone-roofed 
church,  the  crosses,  and  stations.  This  same  hooker  subsequently  took 
one  of  the  party  to  Aran  from  Roundstone.  Indeed,  long  after  the 
excursion  was  over,  members  were  seen  straggling  about  Connemara 
and  the  islands  of  the  sea,  quite  unable  to  drag  themselves  away  from 
the  glories  and  m^-steries  of  the  west,  ever  seeking  for  that  Hybrasil 
which  lay  in  the  lap  of  the  setting  sun. 

Many  notes  and  details  were  taken  of  the  antiquities  visited  that  will 
serve  for  future  use  in  publications  more  suitable  for  that  purpose  than 
the  Irish  Naturalist. 


Irish  Naturai^tst,  VoIv.  IV.] 

[Pirate  5. 

.-/.  Stead  man,  del. 

vSTYvSANUvS    ri^IARIAi:,    ]McWi:i-XKV,    si>.  Nov 

^Ije  $vi^\j  |latuvalt0t. 

Vol.  IV.  OCTOBER,  1895.  No.  10. 


BY  E.  J.  MCWKENRY,  M.A.,  M.D. 

(PI.ATE  5. ) 

When  investigating  the  bog  at  Braganstown,  Count}'  Louth, 
during  the  excursion  of  the  Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club 
to  Castlebellingham  on  August  loth  last,  I  came  across  a 
mould-fungus  which  proves  to  be  an  as  yet  undescribed 
species.  In  the  following  pages  I  will  give  a  short  account  of 
this  organism  and  its  affinities. 

It  was  in  that  portion  of  the  bog  which  lies  east  of  the 
railway  line,  and  which  was  visited  by  but  few  members  of 
the  party,  that  I  observed  a  patch  of  Meadow-sweet,  the  tops 
of  which  presented  a  peculiar  dark  brown  and  shrivelled  ap- 
pearance. This  premature  decay  of  a  plant  that  is  wont  at 
this  season  to  attain  its  greatest  luxuriance,  struck  me  as 
peculiar,  and  led  me  to  examine  the  patch  more  nearly.  Small 
greyish- white  stalked  objects  then  became  visible,  dotted  here 
and  there  over  the  dried-up  and  wrinkled  stems,  petioles,  and 
leaves.  The  plants  did  not  seem  to  have  flowered.  The  tiny 
objects  in  question  were  not  more  than  -^jj  inch  high,  and, 
looked  at  with  a  strong  glass,  consisted  of  a  globose  head, 
silvery-grey  in  colour,  and  a  short  brown  stalk,  not  exceeding 
in  length  the  diameter  of  the  head..  The  whole  appearance 
was  very  similar  to  that  of  a  little  myxomycete  or  slime-fungus 
in  its  spore-bearing  stage  ;  but  the  fact  that  these  little  stalked 
bodies  were  not  associated  in  clusters,  but  stood  well  apart 
from  each  other  without  any  tendency  to  be  gregarious,  told 
against  the  possibility  of  its  proving  to  be  a  member  of  that 
family.  Besides,  the  habitat — portions  of  a  living  plant,  that 
had  undergone  localized  death  and  desiccation — was  hardly 
a  likely  one  for  a  myxomycete.  Further  knowledge  on  the 
subject  was,  however,  not  to  be  had  without  a  more  minute 


274  '^^^  Irish  Naturalist, 

examination  than  could  then  and  there  be  made,  so  I  careful!}^ 
collected  a  quantity  of  the  material  and  put  it  up  in  glass 
tubes  for  subsequent  determination.  A  few  days  later,  going 
over  the  contents  of  my  collecting  box,  I  came  upon  these 
tubes  and  mounted  some  of  their  contents  for  the  microscope. 
Nothing  could  be  easier  than  the  process  adopted ;  and  as  I 
may  have  some  readers  who,  possessing  microscopes,  might 
care  to  take  up  w^ork  of  this  kind,  I  will  now  state  how  the 
mounts  w^ere  made.  A  few  of  the  little  stalked  bodies  were 
removed  from  the  matrix  by  the  aid  of  a  dissecting  needle, 
and  immersed  in  a  drop  of  absolute  alcohol  on  a  clean  slide. 
As  soon  as  the  alcohol  had  all  but  completely  disappeared 
b}"  evaporation,  it  was  replaced  by  a  drop  of  glycerine, 
and  a  clean  cover- glass  applied.  The  object  of  the  alcohol  is 
to  get  rid  of  any  air  that  may  be,  and  usually  is,  entangled  in 
the  mycelium,  and  which  would  greatly  interfere  with  the 
transparency  of  the  mount  if  it  were  allowed  to  remain.  An 
alternative  procedure  is  to  mount  in  glycerine  at  once,  and 
after  putting  on  the  cover-glass,  heat  the  preparation  over  a 
spirit-lamp  till  ebullition  just  commences.  This  also  drives 
out  the  air,  but  the  process  is  rather  a  severe  one,  especially 
for  a  delicate  object,  and  liable  to  cause  alteration  in  the 
natural  appearance.  The  preparations  thus  made  proved 
very  successful,  and  on  placing  the  slide  under  the  microscope 
with  a  moderatel}^  low  power  (x  150),  I  saw  it  very  much  as 
it  looks  in  figure  2.  The  stalk  and  head  can  now  be  distinctly 
seen,  and  also  the  fact  that  the  former  is  composed  of  a  number 
of  parallel  hyphae  or  threads.  The  head  is  also  composed  of 
threads  which  radiate  from  the  stalk,  and  round  about  the 
edge  where  these  threads  become  free  and  end,,  they  may  be  seen 
to  have  a  peculiar  knobbed  or  headed  appearance.  We  now 
turn  on  the  high  power  (  x  400)  and  see  (figure  3)  that  the  cause 
of  this  beaded  appearance  is  the  fact  that  the  terminal  portion 
of  each  hypha  or  thread  is  divided  by  thick  partitions  into  a 
string  of  cubical  cells,  of  which  the  end  ones  display  a  tendency 
to  have  their  corners  rounded  off  so  as  to  become  subglobose\ 
or,  in  ordinary  language,  nearly  round.  If  now,  without  chang- 
ing the  power,  we  move  the  slide  so  as  to  bring  the  stalk  into 
the  field,  we  can,  by  gradually  working  upwards,  make  out 

*  This  is  not  well  shown  in  the  drawing. 

A  New  Irish  Ftmgus.  275 

the  whole  construction  of  the  fungus.  We  find,  as  before  stated, 
the  stalk  composed  of  parallel  brown  hyphse  with  numerous 
partitions,  or  **  septa  "  as  they  are  technically  called.  I^et  me 
explain,  however,  the  term  ''hyphae"  which  may  possibly  prove 
a  stumbling-block  to  some  of  my  readers.  The  name  **  hypha  " 
is  given  to  the  "  threads  "  of  which  most  fungi  are  constructed. 
These  "threads"  are  said  to  constitute  or  make  up  the 
"  mycelium."  They  are  not,  however,  really  threads,  but  only 
seem  threadlike  when  insufficiently  magnified.  Under  a  fairly 
high  power  they  are  little  pipes  or  tubes  composed  of  a  trans- 
parent outer  wall  made  of  cellulose  or  something  very  like  it 
(cellulose  is  the  material  in  the  cell-walls  of  the  higher,  green 
plants),  and  jelly-like  granular  contents,  which  are  living 
**  protoplasm."  The  protoplasm  contains  numerous  very 
minute  bodies  of  another  nature  called  nuclei.  These  also  are 
living — in  fact  they  constitute  the  centres  of  the  life  of  the 
cell.  The  tubes  or  hyphse  are  divided  by  cross-partitions  or 
"  septa  "  into  long  compartments.  Each  compartment  is  a 
"  cell."  Fungi  are  made  up  of  strings  of  lengthy  cells  pressed 
or  woven  together  so  as  to  form  variously-shaped  masses. 

I  hope  I  have  now  made  these  matters  of  detail  pretty  clear, 
and  will  go  on  with  the  description  of  our  new  fungus.  The 
hyphse,  of  which  the  stalk  is  made  up,  are  loosely  compacted 
and  interwined,  and  at  their  upper  ends  they  open  out,  so  to 
speak,  into  the  head,  dividing  repeatedly  into  two  (**  forking")* 
so  as  to  make  up  the  solid  mass  of  branches  of  which  the 
head  is  composed.  The  terminal  branches  are  much  paler 
in  colour  than  those  from  which  they  spring,  and  are  divided 
by  very  thick  partitions  into  strings  of  cubical  cells.  Such  a 
string  is  seen  highly  magnified  in  figure  3,  and  it  is  these 
curious  jointed  rows  of  cubical  or  barrel-shaped  cells  which 
give  the  fungus  its  characteristic  appearance.  Of  what 
significance  are  these  cell-rows  ?  it  may  fairly  be  asked.  Are 
they  of  any  use  ?  Emphatically  so,  for  the  last,  that  is  the 
oldest  joint,  keeps  falling  off,  and  then  constitutes  a  spore, 
that  is,  a  seed  from  which  the  whole  fungus  may  be  repro- 
duced.    Each  of  these  chains  is  therefore  a  chain  of  spores. 

Having  now  ascertained  the  structure  of  the  fungus,  let  us 
enquire  what  place  it  occupies  amongst  those  already  known 
— let  us  classify  it.  An  impression  appears  to  prevail,  even 
amongst  botanists,  especially  those  who  confine  themselves  to 

A  2 

276  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

naked-eye  work  on  the  flowering-plants,  that  the  classification 
of  fungi  presents  features  of  unusual  difiiculty.     This  is  not 
seldom  true  as  regards  the  determination  of  the  species,  owing 
in  many  cases  to  the  insufficient  descriptions  handed  on  by 
superficial  observers.     Up  to  June,  1892,  there  were  no  less 
than  39,662  sorts  of  fungi  known,  and  a  couple  of  thousand 
more  at  least  have  been  added  since.     Let  us  see  now  what 
position  our  fungus  is  to  take  amongst  so  enormous  a  number 
of  vSpecies.      We  must  first  decide  what  group  or  family  it 
belongs  to.      It  is  clearly  a   '*  Hyphomycete,"  which  means 
that  it  belongs  to  a  group  composed  of  minute  fungi  made  up 
of    threads   very   loosely    compacted   and  bearing  *' naked" 
spores,   that   is,  not    enclosed  in  spore-bags  or  asci.      Such 
fungi  are  usually  known  as  "  moulds"  in  English,  and  certain 
members  of  the  group  make  their  presence  quite  obtrusively 
familiar  by  covering  damp  bread,  leather,  paper,   preserves, 
&c.,  &c.,  with  blue  or  green,  sometimes  with  pink  or  golden 
patches.    Many  of  these  moulds  are  not  "independent"  species, 
that  is,  they  are  really  only  stages  in  the  development  of  a 
fungus  that  forms  its  spores  in   asci  or   bags.     Moulds  are 
divided  into  four  groups — Mucedinece,  comprising  most  of  the 
ordinary  moulds  well  known  to,  and  disliked  by,  the  house- 
keeper ;  DematiccB,  which  have  dark  brown  threads ;  Stilbece, 
in  which  the  lower  threads  are  compacted  to  form  a  stalk  ;  and 
Tiibcrculariecc,   in  which  the  threads  are  compressed  into  a 
wart-like  tuft.     There  is  no  difficulty  in  deciding  to  place  our 
fungus  in  the  third  family,  Stilbcce,  on  account  of  its  obvious 
stalk.     Turning  to   this  family  we   find  it   divided  into  two 
groups,  according  as  the  hyphse  are  pale  or  dark.     Now  ,as 
we  have  seen  that  in  our  specimen  the  colour  is  dark  brown, 
save  for  the  terminal  branches,  we  turn  to  that  group,  the 
PhcEOstilbea:.     As  the  individual  spores  in  the  specimen  are 
simple  and  undivided  into  compartments,  we  must  look  in  the 
section  Amerosporcs,  and  here  we  have   to  select  between   a 
number  of  competing  genera — Sporocybe,   Graphium,  Harpo- 
graphiuTJi,  Stysanus,  and  G7nphiotheci2i77i.     For  reasons,  into 
•which  it  would  occupy  too  long  to  enter,  we  place  the  specimen 
in  Stysanics,  but  as  it  does  not  agree  with  any  of  the  three 
British   species   given   in    Mr.    Massee's  excellent    "  British 
Fungus-Flora"  (vol.  III.,  p.  458),  we  look  it  up  in  Saccardo's 
great  "  Sjdloge,"  and  find  that  of  the  seventeen  species  there 

A  New  Irish  Ftcngiis,  277 

described  it  comes  nearest  to  a  species  from  Ce34on  called 
Perico7iia  vionilifera  by  Messrs.  Berkeley  and  Broome,  but  re- 
moved to  Stysanus  by  Saccardo.  Their  description,  as 
repeated  by  Saccardo,  is  not  very  complete,  but  our  specimen 
differs  in  the  stalk  not  being  rough  (scabrous).  To  sum  up, 
Mr.  Massee,  to  whom  I  sent  the  specimen,  and  who  is  the 
leading  English  authority  on  the  subject,  has  no  hesitation  in 
declaring  the  species  to  be  new,  and  it  has  accordingly  de- 
volved on  me  to  confer  upon  it  a  name.  I  have  accordingly 
called  it  5*.  UlmaricB,  indicating  thereby  its  habitat  on  Meadow- 
sweet, SpircBa  Uhnaria,  and  have  drawn  up  the  following 
technical  description  : — 

Stysanus  Ulmarlae,  McWeeney,  nov.  sp. 

Stem  from  -25  to  i  m.m.  high,  composed  of  loosely-com- 
pacted, septate,  brown  hyphae  which,  passing  upwards, 
undergo  repeated  dichotomous  division  and  oj^en  out  to  form 
a  globose  head.  Terminal  branches  paler,  divided  b}^  rigid, 
thick,  projecting  septa  into  moniliform  chains  of  cubical 
elements  which  fall  off  and  constitute  the  spores.  Spores 
pale-brown,  cubical,  barrel-shaped  or  subglobose,  5-6  /i.  in 

On  dying  Meadow-sweet  {Spircea  Uhnaria),  Braganstown 
Bog,  Co.  Louth,  Ireland,  August  loth,  1895. 


1.  Natural  size  of  object. 

2.  The  same,  magnified  about  150  diameters  (somewhat  diagrammatic). 

3.  An  isolated  spore-bearing  hypha,  magnified  400  diameters. 

4.  5,  and  6    Small  portions  of  the  fructification  isolated  to  show  the 
different  forms  assumed,  magnified  300  diameters. 

2/8  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


BY   R.    1,1,0 YD   PRAEGER,    B.E. 

Two  YEARS  ago  I  Spent  a  short  autumn  holiday  in  a  solitary 
ramble  round  the  wild  coast-line  of  Inishowen,  the  most 
northerly  portion  of  Donegal  and  of  Ireland,  which  the  con- 
verging loughs  of  Foyle  and  Swilly  almost  convert  into  an 
island,  as  its  name  implies.  This  is  a  beautiful  district,  with 
rugged  mountains  of  ancient  schists  and  quartzites,  wild  moors, 
deep  bays,  and  savage  sea-cliffs,  where  the  waves  of  the 
Atlantic  rave  and  foam.  The  season  was  too  far  advanced 
for  botanizing,  and  I  spent  the  time  in  studying  the  post- 
glacial geology  of  the  coast,  especially  with  a  view  of  compar- 
ing the  raised  beaches  of  this  wild  shore  with  those  of  the 
more  sheltered  shores  of  the  Irish  Sea,  such  as  the  well-known 
deposits  of  Larne  and  Greenore. 

Culmore  was  the  first  point  visited.  Here,  where  the 
River  Foyle  widens  out  into  the  lough  of  the  same  name,  a 
low  point  projects  far  out  into  the  stream.  On  the  eastern 
side  the  sea  has  eaten  into  this  level  tract,  and  the  section  above 
the  beach  shows  lo  to  15  feet  of  horizontally  stratified  gravels. 
The  material  consists  almost  entirely  of  rounded  flat  pebbles 
of  mica  schist,  with  a  little  quartz  and  quartzite,  in  a  dark 
brown  sandy  matrix,  slightly  current-bedded  near  the  base, 
with  occasional  layers  of  sharp  quartz  sand.  No  shells  were 
found.  This  deposit  covers  a  considerable  area — the  whole  of 
Culmore  point,  and  extending  one  to  two  miles  to  the  north- 
ward. It  is  apparently  the  creation  of  the  river  rather  than  of 
the  sea,  as  shown  by  the  brown  matrix  and  the  absence  of 

Crossing  by  the  ferry  to  the  County  I^ondonderry  side  ol 
the  Foyle,  I  saw  two  well-marked  sea-terraces  rising  above 
the  muddy  shore  near  Culmore  railway  station,  to  heights  of 
about  10  and  25  feet  above  high  water-mark.  These  terraces 
are  cut  out  of  a  thick  and  extensive  deposit  of  sands  and  gravels, 

The  Raised  Beaches  of  Inishoweii.  279 

of  which  a  fine  section  is  seen  close  by  on  the  bank  of  the 
River  Faughan.    There,  in  descending  order,  we  have 

Bluish  clay,  •  .  .  .  ,1 

Yellowish  clay,      .  .  .  .  .1 

Stratified  gravel,    .  .  .  .  .8 

Very  fine  greyish  sand     .  ,  .  .20 

Water  of  river,  at  high  tide  level. 

This  deposit  is  rather  puzzling,  but  it  is  probably  of  glacial 

Next  morning  I  drove  to  Burnfoot,  on  the  upper  reaches  of 
lyough  Swilly,  and  visited  the  brick-field  there,  which  is 
situated  on  an  extensive  flat  of  reclaimed  land,  slightly  below 
high  water-mark.  I  had  hoped  that  the  material  was  estuarine 
clay,  but  found  it  to  be  a  fine  hard  pinkish  clay,  without 
fossils,  but  containing  layers  of  pebbles  and  boulders.  Thence 
I  walked  to  Blanket  Nook.  The  Geological  Survey  map 
marks  a  raised  beach  fringing  the  alluvial  flat  for  some  miles 
in  this  direction,  but  little  was  to  be  seen.  According  to  the 
Memoir  this  deposit  has  an  average  elevation  of  32  feet.  On 
the  northern  shore  of  Blanket  Nook,  not  far  east  of  the  rail- 
way, a  gravel  bank,  evidently  a  raised  beach,  rises  to  a  height 
of  20  feet  above  the  muddy  flat.  No  section  was  seen,  but  on 
the  surface  I  picked  up  Ostrea,  Peden  varius,  Mytilus  edtdis, 
Cardiu7n  edule,  Tapes  aureus,  T  decussatus,  Mactra  subtrtmcaia, 
Littorina  litorea,  L.  obtusata,  Cerithiuvi  reticulahi7n.  Further 
west  is  a  striking  deposit — a  horizontally  stratified  bed  at  least 
12  feet  thick,  consisting  almost  entirely  of  marine  shells, 
mostly  unbroken,  and  in  good  preservation — apparently  a 
shelly  bank  laid  down  by  currents  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay 
when  the  land  stood  slightly  lower  than  now,  and  evidently 
newer  than  the  before-mentioned  raised  beach,  which  runs 
along  behind  it  and  above  it  to  the  entrance  of  the  bay.  The 
top  of  the  shell-bed  is  about  6  feet  above  high  water-mark. 
The  species  found  here  were  as  follow : — 

Anomia  ephippiu7n.  Tapes  aureus. 

Ostrea  edulis.  T.  decussaius, 

Pecten  varius,  T.  virgineus. 

Mytilus  edulis.  T.  pullastra. 

M*  adriaticus.  Vertus  galli?ia. 

Cardium  echifiatum*  V.  ovata. 

C  exiguuvi*  Tellifta  balthica, 

C*  edule.  Mactra  subtrtmcata. 

28o  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Corbula  gibba.  Hydrobia  uIvce. 

Ttochjis  cinerareus^  Cerithium  reticulatum. 

T.  mag7is.  Purpura  lapillus. 

Littorina  litorea'.^  '  '         Nassa  reticulata. 

L.  obtusata.         •  •  P leurotovia  turricula. 

Rissoa  membyajiacca. 

Specimens  of  T.  pullastra  and  C.  exiguuvi  occurred  with  the 
valves  in  juxtaposition. 

On  the  eastern  shore  of  lyOUgh  Swilly  at  Fort  Stewart  ferry, 
a  couple  of  miles  further  south-west,  an  interesting  raised 
beach  may  be  seen.  At  a  ruined  cottage  a  couple  of  hundred 
yards  north  of  the  ferrj^  there  is  a  la5^er  of  shells  4  feet  above 
high  water,  with  shelly  gravels  above  and  below.  Northward 
the  deposit  rises  up  on  the  top  of  a  bed  of  blue  Boulder-clay 
to  a  height  of  12  feet  above  high  tide.  Southward  it  runs 
level  past  the  public-house,  where  it  shows  out  as  a  great  bed 
of  oyster  shells,  10  feet  above  high  water.  Further  south,  the 
Boulder-clay  rises  up  again.  In  this  raised  beach  the  follow- 
ing shells  were  seen,  the  first  eleven  being  abundant — 

Ostrea  ediilis.  Tapes  p^dlastra. 

Pecteji  variiis.  'Telliiia  bait  hi ca. 

Mytilus  edulis.  Corbula  gibba. 

Tapes  aureus-  Patella  vulgata. 

T.  d ecus  sat  us.  Trochus  ci7ierareus. 

Cardium  exiguum.  T.  lineatus. 

C.  edule.  T.  viagus. 

Mactra  subtnmcata,  Mu7'ex  eriyiaceics. 

Littorina  obtusata.  Purpura  lapilhis. 

L.  lito7'ea.  Buccimcvi  undatuvi. 

Cerithium  reticulatum.  Nassa  reticulata. 
Anomia  ephippium. 

The  Ivimpets  were  remarkably  elevated,  the  height  being  in 
some  cases  /^  of  the  greatest  breadth.  The  occurrence  of 
TrocJms  lineatus  here  is  interesting,  as  its  present  range  in 
Ireland  does  not  extend  further  north  than  Bundoran  on  the 
west  coast,  and  Ballywalter  on  the  east  coast.  The  late  Canon 
Grainger  used  to  tell  me  a  curious  story  of  some  sailors  who 
collected  a  number  of  these  shells  in  mistake  for  Periwinkles 
at  some  place  on  the  west  coast,  and  brought  them  alive  in 
their  vessel  to  I,ough  Swilly,  where,  finding  them  unpalatable. 

The  Raised  Beaches  of  hiishowen.  281 

they  threw  them  overboard  in  shallow  water,  where  they  were 
seen  crawling  about  some  time  afterwards.  Whether  the  species 
thus  introduced  into  Lough  Swilly  still  flourishes  there  is  a 
nice  point  for  inquiry  ;  but  its  occurrence  in  the  Fort  Stewart 
raised  beach  shows  that  it  formerly  lived  in  these  waters. 

Going  northward  along  the  shore,  Boulder-clay  holds  the 
ground  till  Inch  is  reached.  Along  the  shore  eastward  of  the 
old  castle,  which  rises  picturesquely  on  a  high  knoll  of  quart- 
zose  grit,  are  traces  of  low  raised  beaches.  Westward  of  the 
castle,  at  Mill  Bay,  two  sea-terraces  rise,  one  behind  the  other, 
in  the  pasture  near  the  shore,  like  green  waves  on  the  sward, 
to  heights  of  about  twelve  and  fifteen  feet  above  high  water, 
the  ground  falling  away  a  little  behind  each.  No  section  is 
exposed,  but  the  ground  is  very  shelly.  On  the  north  side  of 
Inch,  near  the  church,  where  raised  beaches  are  marked  on 
the  Survey  map,  there  are  beds  of  sand  and  gravel  up  to  eight 
feet  above  high  water,  but  no  features  of  interest  are 

Next  day  I  left  the  hospitable  house  of  my  host,  Prof 
Leebody,  in  the  small  hours  of  the  morning,  and  took  the 
6.20  train  to  the  favourite  watering-place  of  Buncrana,  prettily 
situated  on  the  shores  of  Lough  Swilly.  A  brisk  walk  over 
the  sand-hills  that  stretch  southward  revealed  nothing  of 
interest,  and  after  breakfast  I  tramped  nine  miles  northward 
to  Mamore  Gap,  a  picturesque  pass  formed  by  an  old  line  of 
fault  across  a  rugged  mountain-ridge  of  quartzite  that  stretches 
on  both  sides  of  the  entrance  of  Lough  Swilly.  The  view  as 
one  passes  through  the  Gap  is  very  beautiful — the  sands  of 
Lenan  Bay  to  the  right ;  below,  a  sandy  and  boggy  flat 
dotted  with  cottages,  and  beyond  that  the  huge  mass  of 
Dunaff"  Head ;  further  to  the  eastward,  the  rugged  outline 
of  North  Inishowen,  and  Malin- Head ;  and  beyond  all, 
the  illimitable  ocean.  A  steep  descent  led  to  Lenan  Bay, 
where  the  westerly  winds  have  swept  the  shifting  sands  up 
the  adjoining  hill-side  to  a  height  of  150  feet.  Down  on 
the  beach,  the  sand  has  become  cemented  by  some  natural 
process,  and  masses  of  it  stand  out  in  weathered  torrs  six  to 
ten  feet  high,  looking  like  reefs  of  schist.  Passing  over  the 
low  ground  (marked  raised  beach  on  Geological  Survey  map) 
lying  behind  Lenan  Head  and  Dunaff  Head,  I  found  at 
Rockstown  Harbour  a  good  example  of  what  is  no  doubt  the 

A  3 

282  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

50  ft.  raised  beach  of  the  Geological  Survey — a  well-marked 
ridge  of  gravel  rising  abruptly  to  a  height  of  30  to  40  feet  from 
the  flat  or  gently-sloping  plain  that  runs  inland  from  the 
existing  beach. 

A  little  further  eastward,  behind  Tullagh  Bay,  this  terrace 
is  still  better  developed,  and  forms  a  very  striking  object. 
There,  as  elsewhere  on  this  wild  coast,  the  present  beach  con- 
sists of  high  terraces  of  pebbles  and  rounded  stones,  piled  up 
by  winter  gales  in  a  steep  slope  to  some  twenty  feet  above 
ordinary  high  water.  Behind  the  beach  at  Tullagh  Bay,  the 
ground  drops  slightly  and  then  runs  level  in  boggy  or  gravelly 
fields  to  this  grand  old  terrace,  which  rises  at  a  slope  of  about 
I  to  I  to  a  height  of  thirty  to  forty  feet.  On  the  top  of  this 
old  beach  the  ground  again  dips  slightly,  like  the  present 
beach,  and  continues  almost  level  to  where  the  hills  rise,  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  sea.  As  seen  in  a  small  pit,  this 
terrace  is  composed  of  coarse  stratified  gravel,  full  of  much 
rounded  stones,  just  like  the  existing  beach.  No  shells  were 
to  be  found,  but  then  shells  are  almost  absent  also  on  the 
present  beach,  where  they  get  smashed  to  pieces  ;  and  the 
coarse  and  open  nature  of  the  material  is  unsuitable  for  the 
preservation  of  organic  remains. 

I  tramped  across  the  broad  sands  of  Tullagh  Bay,  where 
the  ocean  waves  boomed  as  they  broke  with  rhythmical 
monotony.  The  Clonmany  River  was  in  flood,  but  I  forded  it 
waist  deep,  and  climbed  the  rocky  slope  of  Binnion,  where 
another  magnificent  view  was  obtained — a  vast  expanse  of 
ocean,  faced  by  the  great  cliff's  of  Dunaff"  and  the  white  sands 
of  Tullagh,  behind  which  rose  the  wild  mountains  of  quartzite 
and  mica  schist  that  culminate  in  Slieve  Snaght  (2019  feet). 
A  scramble  down  a  precipitous  gully,  and  a  stiff  climb  round 
the  most  rugged  of  sea-cliffs  hung  with  Rose-root  brought  me 
to  PoUan  Bay,  where  the  sands  stretched  far  into  the  grey  sea- 
mist.  Evening  was  closing  in  apace,  so  I  took  to  the  road, 
and  six  miles  more  brought  me  to  Carndouagh,  and  to  its 
comfortable  inn. 

Next  morning  a  wild  storm  was  raging,  and  sea  and  sky 
and  land  were  all  shrouded  in  rain  and  spray.  But  as  the 
sun  rose  the  clouds  broke,  and  I  took  the  morning  mail  car 
for  Malin  Head.  The  day  before,  an  American  mail  steamer 
had   arrived  at  Queenstown,  and   as  we  drove  along  it  was 

The  Raised  Beaches  of  Inishowen.  283 

pathetic  to  see  the  anxious  faces  of  parents  and  brothers  and 
sisters  gathered  at  each  road-end  and  boreen,  hoping  for  a 
letter  from  the  loved  ones  who  were  seeking  their  fortune  in 
that  far-off  land  of  promise.  At  Bree  I  left  the  road,  and 
struck  down  to  the  northern  shore.  In  the  bay  south  of  the 
coast-guard  station  are  raised  beaches  six  and  twelve  feet 
above  storm-water  level  (which  is  about  twelve  feet  above 
ordinary  high  tide)  ;  and  behind  these,  marine  gravels  cap 
the  rocks  thirty  to  forty  feet  above  the  same  level.  As  usual, 
no  shells  were  to  be  found  in  any  of  these  deposits.  Among 
the  stones  of  the  present  beach  the  beautiful  Oyster-plant  or 
Sea  Gromwell  spread  its  blue-grey  leaves,  its  red  and  blue 
blossoms  still  abundant,  in  spite  of  the  lateness  of  the  season. 

North  of  the  coast-guard  station  is  a  flat  stretch  of  peaty 
land,  forty  to  fifty  feet  above  high  tide.  A  small  stream 
cutting  through  it  shows  in  its  banks  a  couple  of  feet  of  peaty 
soil  overlying  twelve  feet  at  least  of  horizontally-bedded 
marine  gravels.  These  Inishowen  raised  beaches  are  all  the 
same,  consisting  of  coarse  much  rolled  gravel  and  large 
pebbles  of  the  various  metamorphic  and  igneous  rocks  of  the 
district,  with  a  matrix  of  coarse  sharp  quartz  sand,  and  no 
fossils — just  like  the  present  beaches. 

On  the  low-lying  ground  south-east  of  the  ridge  which  forms 
the  extremity  of  the  land,  and  on  which  the  signal-tower  stands, 
there  are  two  well-marked  terraces,  one  behind  the  other, 
composed  of  coarse  gravel,  and  having  elevations  of  I  should 
guess  thirty-five  to  forty,  and  sixty  to  seventy  feet  above  high 
tide ;  I  had  no  means  of  determining  the  heights  with 
accuracy.  The  Geological  Survey  Memoir  says  that  here  the 
25-ft.,  50-ft.,  and  75-ft.  raised  beaches  are  well  marked ;  these 
elevations  are  reckoned  from  Ordnance  datum,  eight  feet  below 
mean  sea-level.  I  had  a  chat  with  lyloyds'  agent,  while  the 
wind  shrieked  round  the  signal-tower,  and  flecks  of  foam 
dashed  against  the  window,  fully  200  feet  above  the  sea,  and 
then  fought  my  way  against  the  storm  down  to  the  rugged 
quartzite  cliffs,  the  most  northerly  point  of  Ireland,  and 
crept  down  as  far  as  I  dared  go— about  fifty  feet  above 
the  waves — to  watch  the  fearful  sea  that  was  running. 
At  the  westerly  end  of  the  Head,  the  cliffs  were  brightened 
by  patches  of  Samphire  and  Rose-root  and  Scotch  I^ovage. 
The   coast    trended    southward   now.      At    White    Strand 

284  The  Irish  Naturalist. 

Bay  the  Keenagli  River  was  forded,  south  of  which  there  is  a 
glorious  pebble  beach,  dipping  away  down  20  feet  to  where 
the  waves  were  rushing  up  and  down,  rattling  the  pebbles 
with  a  noise  that  could  be  heard  a  mile  away.  Behind  the 
beach  rises  an  old  sea-escarpment  (perhaps  made  by  a  heavy 
gale  not  long  ago),  cut  out  of  an  older  beach,  the  top  of  which 
is  20  feet  above  the  present  one.  Behind  the  old  beach  the 
ground  rises  in  steep  rocky  ridges  for  several  hundred  feet. 
At  the  southern  end  of  the  bay,  high  cliffs  close  in  on  the 
strand,  and  soon  I  came  to  Stookanafanoga,  a  hugh  sea- 
stack  of  dark  basalt  rising  in  front  of  the  grey  quartzites. 
There  an  ascent  was  necessary,  and  the  route  lay  along  high 
headlands,  whence  the  sun  was  watched  setting  in  the  western 
ocean.  In  the  dusk  I  crossed  the  sands  which  fringe  the  nar- 
row and  dangerous  entrance  to  Trawbreaga  Bay,  and  tramped 
in  the  moonlight  through  Malin  Town,  and  over  the  sleeping 
country  to  Carndonagh. 

On  the  following  morning  I  went  eastward,  and  examined 
for  the  raised  beach  underlying  peat  bog,  which,  according 
to  the  Geological  Survey,  occupies  the  valley  of  the  Culdaff 
River,  but  very  little  was  to  be  seen — possibly  a  pit  would  be 
required  to  show  the  raised  beach.  Passing  over  a  band  of 
black  primitive  limestone,  Culdaff  was  left  behind,  and  I 
took  road  to  Tremorne  Bay,  where  I  did  not  see  the  raised 
beach  marked  on  the  Geological  Survey  map,  though  I  looked 
for  it.  Then  on  through  the  primitive  hamlet  'of  Ballyma- 
garagh,  and  down  the  lyong  Glen  to  meet  the  sea  again  at 
Kinnagoe  Bay,  which  is  a  most  picturesque  spot,  with  a  wide 
sandy  beach,  and  high  rocks,  and  steep  slopes  above.  Here 
I  noticed  a  patch  of  stratified  gravel  at  about  50  feet  over 
high  water,  in  the  bank  of  the  road  which  leads  down  to  the 
shore,  at  the  west  end  of  the  bay.  It  was  full  of  fragments 
of  shells,  too  minutefor  identification,  and  I  got  also  one  large 
fragment  of  Pcdtmculiis,  but  I  observed  that  behind  the  ad- 
joining beach,  on  which  Pcctunadus  abounds,  valves  of  this 
shell  and  sand  have  been  blown  by  gales  up  the  slope  to 
quite  as  great  an  elevation,  so  possibly  the  Pectu7icuhis  frag- 
ment was  not  171  situ.  In  the  adjoining  bay  of  Glennagiveny 
is  a  well-marked  raised  beach  at  about  10  feet  above  high 
water.  In  the  banks  of  the  little  glen  which  runs  into  the  bay 
are  stratified  gravels   at  about   100    feet,   containing    a  few 

The  Raised  Beaches  of  Inishowett  2S5 

decomposed  shell-fragments  ;  further  up  this  glen  are  sands 
and  gravels  at  100  to  150  feet  above  the  sea,  with  contorted 
bedding,  and  without  shells.  These  deposits  are  probably  of 
glacial  age,  and  the  shelly  gravel  in  Kinnagoe  Bay  may  belong 
to  the  same  horizon.  Some  miles  of  wild  heathery  moors  and 
slopes  were  next  crossed,  with  the  sea  far  below  on  the  left, 
and  Inishowen  Head  was  reached.  This  also  is  a  very 
picturesque  spot ;  a  grand  cliff  overhangs  the  bay  to  the  north 
of  the  signal-station,  and  there  is  a  very  extensive  view  of 
L<ough  Foyle,  the  I^ondonderry  and  Antrim  coasts,  and  the 
Scottish  Islands.  From  the  lighthouse  to  Greencastle  there 
is  a  rather  sandy  flat  at  about  25  feet  above  high  water,  with 
bare  projecting  rocks  here  and  there  ;  it  extends  in  a  broad 
belt  along  the  shore,  the  ground  rising  abruptly  behind  it, 
and  it  is  evidentl}^  an  old  foreshore.  According  to  the  Geo- 
logical Survey  there  is  a  raised  beach  with  many  shells  here, 
I  could  find  no  sections,  and  the  surface-fauna,  w^hich  is  some- 
what abundant,  is  not  to  be  relied  on,  owing  to  sea-weed 
being  used  as  manure ;  but  Mytilus  edtdis,  Tapes  mrgineus^  T 
aureus,  Vemis  cxoleta,  Cardium  edule,  Patella,  Buccinum,  and 
Purpzu^a  appeared  to  be  i7t  situ. 

It  was  late  when  I  passed  the  ruin  from  which  Greencastle 
derives  its  name,  but  I  stopped  to  examine  the  grand  old  pile, 
which  must  have  been  a  place  of  immense  strength  in  its  day  ; 
and  then  pushed  on  in  the  twilight  to  Moville.  Next  morning 
the  early  steamer  took  me  up  I^ough  Foyle,  past  Culmore,  the 
scene  of  my  first  ramble,  and  up  the  river  to  the  "  Maiden 

I  find  that  I  have  written  the  following  memorandum  at  the 
end  of  the  notes  which  I  took  in  the  field: — the  Inishowen  raised 
beaches  differ  from  those  of  the  east  coast  in  their  greater 
average  height  above  the  sea,  their.coarse  and  unfossiliferous 
nature,  and  their  occurrence  as  sea-terraces  rather  than  as 
bottom-accumulations  ;  the  greater  rise  of  tide,  and  the  greater 
exposure  (and  consequent  much  greater  height  of  waves)  will 
probably  account  for  these  differences. 

286  The  Irish  Naturalist, 


BY   RKV.   THOMAS   B.   GIBSON,    M.A. 

Perhaps  no  one  ever  commenced  aviary-keeping  for  such  a 
reason  as  I  did,  sometime  in  the  spring  of  1889.  Of  course  as 
a  boy,  I  had  the  usual  amount  of  successes,  and  perhaps  more 
than  the  usual  amount  of  failures  with  bird-pets  ;  but  aviary- 
keeping  was  not  my  particular  boyish  hobby.  No  doubt  I  had 
reared,  and  educated  in  mischief,  many  jack-daws  and  magpies 
till  complaisance  could  go  no  farther  ;  and,  one  after  another, 
pets  of  this  kind  were  either  banished  or  came  to  an  untimely 
end.  A  Pigeon,  whose  greatest  delight  was  in  pecking  at  the 
toes  of  my  younger  brothers  and  sisters  whenever  an  oppor- 
tunity oflfered  itself,  was  on  this  account  exiled,  to  my  great 
distress.  But  of  all  my  favourites,  a  pair  of  Sparrow-hawks, 
which  I  had  reared  from  the  downy  state,  after  an  exciting 
contest  with  the  parent  birds,  which  ended  in  my  being  pre- 
cipitated, together  with  nest  and  young  ones,  from  a  fir-tree, 
were  the  most  valued.  These  I  had  kept  for  fully  two  years^ 
and  one  of  the  pair  was  so  tame  that  it  would  come  out  with 
me  and  hawk  for  sparrows,  returning  to  me  even  after  a  suc- 
cessful flight.  This  tame  one  was  killed  by  a  young  colt 
which  was  being  weaned  in  the  stable  where  I  kept  the  birds. 
The  other  made  its  escape  from  my  mother's  hands  whilst 
she  was  showing  it  to  a  visitor  ;  and,  though  for  a  whole  year 
it  continually  returned  to  the  neighbourhood,  it  would  never 
allow  itself  to  be  recaptured.  A  Song-thrush,  too,  for  some 
time  proved  a  most  interesting  pet,  and  would  usually  come 
at  my  call ;  but  one  day,  whilst  I  was  digging  for  worms  to 
go  a-bobbing  for  eels,  I  accidentally  struck  it  with  the  spade, 
and  so  ended  its  existence.  Starlings  were  also  very  easily 
brought  up  by  hand,  but  they  usually  took  "  French  leave  " 
before  the  year  was  out,  or  at  any  rate  during  the  following 
spring.  Indeed  why  so  many  birds  remained  with  me  for  as 
long  as  they  did,  in  those  days,  is  now  a  wonder  to  me,  since, 
as  a  boy,  I  never  used  cages  to  confine  the  nestlings,  nor  was 
I  either,  as  far  as  I  can  remember,  a  very  attentive  caretaker. 
These  boyish  attempts  at  bird-keeping,  however,  exercised  no 
great  influence  upon  me,  and  when  I  did  start  an  aviary  it 
came  about  unintentionall}'-,  in  this  way.     One  of  my  pupils 

My  Birtk.  287 

at  King's  Hospital — a  most  incorrigible  little  scamp,  but  good- 
natured  in  his  way — had,  after  he  left  the  school,  gone 
away  to  sea,  and,  somewhere  or  other,  had  picked  up  a  Rosy- 
breasted  Cockatoo.  This  he  sent  to  me  as  a  present,  whether 
with  the  intention  of  driving  me  out  of  my  wits  by  its  con- 
tinuous screaming,  or  by  its  mischievous  presence  to  remind 
me  of  some  traits  in  the  character  of  the  donor,  I  know  not. 
At  any  rate  it  was  not  long  before  its  noise  and  the  necessity 
of  daily  renewing  its  perches  drove  me  upon  the  plan  of  con- 
structing an  aviary  round  a  tree  in  the  garden  for  its  future 
residence.  Everyone  told  me,  of  course,  that  the  bird  would 
not  live  outside  during  the  winter,  and  it  is  probable  that  I 
should  have  taken  it  inside  when  the  hard  w^eather  came ;  but 
in  October  I  was  seized  with  a  severe  attack  of  typhoid,  the 
school  was  broken  up,  and  all  its  inhabitants  cleared  out  until 
the  February  following,  and  in  consequence  of  this  the 
Cockatoo  had  to  take  his  chance  though  the  winter  was  a 
severe  one.  Being  well  looked  after  by  one  of  the  men  about 
the  place,  he  not  only  survived  but  improved  in  appearance, 
despite  the  hard  weather,  or  probably  because  of  it.  Since 
that  time  neither  he  nor  any  one  of  my  birds  has  been  taken 
inside,  no  matter  what  the  weather,  though  the  aviary  is  totally 
unheated,  and  yet  they  are  infinitely  superior  in  health  and 
feather  to  birds  of  the  same  kind  carefully  attended  to  in 
heated  aviaries.  When  I  returned,  in  February,  I  found  that 
the  large  tree,  around  the  trunk  of  which  I  had  constructed 
the  aviary,  had  narrowly  escaped  destruction  from  the  perse- 
vering efforts  of  the  Cockatoo  to  strip  it  of  its  bark.  For- 
tunately one  strip  of  bark  had  escaped,  there  being  no  perch 
near  it,  and  by  at  once  removing  the  perches  from  the  tree  and 
encasing  it  in  thin  sheet-iron,  I  succeeded  in  saving  its  life. 
The  aviary  was  easily  made,  thus^:  I  planted  eight  posts 
around  the  tree  and  nailed  short  pieces  in  a  sloping  position 
from  these  posts  to  the  tree.  This  cap  I  roofed  in  with  wood, 
and  then  covered  the  wood  with  tarred  felt.  Next  I  nailed 
wire  netting,  narrow  in  mesh,  all  round  the  posts  down  to  the 
ground,  except  between  two  of  the  posts  where  I  left  an  open- 
ing about  three  feet  high,  in  which  I  afterwards  placed  a  door 
made  also  of  netting  attached  to  the  frame.  Then,  as 
additional  security,  as  well  as  for  shelter,  I  boarded  over  the 
netting  at  the  base  and  top  for  about  nine  inches.     No  other 

288  The  Irish  NaUiralist, 

protection  has  ever  been  given  to  my  birds,  and,  as  there  are 
very  many  kinds  now  in  the  aviary,  I  can  exercise  no  par- 
ticular control  over  their  food,  each  being  at  liberty  to  indulge 
his  fancy  from  what  is  provided.  I  may  here  say,  there  is 
always  sufficient  food  placed  fresh  in  the  aviary,  together  with 
clear  water,  at  least  once  a  day.  Hemp,  canary-seed,  millett, 
rape,  wheat  and  maize  are  the  only  seeds  I  use  ;  and  nothing 
else  is  given  except  a  basinful  of  bread  soaked  in  milk,  fresh 
every  morning,  with,  of  course,  occasional  treats  of  groundsel, 
chickweed,  plantain,  and  water  cress.  I  have  never  taken  the 
trouble  to  soak  the  bread  in  water  or  to  squeeze  out  the  alum, 
as  is  so  often  insisted  upon ;  yet  my  birds  are  usually  very 
healthy  and  exhibit  excellent  plumage.  I  notice,  however, 
that  bread  soaked  in  milk  is  greatly  preferred  by  all  kinds  of 
birds — for  all  kinds  eat  it  when  fresh — to  bread  soaked  in 
water.  I  notice  also  that  fresh  water  is  a  greater  desideratum 
than  fresh  food ;  and  birds  continually  alight  upon  the  spout 
of  the  can  to  drink  while  I  am  pouring  the  water  into  their 
baths  or  drinking  troughs.  With  regard  to  bathing  some 
birds  are  inordinately  fond  of  it,  and  all  enjoy  it  whilst  the 
water  is  clean.  Starlings  would  bathe,  I  believe,  twenty  times 
a  day  if  you  gave  them  fresh  baths  so  often  ;  and  the  same 
might  be  said  of  Bramble-finches  and  Missel-thrushes,  though 
Song-thrushes  and  Field-fares  are  not  so  persistent.  Bull- 
finches and  Chaffinches,  too,  are  fond  of  bathing,  as  are  akso 
most  of  the  Bunting  family,  except  the  Common  or  Corn 
Bunting,  but  I  have  never  seen  either  Sparrows  or  Quails 
bathe,  though  both  kinds  delight  in  the  sand-heap  as  a 

Of  course  originally  I  had  only  intended  the  aviary  to  be 
the  home  of  the  Cockatoo  ;  but,  principally  because  it  was  so 
large,  I  began  to  introduce  other  kinds  as  well.  Two  Quails, 
both  cocks,  for  I  have  never  been  able  to  obtain  a  hen,  were 
purchased,  and,  though  one  killed  itself  against  the  wire  the 
first  night,  one  still  survives  looking  healthier  and  happier  than 
when  I  obtained  it  some  six  years  ago.  This  bird,  by  the  way, 
has  more  than  once  slipped  out  of  the  aviary,  whilst  the  door 
was  open ;  but  it  never  seems  to  care  about  going  away,  and 
waits  quietly  outside  till  I  finish  what  I  am  about  within. 
It  often  gives  the  well-known  Quail  call ;  but  has  another 
kind  of  call,  similar  to   the  crowing  of  a   cock,  that    I  have 

My  Birds.  289 

never  heard  described  by  any  observer.  This  is  the  only  one 
of  the  Gallinaceous  tribe  that  I  have  hitherto  possessed  ;  and  I 
must  say  that  it  has  proved  a  very  interesting,  and  by  no 
means  troublesome  pet. 

(to  bk  concluded). 


THE  SPRING  OF  1895. 

BY  JAMES  J.    WALKER,    R.N.,    F.E-S. 
( Concluded  from  page  212). 

Between  May  i8th  and  21st,  I  took  at  Buncrana,  Co.  Derry  :— 

Cai*abus  catenulatus,  vScop.— Not  uncommon  on  moorland. 

Notlophllus  blg^uttatus,  F. 

N.  palustrls,  Dnft. 

Nebria  brcvicollls,  F— A  small  form 

Elaphrus  riparius,  ly.— One  specimen. 

Loricera  pilicornis,  F. 

Clivina  fossor,  L. 

Dyschirius  impunctipennis,  Daws. — Locally'  abundant  in  a 
sandy  saline  spot,  on  the  shore  of  Lough  Swilly,  in  company  with  Blcdlus 

Broscus  cephalotcs,  L. — Common. 

Bradycellus  collaris,  Payk. — One  on  Roosky  Mountain,  about 
1,000  feet  elevation. 

Harpalus  latus,  L. — Not  scarce. 

Pterostlchus  vitreus,  Dej. — Two  specimens,  under  stones  on  a 
peat-bog,  elevation  about  500  feet. 

P.   nigrlta,  F. — Common. 

Abax  striola,  F. — Not  rare. 

Amara  spin! pes,  Auct. — Two  on  the  beach. 

A.  trlvialls,  Gyll. — Not  uncommon. 

DIchlrotrlchus  pubescens,  Payk. — Common,  in  salt  marshes. 

Calathus  cisteloides,  Panz. 

C»  mollis,  Marsh. — Very  common  on  the  golf-links. 

C.  melanoccphalus,  L. — Common  ;  one  or  two  from  the  top  of 
Roosky  Mountain  may  be  referred  to  the  var.  nubigena,  Hal. 

C.  micropterus,  Duft. — One  specimen,  on  the  sandhills. 
Anchomenus   parumpunctatus,    F.— A    beautiful     blue-black 
variety,  occurred  rarely  on  a  peat  bog. 

290  The  Irish  Naturalist, 

Ollsthopus  rotundatus,  Payk.-On  Roosky  Mountain. 

Clllenus  lateralis,  Sam.— Running  on  wet  sand  between  tide- 
marks  ;  about  six  specimens. 

Bembldium  pallldlpenne,  111.— One  on  the  sandhills. 

B.  littorale,  01.— Common. 

Trechus  rubens,  F. — One  specimen  on  the  peat-bog,  under  a  stone 

T.  obtusus,  Er.— With  preceding,  scarce  and  immature. 

Patrobus  asslmills,  Chaud.— One  on  Roosky  Mountain. 

Ag^abus  paludosus,  F.— In  small  stream  on  golf-links. 

Rhantus  bistrlatus,  Berg.— One  specimen  on  the  beach. 

Aleochara  brevipennls,  Gr.— One  example  \ 
A.  moesta,  Gr.  ( 

A.  nitlda,  Gr.  (  All  on  the  sandhills. 

A.  obscurella,  Br.  ; 

Tachyporus  obtusus,  var.  nltldlcollls,  Steph.— A  few,  by 

Creophllus  maxlllosus,  L. — Commonin  carcases  and  decayingsea- 
weed  on  the  beach,  with  a  few  of  the  var.    cillaris,  Steph. 

Staphyllnus  pubescens,  DeG. — Two  on  the  golf-links,  walking  on 

Phllonthus  lamlnatus,  Creutz. 

P.  aeneus,  Rossi. 

P.  decorus,  Grav. — One  specimen,  under  a  stone. 

P.  sanguinolentus,  Grav. 
P.  marginatus,  F. 

Bledius  spectabills,  Kr. ;  Not  uncommon,  in  rather  dry  sandy  mud, 
on  the  beach  near  the  railway  station. 

B.  arenarius,  Payk. — In  wet  sand  at  the  far  end  of  the  golf-links, 
very  common,  the  specimens  mostly  rather  dark  in  colour. 

Lesteva  longelytrata,  Goeze. — On  banks  of  small  stream  on  golf- 
Omalium  Ideviusculum,  Gyll. 
Cercyon  littoral  is,  Gyll. 

C.  hsemorrhous,  Gyll. 

Anisotoma  dubia,  Br.— One  specimen,  on  the  sandhills. 

Silpha  at  rata,  Iv.— Scarce,  and  rather  small. 

8.  rugosa,  L. — In  carrion, 

S.  opaca,  L- — One  dead  specimen. 

Hister  cadaverlnus,  Hofif.  |  ^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^  carrion. 

H.  neglectus.  Germ.  ) 

Saprinus  sencus,  F.— In  dead  fish,  not  rare. 

Ptenidium  punctatum,  Gyll.— Under  stones  at  high  water-mark, 

Cocclnella  xi-punctata,  L.— Common. 

Byrrhus  dorsal  is,  F.— One  in  a  "bunker  "  on  the  golf-links. 

Hcterocerus  marginatus,  F.— Occurred  plentifully  with  ^/^^/wj 
spectabilis ;  varying  to  a  handsome  unicolorous  dark  fuscous  form,  with 
the  usual  yellowish  markings  on  elytra  quite  obsolete. 

Aphodlus  mcrdarlus,  F. 

A.  dcprcssus,  Kug. 

^glalla  arcnarla,F.— Rather  scarce,  on  the  sand-hills. 

Captures  of  Coleoptera  in  Irela^id  during  the  Spri7tg of  i^g^.  291 

Lacon  murlnus,  L.— One  example. 

Cryptohypnus  rlparlus,  F — A  few  on  Roosky  Mountain,  &c. 

Athous  haemorrholdalls,  F.— Common,  some  examples  very 

Corymbltes  cupreus,  F.— A  pair. 

C.  quercus,    Gyll. — Rather   scarce,    by  sweeping,    with    the    var. 

OcJu'opterus^  Steph 

Cyphon  coarctatuSf  Payk. 
Telephorus  bicolor,  F.— By  beating  willows. 
Rhag^onycha  fusclcornls,  01. — One  specimen,  with  preceding. 
R.  limbata,  Thorns. 

Phyllodectavulgratlsslma,  L.— Common,  on  young  willows. 
Phyllotreta  nemorunn,  Iv. 

Crepidodera  aurata.  Marsh — Rather  plentiful,  on  young  willows. 
Apion  Cyllenhall,  Kirby — Rare,  b}' sweeping. 
OtSorrhynchus  atroaptcrus,    De  G. — Most  abundant,   on  sand- 
O.  blandus,  Gyll.— One  specimen  only,  on  sandhills. 

O.  rug"ifrous,  Gyll. — Under  stones  on  the  beach,  and  inland  on 
turf  walls,  a  few  examples. 
O.  piclpes,  F. 

Aloptius  triguttatus,  F — One  specimen,  on  the  beach. 
Sciaphilus  murlcatus,  F. 

Phyllobius  oblong^us,  ly. — Very  common,  by  sweeping. 
P.  viridlaeris,  Laich. 
Barynotus  obscurus,  F.     >  q  ^         ^     ^     ^ 

B.  SchonhcrrI,  Zett.  >  ' 
Philopedon  g^emlnatus,  F. — Abundant  on  bare  sand  on  the  golf- 
links  and  beach;  some  of  the  females  very  large,  and  almost  white  in 

Sltones  i^r iseusy  F. — Sparingly  on  sand-hills,  and  very  large. 

S.  lineellus,  Gyll. — One  example  on  the  sand-hills  ;  last  November 
I  found  this  species  abundantly  at  Campbeltown,  Cantire,  in  a  similar 
situation,  hybernating  at  roots  of  bent-grass. 

S.  flavcsccns,  Marsh. 

Hypera  rumicis,  Iv. 

H.  polygoni,  Iv. 

Orchestcs  sallcetl,  Payk.— A  few,  on  young  willows. 

Dorytomus    liirtlpcnnis,  Bedel. — One  example. (       By  beating 

D.  pcctoralis,  Gyll.— Four  examples.  )  young  willows. 
Ceuthorrhynchus  picurostlgma.  Marsh. 

C.  quadridens,  Panz. 

Phytobius  iv.-tuberculatus,  F. — One  or  two,  by  sweeping. 

Rhinoncus  perlcarpius,  L. 

Balanlnus  sallclvorus,  Payk.— On  young  willows. 

292  The  Irish  Naturalist. 


RoYAiv  Zooi^oGicAi,  Society. 

Recent  donations  comprise  a  Collared  Peccary  and  a  land  tortoise  from 
J.  Giblan,  Esq.,  a  hawk  from  D.  Smyth,  Esq.,  a  seal  from  L.  Powell, 
Esq.,  three  Green  Lizards  from  Sir  F.  Shaw,  a  Muscovy  Duck  from  Miss 
Macbeth,  a  Mocking-bird  from  Captain  Rogers,  sea-anemones  from  Dr. 
C.  B.  Ball,  a  pair  of  Stock-doves  from  Rev.  T.  B.  Gibson,  a  Leadbeater 
Cockatoo  from  Mrs.  McDonnell,  a  pair  of  Angora  Rabbits  from  Master 
Brooke,  Crayfish  and  Sticklebacks  from  P.  Mahony,  Esq.,  a  monkey  from 
J.  Ingoldsby,  Esq.,  a  Puffin  from  W.  L.  Scott,  Esq.,  a  Sparrow-hawk  from 
R.  ly.  Weldon,  Esq.,  aServal  from  Surgeon-Lieut.  D.  J.  MacCarthy,  three 
Canadian  Ducks  from  C.  J.  Wallace,  Esq.,  and  a  parrot  from  C.  A.  James, 
Esq.  Three  Puma  cubs  and  a  Llama  have  been  born  in  the  Gardens, 
and  a  Tricoloured  Porcupine,  a  pair  of  Cheetahs,  a  Chimpanzee,  seven 
monkeys,  two  squirrels,  two  fruit-bats,  five  Choughs,  three  Axolots, 
twelve  Rock  Bass,  and  four  Siluri  have  been  purchased. 

Over  ii,oQO  persons  visited  the  Gardens  in  July,  and  over  15,000  in 

Dubinin  Microscopicai.  Ci^ub. 

JUI.Y  iSth.— The  Club  met  at  Prof.  T.  Johnson's,  who  exhibited 
specimens  of  Selaginella  selaginoides,  showing  the  large  female  spores 
(megaspores)  and  the  small  male  spores  (microspores).  The  specimens 
were  gathered  in  Connemara  during  the  recent  Field  Club  Union  excur- 
sion. The  species  is  not  uncommon  in  the  west  though  rare  in  the  east 
of  Ireland.  It  is  the  only  representative  in  Britain  of  the  several 
hundred  species  of  the  genus  Selaginella,  the  highest  of  the  vascular 

Mr.  "M'Ardt^e:  exhibited  the  rare  Pihdaria  glohidifcra.,  the  Irish  repre- 
sentative of  the  order  Rhizocarpse,  which  he  recently  gathered  in  the  lake 
at  Recess,  Co.  Galway,  which  is  one  of  the  few  known  localities-  It  was 
detected  by  Mr.  Lloyd  Praegar,  a  short  time  previously,  who  kindly 
gave  all  the  information  necessary  for  its  rediscovery.  Ballynahinch 
(near  the  Salmon  Leap),  a  few  miles  further  west,  is  an  old  habitat  for  the 
plant  (  Wade,  Rar. )  The  specimens  bore  copious  sporocarps  which  contain 
the  macrospores  and  microspores  in  four  cavities  in  the  interior  ;  the 
contents  of  one  was  exhibited  under  the  microscope.  On  account  of  its 
grassy  or  sedgy  appearance,  the  plant  may  be  readily  passed  over  for  a 
species  belonging  to  either.  In  the  absence  of  the  fruit,  it  may  be 
easily  known  by  the  vernation  of  the  young  leaves,  which  is  circinatc 
like  Marsilea,  or  the  young  frond  of  a  fern. 

Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter  showed  Tanystyhun  {Clotenia)  conirosire,  Dohrn,  a 
pycnogon  collected  in  rock  pools,  at  Bundoran,  in  September,  1894,  by 
Mr.  J.'E.  Duerden.  Not  only  the  species  (which  was  first  found  in  the 
Gulf  of  Naples),  but  the  genus  is  new  to  the  British  marine  fauna.  The 
occurrence  of  this  southern  form  so  far  to  the  north  along  our  western 
coast  is  of  very  considerable  interest.  A  paper  with  figures  will  be 
published  in  the  next  number  of  the  Irish  Naturalist. 

Mr.  H.  J.  Seymour  showed  the  section  of  an  Epidote  rock  from 
Portrane.  The  rock,  which  is  of  a  bright  yellowish-green  colour,  occurs 
in  patches  in  the  vesicular  ash  near  the  southern  Martello  tower. 
Epidote,  some  quartz,  and  numerous  calcite  crystals  are  present  in  the 

INlR.  R.  J.  M1TCHEI.1.  exhibited  preparations  of  an  utricle  of  the 
Bladderwort  {Utriailaria  intermedia).  The  specimen  had  been  collected 
near  Recess,  Co.  Galway,  on  the  recent  excursion  of  the  Field  Club 
Union  to  that  district.  The  bladder  enclosed  some  small  water  animals, 
showing  that  the  plant  captures  and  digests  these  creatures;  which 
gain  an  entrance  as  to  an  eel  trap,  but  find  it  impossible  to  get  out. 

Proceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  293 

Bei^fast  Naturalists'  Fiei.d  Ci.ub. 

JuivY  6th. — The  fourth  summer  excursion  was  held,  when  a  party  of 
over  fifty  assembled  at  the  Northern  Counties  Railway  bound  for  Island- 
magee  and  the  Gobbins.  Arriving  at  Ballycarry,  the  whole  party  walked 
across  the  peninsula,  and  then  the  various  sections  took  their  several 
ways,  each  intent  on  their  particular  pursuit.  Several  members  took  the 
steep  path  to  the  "  Black  Cave"  in  the  basalt,  which  proved,  however, 
less  interesting  than  was  expected,  save  for  its  historic  association.  The 
cave  extends  i^iland  a  distance  of  over  100  feet,  and  is  washed  by  the 
tide.  The  remains  of  a  wall  extend  across  its  mouth,  so  its  uses  have 
been,  doubtless,  various— legitimate  and  illegitimate — the  latter  in  the 
"  good  old  days  "  when  it  was  quite  respectable  to  rob  the  King  of  his 
dues.  The  most  of  the  party  walked  along  the  shore,  where  the  great 
blocks  of  Chalk  and  Greensand  lying  to  a  large  extent  on  I/ias  offer  a 
most  tempting  prospect.  This  series  of  sections  and  blocks  extends  for 
about  half  a  mile  along  the  coast,  until  the  basalt  once  more  comes  down 
to  the  sea-level  at  the  cliffs  of  the  Gobbins.  The  basalt  of  this  neigh- 
bourhood is  itself  of  more  than  usual  interest,  as  it  exhibits  a  curious 
banded  structure  on  a  large  scale,  seen  very  well  along  the  escarpment 
facing  the  sea,  and  in  one  little  quarry  which  was  passed  on  the  way  the 
amygdaloidal  vesicles  were  very  beautifully  arranged  in  well-marked 
bands,  between  which  was  the  ordinary  half-rotten  basalt,  without 
amygdales.  The  Greensand  was,  however,  the  chief  point  of  interest, 
and  numerous  fossils  were  obtained,  though  many  more  had  to  be  left 
behind  owing  to  the  hardness  of  some  of  the  blocks.  Among  the  ])est 
finds  was  one  of  the  secretary  of  the  geological  section.  Miss  S.  M. 
Thompson,  which  was  a  perfect  specimen  of  a  fossil  sponge  ( Ventriculiies) 
of  unusually  large  size.  Several  other  sponges  of  different  genera  and 
species  were  secured,  these  being  a  class  that  are  in  want  of  working  out, 
as  very  little  is  known  of  the  Irish  ones.  Other  finds  were  numerous, 
Cidaris  spines,  some  small  corals  and  br3-ozoa,  and  plenty  of  the  ordinary 
Greensand  fossils,  such  as  Rhynchonella,  Spondylus,  &c.  The  Lias  was  in 
very  bad  order  for  working  after  the  heavy  rain,  followed  by  the  baking 
sun,  and  few  fossils  were  taken.  Botanists  did  not  get  anything  worth 
speaking  of,  except  the  Adder's  tongue  {Ophioglossum),  of  which  quite  a 
large  patch  was  seen.  Tea  at  6.30  on  the  cliffs  at  Hill's  Port  was  the 
finale  to  a  most  delightful  day's  outing.  Many  thanks  were  due  to  Mr. 
Wise,  C.E.,  for  his  kindness  and  courtesy  to  his  fellow-members  in 
making  arrangements  for  this  visit,  and  it  was  the  only  regret  expressed 
that  he  has  not  as  yet  succeeded  in  his  laudable  efforts  in  making  the 
path  around  the  Gobbins.  After  tea,  a  pleasant  walk  through  the 
fragrant  bean-fields  of  Islandmagee  brought  the  party  to  Ballycarry  and 
home  by  train. 

July  29TH. — The  sixth  excursion  was  held  to  the  Mourne  Mountains 
in  conjunction  with  the  London  Geologists'  Association,  who  were 
visiting  the  North  of  Ireland.  A  party  of  about  eighty  arrived  at  New- 
castle at  9.30,  where  breakfast  was  partaken  of  at  Laurence's  rooms  at 
the  station.  Breakfast  finished,  the  brakes  and  cars  were  mounted,  and 
the  road  taken  to  the  Trassey  Bridge.  Here  the  vehicles  were  left,  and 
the  party  proceeded  up  the  valley  to  the  Hare's  Gap,  close  to  which  are 
the  Diamond  Rocks.  These  are  great  masses  of  Mourne  granite 
containing  very  numerous  drusy  cavities,  some  of  them  of  considerable 
.size.  So  often  have  they  been  visited  by  geologists  that  parts  of  the 
hillside  bear  quite  a  resemblance  to  a  quarry.  These  cavities  contain 
large  and  well-formed  crystals  of  smoky  quartz,  orthoclase,  biotite, 
albite,  and  less  frequently  of  beryl,  topaz,  and  microcline.  Of  all  these 
many  capital  specimens  were  taken  by  the  members,  the. topaz  and  beryl 
crystals  being  very  good,  and  some  of  exceptional  size  were  ol^tained. 

294  ^^^  Irish  Naturalist, 

From  this  point  the  party  broke  up  into  four  divisions,  one  contingent 
walking  back  to  the  cars,  another  going  round  the  flank  of  Coramedagh 
to  "  The  Castles,"  which  consist  of  the  usual  granite  whose  sub-columnar 
structure  in  this  part  gives  rise  to  vertical  and  horizontal  jointing  pro- 
duced by  shrinkage  during  the  cooling  of  the  mass.  This  jointing  has 
been  so  increased  and  brought  out  by  the  action  of  wind  and  rain,  snow, 
frost,  and  sun,  that  the  masses  now  present  the  appearance  of  huge 
bastions  and  fortifications  of  Cyclopean  masonry.  A  third  section  of  the 
party  walked  up  over  Slieve  Commedagh  (2,512  feet),  and  a  venturesome 
few  even  ascended  Donard  atterwards,  and  observed  the  remains  of  the 
rude  stone  cell  where  dwelt  the  anchorite  St.  Donard,  after  whom  the 
mountain  is  called.  These  members  brought  down  the  report  that  the 
view  was  one  almost  unequalled,  the  horizon  being  so  clear  that  no  fewer 
than  nine  counties  and  the  Isle  of  Man  were  plainly  visible,  the  hills  of 
Derry  and  Bray  Head  being  both  easily  seen.  This  was  the  more 
extraordinary  as  the  sky  appeared  cloudy.  The  last  portion  of  the 
members  remained  at  the  Diamond  Rocks,  adding  to  their  collections. 
The  other  three  divisions  met  below  the  Windy  Ridge,  in  the  Glen  Valley, 
noticing  on  the  way  the  curious  bared  summit  of  the  ridge,  almost  all 
the  vegetation  being  blown  away,  leaving  small  patches  of  bog  and  large 
rounded  stones  and  granite  sand.  The  waterworn  face  of  the  cliff  over 
which  the  river  trickles  is  also  well  marked.  The  mountaineering 
members  were  interested  in  the  sharp  junction  between  the  granite  and 
the  Ordovician  strata  at  the  Shanslieve  spur,  where  the  granite  sends 
out  veins  into  the  slates.  Basalt  and  eurite  were  also  seen  in  contact 
here.  The  junction  between  granite  and  slate  is  also  well  seen  above 
Trassey  Bridge  and  in  the  Glen  Valley.  The  botanists,  though  not 
strictly  on  business,  noticed  most  of  the  alpine  plants  known  to  occur 
on  these  hills,  and  although  several  interesting  ferns,  «&c.,  were  obtained; 
no  new  find  to  the  locality  was  recorded.  Tea  at  the  station  was  finished 
just  in  time  for  the  6  40  train  to  Belfast.  Altogether  the  Mournes  have 
seldom  been  seen  to  better  advantage,  and  the  English  geologists 
expressed  themselves  more  than  pleased  with  the  day  and  the  pleasure 
they  derived  from  a  visit  to  the  Mournes  in  conjunction  with  the 
members  of  the  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club. 


August  loth. — A  party  of  fifteen  members  left  Amiens-street  station 
by  the  9  a.m.  train  for  Castlebellingham,  where  they  were  met  by  J.  R, 
Garstin,  Esq.,  on  whose  land  the  collecting-ground  for  the  day  was 
situated.  Under  his  kind  guidance  the  naturalists  made  their  way 
along  the  railroad  to  Braganstowu  Bog,  which  proved  an  excellent  field 
for  research.  The  morning  sped  rapidly,  and  Mr.  Garstin  most  hospit- 
ably entertained  the  Club  at  luncheon  at  Braganstown  House,  after 
which  an  inspection  of  the  neighbouring  woods  was  commenced.  This 
was  unfortunately  cut  short  by  heavy  rain,  and  the  naturalists  were 
glad  to  again  seek  shelter  in  the  house,  where  the  kind  attentions  of 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Garstin  and  their  family  made  the  time  pass  most  plea- 
santly. After  tea  the  President  briefly  expressed  the  thanks  of  the 
members  to  their  host,  and  the  party  returned  to  Dublin  by  the  evening 

The  bog  proved  the  home  of  several  interesting  plants.  Mr.  Colgan 
noted  there  two  species  of  Utrictdaria  {vulgaris  and  minor),  Sparganium 
viinimiwt,  Typha  latifolia^  Lycopus  europceus^  Hydrocharis  J\d or sus- ranee,  Osmunda 
regalis — to  find  the  Royal  Fern  in  profusion  so  near  the  east  coast  was  a 
new  experience.  Along  the  railway  the  immigrant  Diplotaxis  was  observed, 
and  by  the  roadsides  Chdidoniwn  ?najus  and  Chenopodium  Bonus-Henricus, 

Proceedings  of  Irish  Societies.  295 

Dr.  McWeeney  searched  diligently  for  fungi,  and  supplies  the  follow- 
ing list : — 

The  Hymenomycetes  were  represented  by  Agaricus  {Lepiotd)  cristattis, 
Fr.  ;  A.  {Tricholoma)  terreuSy  Sch.  ;  A.  {Collybia)  maiulatiis,  A.  &  S.  ;  A.  (C.) 
radicatus,  Relh. ;  A.  {Mycena)  tenerrhnus^  Berk.;  A.  (A/.)  rugosiis,  Fr. ;  A. 
(Entoloma)  costatus,  Fr.  ;  A.  {Crepidotiis)  chiinnophilus,  B.  &  Br.  ;  A. 
{Pluteiis)  cervinuSy  SchaefF;  A.  {Moeybe)  rimosus,  Bull.  ;  A.  {Psalliota)  catn- 
pestris,  L.  (a  very  typical  series  of  specimens  of  this  the  common  edible 
mushroom  was  collected,  well  illustrating  the  development  of  the  veil 
and  ring) ;  var.  pratensis,  Viltad.  ;  A.  {Hypholomd)  fasciatlaris,  Huds.  ;  A. 
{Psilocybe)  areolatus,  Klotzsch.  ;  A.  {Ps.)  bullatus,  Bull.  ;  A.  {Pandolus)  phalcen- 
arum,  Fr. ;  Coprinus  cornaius,  Fr. ;  C.  ep  hevierus^  Fr.  ;  Bolbitiics  tener,  B.  ; 
Lactarius  subdtilcis,  Fr. ;  Hygrophorus  conicus,  Fr.  ;  H.  psiiiacinus,  SchaefF; 
Marasmius  rotula,  Fr.  ;  Boletus  chrysenteron,  Fr. ;  B.  litridus,  SchaefF  (small 
form)  ;  Polyporus  squamostis.,  Fr. ;  Poria  vaporaria,  Fr. ,  var.  secernibilis, 
B.  &  Br.  The  Gastromycetes  comprised  Lycoperdon  Bovista^  Linn.  {=g